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Feldenkrais Moshe - Hadaka-jime.pdf

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  • 5/27/2018 Feldenkrais Moshe - Hadaka-jime.pdf


  • 5/27/2018 Feldenkrais Moshe - Hadaka-jime.pdf


    Hadaka-Jime: actical Unarmed Combat is a uniquetraining program that is based on one core rechnique. Dr. Feldenkraisdeveloped the program as emergency training for soldiers in World WarII. Through ren one-hour lessons, soldiers learned ro defend rhemselvesagainsr an armed opponent in rhe most rapid and effecrive way possible.The program is based on one Judo technique.

    Feldenkrais emphasized conceprs of he learning process rhroughoutthe book. He encouraged rhe reader ro mainrain a relaxed artirude, tostar r wirh slow and precise movements as he explained rhe riming. and romasrer rhe movements by reperirion. The resulr would be a spontaneousmovemenr which was correct and precise.

    He claimed thar a fighrer musr first acquire the abiliry and then putir ro practical use. Thus rhe firsr three lessons reach rhe core technique,Hadaka-Jime. The remaining lessons implement rhe technique in avariery of siruadons- againsr armed or unarmed atracks from differentdirections- all ofwhich culminate in the use of rhe core rechnique. Thisapproach deepens rhe learning so rhat rhe fighrer can effecrively performrhe core rechnique with many alternatives to survive the situation.

    This impacrful book v ~ a l s apionur who is q u a l parts warrior andrducator, who mates a s o n - l i k ~ o p ~ r i m ~ n t . rich in t h ~ intnplay f t l m n ~and variation. Thankyou, Moti, for making this historically important bookavddabk onct again.- Larry Goldfarb, Feldmkrais TrtlinffThis ts a small book wtth b1g itkas. Feldmlmzis m n - g ~ d a g ~ old, Ori-

    ~ m a l s ~ l f r k f t n s ~ uclmiquts with t h ~ o:planatory powff ofscimctro crmu nnovelu fdo nu strnugy thm is easy to kanz and ttst. It willbe ofunques-tionedvalue to both mnrtialartists and Feldmkrais flmctitioners.- Dmms Lm, Ftldmkrais Tramtr and Martial Artistu.s. 16.95

    Moshe Feldenkrais, D.Sc., a physicisr, servedas a scienrific officer in the British Admiralry inWorld War II. During his rime in rhe British Armyhe raughr Judo ro the officers and soldiers, which ledto rhe publication of Practical Unarmed Combat. Dr.Feldenkrais authored four more books on marrialarrs, ju-jitsu and Self Do/me (1931 ), ABC du Judo1938 , judo: The Art of o n s ~ and Attack (1941 },and Higherjudo (1952 . After mecringjigoro Kano,he was active in promoting Judo in France and infounding rhe European Judo Union.

    MoshcD.Sc. 1

    In 1950 Feldcnkrais moved ro Israel where he was givein rhe Science Departmenr of rhe Israeli Defense Forces. Hero focus on the developmenr of whar is known today as theMetbod. ' He aurhored numerous books on his merhod incland a N ~ r t Behavior, Awarenm Through Movmunt, and The

    Moti Nativ s Fo word directs rtttdffs to understand that thprincipks, and methodology laid out by F ~ l d m k r a i s can be applareas w h f f ~ karning and masury rrsult i ttchieving the maximHe has done a brilliant job of i t , i f y i n g t i m ~ urlmiques U bichrelromlt today. Thts dftcimt system by F ~ l d m k r a i s can f f t ~ as afor mania/ans, combat trnining, and e / f d i f m s ~ instructionalIt is simple, effictivt, and u p l i C t t b l ~ .-Sheila Haddad ISrh Dan Bujinkan Budo Taijursu. DSeido lnsrirure for the Warrior and Healing Arts

    Genesis Publishing. Inc.PO ox 2615. Longmont, CO

    ISBN 978-1-884605-25

    9 78 605253

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    HADAKA JIMEThe ore Technique or




    Genesis II PublishingLongmont

  • 5/27/2018 Feldenkrais Moshe - Hadaka-jime.pdf


    Feldenkrais Moshe 1904-1984.Practical Unarmed Combat by Moshe Feldenkrais 1942Updated with a new foreword by Moti Nativ and updated photos and

    resources.Copyright 2009 Moti Nativ. All rights reserved. Based on credit agreementwith Michel Silice Feldenkrais. No portion of this book except in brief reviewmay be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or byany means-ele ctronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise-without written permission of the publisher. For information contact GenesisII Publishing Inc.

    Feldenkrais, eldenkrais Methot:F , unctional Integration, and AwarenessThrough M o v e m e n ~ are Service marks of The eldenkrais GuildPublished by Genesis II Publishing Inc.P.O. Box 2615 Longmont CO 80502www.AchievingExcellence.comPrinted in the United States ofAmerica

    ISBN: 978-1-884605-25-3CIP:2 993 56

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    Michel Silice Feldenkrais (1953-2009)My dear friend Michel dedicated his life to the promotion of the Feldenkrais

    Method e wholeheartedly supported this publication by providing awealth of historical materials, clever advice, and his abiding respect for theFeldenkrais Method and the memory of his uncle, Moshe.

    I m honored to dedicate the new edition of ractical Unarmed Combat to thememory of Michel Silice Feldenkrais.

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    PR ISE FOR HADAKA JIME: PR CTIC L UN RMED COMBATDr. Moshe Feldenkrais was a remarkable man; teacher, soldier, researcher, judoka, visionary, martial artist,

    physicist, and pioneer. He was a founder of he European Judo Union, and respected by Gunji Koizumi, Mikinosuke Kawaishi, and Jigoro Kano. I therefore consider it an honour and a privilege to have been asked to write anendorsement to the new edition of his important text.I met Moti Nativ when he visited the Bowen History of Judo Archive at University of Bath to continue hisresearch into the life and work ofMoshe Feldenkrais. I was immediately struck by his passion and commitment , and

    his depth of understanding into the relationship of mind and body as applied to Budo.For me this book speaks on three levels t is a treatise of an effective course of unarmed combat which haswithstood the test of time. t is also an important document of social and cultural history when considered inthe context that it was written. Thirdly it provides a level of insight for the advanced follower of the FeldenkraisMethorP into the early thought processes of the founder.Moti Nativ and Genesis II Publishing are to be commended for reminding us about the relevance of thistext, and sharing with us the thoughts of a remarkable man.Dr. Mike Callan President The International Association o udo Researchers International judoFederation Sixth an

    This impactful book reveals a pioneer who is equal parts warrior and educator, and offers a snapshot of amethod in the midst of its making.If you follow the trajectory of training outlined in this book, you'll find the very same strategies and techniques that become the basis of Dr. Feldenkrais' yet-ro-be-announced method. By teaching only one martialarts technique, Feldenkrais creates a lesson-like experiment, rich in the interplay of theme and variation. The

    training reveals the big picture as it clarifies the details and, just as the student begins to put it all together,Moshe changes the action's orientation to space. nd so on

    Thank you, Moti, for making this book available once again. The beautiful, user-friendly design is a fitting tribute to its historical importance.- Larry GoUfarb Feldenkrais Trainer

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    This is a small book with big ideas. Utilizing his deep understanding and mastery of Judo, MosheFeldenkrais created a course in practical unarmed self defense for the British during WWII However, it w sin how he addressed his task that we see the mind of a genius at work. Feldenkrais merged ge old, Oriental self-defense techniques with the explanatory power of science, combined with his own unique brand ofpedagogy to create a novel self defense strategy that is easy to learn and use. Based on the slow and thoroughlearning of one technique and its applications, the ten lessons artfully disarm the fears and apprehensions ofthose being trained while giving them the expertise necessary to succeed in combat. For the discerning readera central idea will become evident: that if one first trains the act to be accomplished from its ending it allowsfor many beginnings. Once an act, here a particular stranglehold, is learned in its simplest form and becomessecond nature and can be performed unselfconsciously, then that simple unitary act can be made either morecomplex or made to fit more complex situations. The approach taken in this book is consonant with the basisof ll Feldenkrais' approach to learning. It will be of unquestioned value to both martial artists and Feldenkraispractitioners.

    Moti Nativ is to be commended not only for bringing this book out of retirement but lso for his introduction and commentaries which convey the observations of a true teacher of the martial arts and a FeldenkraisPractitioner.- Dennis Leri Feldenkrais Trainer and Martial ArtistBoth martial artists and movement students will find Hadaka jime The ore Technique for Practical

    Unarmed ombat a valuable guide with both practical techniques and profound insights about the learningprocess. Feldenkrais' clear instructions, peppered with his wry humor and personal philosophy, make this muchmore than a combat training manual. The illustrations provide a fascinating window into the development ofMoshe Feldenkrais' methodology s well s clear instructions to accompany the text.

    - Lavinia Plonka Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioner, author, What are You Afraido nd WalkingYour Talk

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    ONTENTSForeword to 2009 edition by Moti NativPreface t 1942 edition by Moshe Feldenkrais 11Introduction - Concepts o he Practical Unarmed Combat Training 13Warning - Safety Advice 171 First lesson - The Core Technique Basic Application 192 Second lesson - The Core Technique Completions 233. Third lesson The Core Technique Silent Attack from the Rear 334. Fourth lesson Moving Behind the Attacker Defense Against Knife Stab to the Neck 375 Fifth lesson - Defense Against Knife Stab to Abdomen and Against Alternate Attacks 436. Sixth lesson Defense Against Alternate Left and Right Attacks Understand Timing 477. Seventh lesson Overcome Attack with Bayonet from the Rear 518 Eighth lesson Alternative Movements Against Bayonet Attack from the Rear 579 Ninth lesson - Defense Against Bayonet Attack from the Front 6310. Tenth lesson - Defense Against Deviated Attack and Variations on Hadaka-]ime 69Afterword by Moti Nativ 77About Moti Nativ 79ppendix Additional Photos 81

    Notes 87Acknowledgements 90Resources 91

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    FOREWORDIT is with great awe that I approach the writings of MosheFeldenkrais. I marvel at the genius of his thought processes andat his fighting spirit. So with great reverence I am writing theforeword to his unique book Practical Unarmed Combat.

    In this distinctive book, Moshe Feldenkrais lays out a particularly successful training process. His conclusions regardingthe essence of learning through clear, direct statements and byimplication are clearly presented to the reader. He provides avery detailed and accurate description of specific combat techniques and also presents the reader with principles of the learning process which are valid for all of life's endeavors.

    Anyone who reads this book can use it for the practicalstudy of the combat techniques presented or implement theprinciples to design a personal training program.

    BOUT MOSHE FELDENKR ISMoshe Feldenkrais was born in 1904, in Slavuta, in the

    present-day Ukrainian Republic. By 1912 his family movedto Baranovich, located in Belarus, Russia. s a fourteen yearold boy he undertook a daring journey from his home to the

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

    British mandate of Palestine, to lend a hand in buifledgling Jewish settlement and to play a role in the stan independent Jewish state in the land of Israel. At building the Jewish settlement mainly consisted of hacallabor, andwas often accompanied by violent brawlthe Jewish pioneers and their Arab neighbors. The Brernors forbade the pioneers from carrying guns. Evethe pioneers received some self-defense training in Juconfrontations often ended in heavy casualties.

    Moshe Feldenkrais took an active part in these bcame to understand that there were basic flaws in ththat purported to prepare the Jewish warriors to hanevents. He decided to put together his own system ot that time, in addition to his knowledge of Ju-Jits

    was well educated in boxing, learning from his frie(Emil) Avineri 1, also he grabbed whatever he couldhear, as the American wrestling style catch as you based on his practical fighting experience he publishebook, jiu jitsu and SelfDefense which was designed fdefense forces, the Hagana. 2 Moshe planned to constudy in France and chose to move shortly before t

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    FOREWORDpublication in 1931, in part because he was apprehensive abouthow the British authorities would react to the publication ofthe book.3

    While in France he enrolled in an engineering college, theEcole Speciale des Travaux Publics de la Ville de Paris.

    He subsequently earned his D.Sc. in Physics from theSorbonne and was a close associate of Nobel Prize LaureateFrederic Joliot-Curie at the Curie Institute in Paris, where theyconducted research together.

    In France, Moshe continued his involvement with themartial arts. While studying at the Ecole Speciale des TravauxPublics, he started a ju-jitsu club. Meeting with Professor Jigoro Kano, the founder ofJudo, in 1933 was a significant milestone in his development as a martial artist. s a result of thismeeting, Moshe developed a strong bond with Judo. JigoroKano was impressed by Feldenkrais and was sure tha t he wouldrapidly progress towards a perfect possession of Judo. The cooperation between Kano and Feldenkrais made a significantcontribution to the development of Judo in France. In 1935Mikinosuke Kawaishi joined Moshe and also became active inthe Club Jiu-Jitsu de France.4

    Jigoro Kana s influence on the young Feldenkrais was far2

    reaching and, as a result, the phrase mind-body becamanent feature in Moshe Feldenkrais vocabulary. Kproach to the martial arts resonated with Moshe, anof his philosophy can be found throughout Dr. Feteachings. 5

    In 1940, following the Nazi invasion of France, Mto England and because of his important knowledge heed as scientific officer in the British Admiralty, wherducted anti-submarine research in Scotland from 1940

    uring his stint in the British army, he also tauto the officers and soldiers on his base, which led to cation of Practical Unarmed Combat Mter leaving tralty, he was active in the U.K. Budokwai in Londonfrom Gunj i Koizumi. In 1948, he was involved in fouEuropean Judo Union and was nominated to serve oboard.

    Moshe Feldenkrais published also three books onare still used as reliable source material for Judo thtraining. Through the years, the value of Moshe s uproach to the martial arts was recognized by modearts masters. Gunji Koizumi wrote extensively aboutof Feldenkrais contribution to Judo.

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    In 1950 he returned to Israel and was given a senior position in the Science Department of the IDF (Israel DefenseForces). He served in this post until stepping down in 1953 todevote his time and resources to develop and publicize what isknown today s the Feldenkrais MethocfJ.

    BOUT PR CTIC L UN RMED COMB TThis book describes an abbreviated training program for

    soldiers, which in a very short time, gives them the ability todefend themselves against an armed opponent by overpoweringhim in the most rapid and effective way possible.

    The chain of events, which led to the development andimplementation of this training program, shows that MosheFeldenkrais had the courage of his convictions. During WorldWar II, a Home Guard platoon commander participated ina few Judo lessons taught by Moshe, who was also serving inthe British army at the time. Subsequently, the commanderasked Moshe to train his soldiers in self-defense techniques inthe shortest time possible. Moshe jumped at the chance to putinto practice an idea that he had been mulling over for a longtime the possibility ofdeveloping a fighting method based onone core technique. s Moshe wrote in the preface to Practical

    Hadaka Jime: Practical UnarmedUnarmed Combat I have pointed out elsewhere [injudo] that a self-contained system of defense based ondamental movement can easily be evolved.

    Moshe Feldenkrais began training one platoonplatoon joined the training and eventually the entirecompleted the course.

    Moshe Feldenkrais explains that the course w sfor emergencies and actually called it 'First Aid' for sqcould not engage in long-term training.

    Even though he served s a scientist on a basethe front lines, Moshe understood the advantage enjosoldier who can confront an enemy in close combattended that the most important issue was training llbe s efficient and reliable s possible. In our era, evenof the art weapons, it is common to teach soldiers munarmed combat.

    Following the success of the training course, he wtical Unarmed Combat because it was not practicabledemands coming from farther and farther away so I this work s a guide for those to whom I cannot giveattention. 8

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    s a martial arts teacher, I have used this book as a resourcefor developing some of my training programs. I have foundthat the principles and techniques, which Moshe Feldenkraisposited here, are as relevant now as they were in 1942. t became apparent to me that this book is now virtually unknownby martial arts devotees.

    During my research on the thesis the Synergy of MartialArts nd the Feldenkrais ethod I re-read Practical UnarmedCombat from the point ofview of a Feldenkrais ethod practitioner. I discovered important principles that, in the past, I h dnot paid sufficient attention to. Moshe Feldenkrais wrote thisbook as a martial artist; however his descriptions of martial arttechniques nd training are weighted with special informationthat express his knowledge and understanding of the learningprocess.

    This new perception led me to conclude that PracticalUnarmed Combat is important beyond the field of the martial arts. This book not only provides keystone informationfor Feldenkrais ethod practitioners, but will also benefit laypeople with its practical approach to life.

    Although the book was published during World War II and

    I assume there are those that will say it is dated, I rpublish an expanded edition of Practical Unarmed Ccause I believe that the universality of the principleshere make it a timeless work.

    I have chosen to leave the text exactly as Moshe Fwrote it, using bold text where he expands on the of his approach to learning and movement educatioalso added endnotes to bring into sharper focus somewhich Moshe introduced but did not write about in cause of the minimal structure of the book. I have lewise reader to identifY the value of what is written martial arts techniques. In the course of my research, earthed never-published photographs of Moshe takenwas writing this book. I have taken the liberty of adto this new edition.

    I hope that in writing this foreword I will succeminating the uniqueness of this book, emphasizing ttant principles found here for the teacher and the traiDESIGNING THE TR INING PROGR M

    This book was conceived in the mind and body)with much experience and knowledge of the martial

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    man chose, because of the prevailing winds of that era (WWII),to create a system of unarmed combat that focused on one specific technique and, around that technique, to build a suitabletraining program.

    In the foreword of Practical Unarmed Combat MosheFeldenkrais reveals his thoughts on the course's design.

    I would like to emphasize three especially interesting points:1 The choice of Judo - Moshe Feldenkrais argues that Ju

    Jitsu had been supplanted by the more efficient Judo10 andtherefore he chose a Judo technique as the basis of he emergency training. As one who educated others about survivaland self-defense, Moshe Feldenkrais saw Judo as the sourcefor improving practical combat ability. He explained, ..Judo does not teach so many tricks, but rather inculcates inthe mind and body a special sense of balance and action enabling the body to react to an unforeseen attack, smoothly,swiftly, and in the most efficient way.

    2. One technique - The method presented in Practical Un-armed Combat evolves from one core technique. However,a quick look at the text and accompanying photographstells a different story. Although the trainee is trained to execute one technique with great exactitude, the technique

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmedis actually the central junction at which the trainerive from different directions. The trainee learns ment the technique in a variety of situations andskills that can be applied in a great number of tethus the fighter actually has many options to chooMoshe Feldenkrais' unique method of teaching-the learning to one technique - paradoxically crtions and options always provide freedom of actio

    3. A thousand repetitions - Moshe Feldenkrais strethe course is designed so that the technique ismore than a thousand times, and carried out at speed for learning, in order to achieve a high leveHe considered true learning successful when tcation or performance in the real world conformdeclaration that The ultimate value of an exercthe action your body will perform spontaneouslyconscious effort, long after you have forgotten hoand where you have learned it. 12 This level of abiis the goal of martial arts, being able to react to aefficiently and effectively with no preparation. Dr.Hatsumi describes this state of mind as Being Zeconfronting an attacker. 13

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    Fig. a: From Moshe s Hebrew book,Jiu-Jitsu and Self Defense, publishedin 1931 for the Haganah

    Moshe Feldenkrais choseHadaka-Jime,14 or the nakedarm strangulation technique,as the core technique. He hadwritten extensively about thisstrangulation technique in hisbook judo - The rt ofDefenseand Attack 1941) maintaining that the stranglehold itselfis useful for defending oneselfagainst attacks, in which theattacker thrusts his hands forward roward his victim.

    Even at the beginning ofhis journey as a martial artist,Moshe Feldenkrais was mind-

    Fig. b: From the jiu-jitsu Club in France ful of the effectiveness andthe power ofstrangulation. Inhis first book Jiu-jitsu and SelfDefense 1931) he demonstratedthe use of the strangulation technique from the rear as a waytO overpower and neutralize an opponent Fig. a). He rook care6


    Fig. c From A. B.C. du Judo

    ro warn the reader oger involved in perfotechnique in an unmanner. During thewas active in rhe Jiu-de France he furtherthis technique Figwrote about it in his dujudo 1938) F ig.

    The strangulation technique is familiar ro milliople all over the world, bur ro the best of my knowledFeldenkrais is the only one who chose it as the cornerquick training program designed for combat troops. Ewho might have reservations regarding the choice oticular technique will recognize that the process ofchis tactic includes a wide spectrum of learning chat fighter tO the most effective performance. Acceptingofview, it becomes obvious chat the specific techniqusecondary tO the more important learning process. Iemphasized that this principle can be applied ro alendeavor, whether training for practical combat orurgent training. Catching on to the basic principle

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    student to construct a similar program for achieving goals in hisor her particular field.FIRST LE RN TO KILL ND THEN LE RN TO HUNT

    One of Moshe Feldenkrais' basic precepts regarding learning was that one must first acquire the ability, and then putit to practical use. This concept is basic to Practical UnarmedCombat. Lessons one through three teach the core technique,by demonstrating detailed body manipulation, and showing itsuse in various situations. Once the technique has been mastered, Feldenkrais says if you feel that the weapon kills andthat you can depend on it, you can proceed to learn somethingabout hunting. Starting with lesson four, the trainee is taughtpractical application of the core technique.

    So, how do you learn to hunt? Speed, repetition, timing,and a relaxed attitude.

    Perusing Moshe Feldenkrais' text, we can glean importantinsights into how he approached improving the learning process For instance: Another very important thing to observe isthe nonchalant and relaxed attitude. The motion should notstiffen your legs and hips. Relaxation comes ofcourse with skill,but if you think [are aware] of it, you will acquire it sooner. 15

    Hadaka Jime: Practical UnarmedWe also find a significant statement concerning the

    movement education: You must therefore proceed cfrom the start, sacrificing speed to precision, so that thneous movement on which you depend will be the co- there being the correct mental picture only in youscious memory. 16

    It is interesting to note that the idea of taking the needs to learn seems contradictory when considered intext of he minimal framework ofa ten hour course. Feintent was to achieve true learning even in an urgendemanding quick results. He warned that haste creatsion and urged his students not to confound speed wHe claimed that it is impossible to achieve rapid impwhen attempting to execute the action too fast. Distinbetween rapid and organized action, as opposed to hasperformed without awareness, and the understanding pby recognizing the difference was a basic issue for Mohe considered the learning process.17

    PR CTIC L PPLIC TIONSOver a decade ago, during my training as a e

    Method practitioner, I happened upon Practical Unarm

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    FOREWORbat while browsing the Feldenkrais Institute library in Tel AvivThe timing was fortuitous as the book fell into my hands at atime when I had just completed a project in which, workingwith a hand-picked group, I researched practical techniques foroverpowering opponents for specific missions. The experimentsand exercises I used during the project led me to conclude thatstrangulation from the rear is the most effective means of rapidly overpowering an armed opponent . I was amazed to discover that this exact solution had already been offered by MosheFeldenkrais many years ago. I was sorry that I had not discovered this book at the beginning of the project because it wouldhave been a great help and would have saved me a lot of time.Since then I have, on many occasions, used the training processexactly as described by Moshe Feldenkrais in this book. I alsofound that paying close attention to his remarks on the learningprocess made it possible for me to implement this training inheterogeneous groups.

    Recently, during the research I have undertaken concerning the Synergy ofMartial Arts and the Feldenkrais Method Iwas pleased to discover that Moshe Feldenkrais' concept of coretechnique was put to practical use. Shortly after the publicationof Practical Unarmed Combat the book found its way into thehands of the team responsible for designing KAPAP (Face-to-8

    Face Combat), as a new training method for the HagKAPAP was famous for its stick fighting techniqueswith other fighting skills. 18 Maishel (Moshe) Horoled the team, told me that he used the concept of otechnique for emergency training. He added that hgiven just twenty-four hours to prepare fighters for ctrained them concentrating on one technique. Thproved successful and the results on the battlefield wlent. Maishel told me that he regrets that he had notthe book earlier, which was exactly how I felt.PR CTIC L LE RNING

    The essence of Dr. Feldenkrais' thought is theand mechanisms of learning, which can be applied ations and are not limited to any particular field. Tof learning is a theme throughout all his work, comfruition in the Feldenkrais Method.

    During the writing of Practical Unarmed CombFeldenkrais had already begun to formulate the seriesthat he gave during 1943-1944 for the Association oWorkers in Fairlie, Scotland. 19 One of the topics hewas Learning The Uniqueness of Man . He emph

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    difficulties in learning new responses, The acquisition of anew response is made possible only by the extinction of theinborn responses. It is not impossible but extremely laborious.He surmounted the difficulties in this unique training.

    Moshe proved that everyone can learn. It is significant thathe used the principles presented in Practical Unarmed om-bat to train Home Guard soldiers, who were certainly not elitecombat troops.

    He believed that creating an environment conducive tolearning is not less important than the instruction itself.

    Careful reading of Practical Unarmed Combat reveals thatMoshe Feldenkrais was not concerned only with technique. Hecovers diverse subjects that are relevant to training and combat environments, such as: how to apply the technique whenopponents are physically mismatched, awareness of more thanone opponent, how to counter resistance, the training surface,safety issues, and more.

    There are also hints of how to be more effective duringthe interaction with the attacker. For example, when describinghow to counter a knife or bayonet attack, he says, Keep youreyes open, following the opponent's elbow. 20 Or, Pay attention to your left hand gripping the rifle .. it makes the weapon

    Hadaka-Jime: Practical Unarmedas much yours as his. 2

    His user-friendly approach to learning is reflectednuggets of humor found throughout the book. For ewhen talking about practicing the technique with a pasays, A quarter of your strength should be enough tyour opponent tap [surrender]. The other three quartersbe kept in reserve for an extremely powerful opponemake good any imperfection in performance in case ogency, otherwise, if you are not careful you will have toanother victim for your further study. Another exampgreat intuition regarding how humans learn can be founstatement, Repeat as many times as you can before bebored with it ... 22 Moshe uses a Samurai tale to demthe significance of correct timing and to illustrate theof choosing the right timing to overcome an attackeuse of the story is unusual in a book focused on practicbat, but it foreshadows the teaching techniques of a latewhen he taught the Feldenkrais Method

    Feldenkrais drew on his extensive scientific knowlevidenced by the drawings he added to illustrate theexecution of the stranglehold.24 It is interesting to nhis explanation of the Hadaka-Jime technique was uni

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    FOREWORcannot be found in any Judo books from that time.

    Moshe Feldenkrais cautions readers that, more than sim-ply reading the material, actual experience and practice of thetechnique is necessary to learn it. s Miyamoto Musashi, theauthor of The Book o Five Rings wrote, Who in this world canobtain my correct Way of the martial arts? Whoever would getto the heart of it, let him do so with conviction, practicing inthe morning and training in the evening. After he has polishedhis techniques and gained independent freedom of movement,he will naturally gain miraculous powers, and his free and easystrength will be wonderful.

    ON LUSIONThe course that Moshe Feldenkrais constructed is com-prised of ten lessons, one hour each, so the entire course is onlyten hours long. I would like to point out that the use of theterm 'lesson', and not the usual term 'training', already hintsat Moshe Feldenkrais' approach that is aimed at education andlearning. The results prove the effectiveness of the approach.Moshe Feldenkrais succeeded in training troops using themethod described in his book.

    This book, which ostensibly deals with just one technique,10

    offers an efficient methodology for all tra ining and My own experience has convinced me that this parior when working with experienced martial artistthose inexperienced in the techniques of hand to haMoreover, the technique that Moshe Feldenkrais cgulation from the rear, is most efficient.

    Practical Unarmed ombat can be used in mancan use the book to learn or teach the same practifense training/course, you can use the concept antion t cons truct your own first aid self defenseand you can apply its principles t all fields where lmastery result in achieving the maximum.

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    PREF CEI HAVE often been asked, after Judo contests or demonstrations,to show a trick by which one can invariably master anopponent. These requests were put in a way that left no doubtthat their authors were convinced that such a thing would betoo good to be true.

    Yet this is not quite impossible and there are tricks, theapplication of which is very general. I have pointed out elsewhere25 that a self-contained system of defence based on onefundamental movement can easily be evolved. This book presents one such system based on a simple movement which canbe learned by everybody: men and women, old and young, forit demands no special feats of strength, swiftness or general fitness. Its effect is immediate after a few trials and the only thingto learn is how to get the chance of securing the hold. That iswhat this book is out to teach you.

    Quite recently, after attending a few Judo lessons undermy instruction, Lieutenant Felix G. Apthorpe commanding aHome Guard platoon approached me with the request to teachhis men unarmed combat.This gave me the opportunity of testing in practice the

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

    soundness of the idea underlying this work. The resultcouraging. After a few lessons another platoon in the joined in. In a few months practically the whole battalbeen trained. This was due to the tenacity and devotionCaldwell Ker His clear understanding and helpfulnesshard work into real pleasure.

    It was not practicable to satisfy demands coming frther and farther away so I compiled this work as a guthose to whom I cannot give personal attention.

    I am glad to express my thanks to Lieutenant Aand to Lieutenant T W Hirs t whose keenness in securpossible advantage for their men gave me the possibilityfecting this work.

    My thanks are also due to Sergeant R. D. Keynes aporal Hughes who kindly agreed to figure in the illusand to Mr. Donald S Herbert, F.R.P.S., for his kindnskill in preparing the photographs.

    The text has greatly benefited as a result ofcritical reamy friends, G. N. Ward and Dr. H F Willis, and I am indMiss Madge King for the careful preparation of the typesc

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    INTRODU TIONoncepts o he Practical Unarmed ombat Training

    IT goes without saying that without tools nobody can fight asoldier armed with modern weapons with any chance of successwhen attacked from a distance. We naturally assume then thatyou are provided with adequate tools to meet the enemy atleast on equal terms.

    There are, however, many valid reasons why you shouldacquire a sufficient amount of skill in using your body only foryour defence. You cannot carry with you all the ammunitionyou may want. You may be surprised at close quarters by theattacker so that you cannot make use of your weapons.

    You may be forced by a superior enemy to surrender yourarms, and so on. A glance through the illustrations will convince you that there are situations in which only a man in theforces is likely to be involved and from which he cannot extricate himself without a weapon unless he uses the methodsdepicted.

    It is universally admitted today that a man of the forcesconversant with unarmed combat is a greater asset than onewho is not. The actual number oflives saved in modern warfare

    Hadaka-Jime: Practical Unarmed

    by unarmed combat methods may as yet be very insignThere is however, much likelihood that it will be greais commonly believed before this war is over.

    But this point is irrelevant and unimportant cowith the major issue of rendering the whole of the forces more efficient and reliable. That it is so, is bornethe inclusion of unarmed combat methods in the traipicked troops like the Commandos.

    When considering means of defence against an armponent it is natural to think ofJu-Jitsu, as indeed it is tmethod of dealing with this subject. It may be interenotice, by the way, that the word Ju-Jitsu is used only inand is obsolete in the country in which it originated,method it is used to denote. Both are replaced by a mortific and much more efficient system called Judo).

    Anyone who has tried to acquire a knowledge ofhas certainly soon become aware of the considerable tihas to be devoted to the acquisition of the skill necessuccessful application of the method. ny Judo expertyou that something like five years of two lessons a wnecessary in order to become reasonably conversant wit

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    INTRODU TIONways of this subtle art.

    For Judo does not teach so many tricks, but rather inculcates in the mind and body a special sense of balanceand action enabling the body to react to an unforeseen attack,smoothly, swiftly and in the most efficient way.

    Even if we decided only upon a limited number of tricks,at least a few months would be required, for indeed the wholetime is wasted if the men do not feel more confident than before, and they will not feel confident unless a high degree ofskill is attained. Without this the acquired knowledge is oflittlepractical avail, if any. Thus, long and meticulous training cannot be dispensed with even in such a scheme.

    From the point of view of the Home Guard here and elsewhere, we cannot launch ourselves on a long term training. Ithas to be made ready for an emergency, which may takeplace while you re reading these lines. That is why I devised this emergency course. It provides first-aid equipment. ood medical treatment will be looked for as soon aspossible. If we have the leisure to build up subsequently allround fighters out of all the men, so much the better. But afirst-aid is always a good acquisition.

    Now let us see what our first-aid box contains and whether14

    we can depend on it in case of emergency.A hasty glance through the text and illustrat

    ook will show you that the field covered is quitany rate the most probable cases of emergencywill also show you that it is all centered around mental movement.

    The advantages of such a condensed system arstantial for, in a lesson lasting one hour, a singlecan be repeated at least a hundred times; then in thlessons this movement appears repeatedly in unexpeand applications through which a keen interest isduring the entire course. By the time this is comhas repeated the fundamental movement more thsand times, which is sufficient to attain a highskill in its performance.

    There being only one movement which is that little conscious effort is necessary to bring neously into action. There is moreover, no room ling mistakes as to the choice of an appropriate mov

    The great advantage, however, lies in the facfortnight or so, the whole body of a service, the Hor others could be trained and made ready for an

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    which may be imminent.No special athletic feats, or excessive strength, are required

    for the successful execution of the movement. This makes itespecially suitable for the Home Guard where all ages are rep-resented. In the hands of virile young men it will be a verydangerous weapon.

    Incidentally it may be interesting to notice that the move-ment in question is of little avail against a man wearing a Brit-ish tin hat. The horizontal rim projecting backwards is a realhindrance to its performance, while the enemy, as can be as-certained from Spot at Sight hart No. 1 adopted a tin hatthat makes the application of the movement easier and moreeffective.

    But all this is only the background for the outstanding fea-ture of the movement, namely, its efficiency. It is easy to secure,it works against a much stronger opponent as well as against aweak one; moreover you are in safety while applying it. In shortyou can depend on it. All that is necessary is the will to learn itand to try at once.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    W RNINGafety dvice

    HURRY creates confusion. ery little speed is gained bytrying to go too fast. Real speed is gained by simple smoothand well balanced movements. The only way ofacquiring theseis repetition - calm repetition - especially in the beginning beforeyou are absolutely sure that you have well assimilated the text.

    You must not use your full strength. This would be sufficieN to kill your opponent, and therefore cannot be tried rwiceon the same man. fyou cannot obtain submission with littleeffort your execution is incorrect. The most common mistakes are pointed out and great care has been taken to makethings clear. Read the particular passage again before applyingmore strength.

    The Judo method of announcing submission or breaking an engagement should be adopted. That is when your opponent taps on his thigh, on the floor or on your body withhis hand, or just claps one hand against the other, you shouldinvariably and instantly relax and set him free, otherwise permanent injury is unavoidable. The tapping should consist ofrwo successive loud reports produced by the hand at the points

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

    of contact mentioned above.All jerks should be avoided. Increase your effort g

    until your opponent taps. After a few trials you willfar you can go without injuring him and will get the acting smoothly and swiftly without jerks. Jerky moare often harmful but never reliably efficient, while controlled movements can be as deadly as necessary.

    The other extreme, i.e., unnecessary softness in exis also to be avoided. You should secure the proper carry it out firmly until your opponent taps. Don t foone day your life may depend on that hold and you sable to bring your movement to its ultimate conclusi

    The movements throughout the book are simplethey are so simple that a special warning is necessarwill be prone to think that reading or trying themrwice would do. On the other hand some may thinktoo simple to be of any use. Well, the most marvelousplayed by simple finger touches on a simple key of a p

    It becomes marvelous when these movements area master. oing the right thing at the right mome


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    ease and the skill acquired y constant exercise enablesthe man to convey the most delicate feeling just y simpletouches. You can see and hear how it is done but you can hard-ly hope to produce the same effect. Without work no genius isof any avail. Repeat the movements as often as instructed, asclosely as you can, and you will soon realize that you have notbeen wasting your time.

    The illustrations show action with bare weapons. To beginwith, you must use a wooden stick of the size of a knife, withrounded edges, or use the bayonet in its scabbard.

    Only after your movements become natural, simple andsmooth should you attempt to use naked steel. When you do,you must repeat the movements in slow motion only, until youget used to the sight of the glittering weapon.

    However proficient and sure of yourself you may feel, youmight slip, your opponent may prod the weapon forward justwhen you were about to say someth ing and the damage is done.So again, be careful t the same time don't think that trainingwith harmless weapons will do. Unless used to the sight ofsteel pointing at you exceptional qualities are necessary toenable you to keep your head in real action.


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    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

    FIRST L SSONThe Core Technique Basic pplication

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    FIRST L SSONTH ulrimare value of an exercise lies in the action your bodywill perform sponraneously, wirhour conscious efforr, long afreryou have forgotten how, when and where you have learned ir.The operation you have exercised repeatedly, rather rhan wharyou had in mind, is voluntarily executed by the physical bodyand is readily reproduced in spite of yourself.

    t is imporrant to realise this before you starr training, foryour life may one day depend on how well you were trained.

    f from the beginning you perform alternately correct andfaulty movements your body will have a tendency to reproduceeither of rhem. You must therefore proceed cautiously fromrhe starr, sacrificing speed to precision , so rhar rhe spontane-ous movement on which you depend will be the correct o -there being the co rrect mental picture only in your unconsciousmemory. t is more profitable to do a movement ten rimes correedy, rhan a hundred times where faulty and correct movement alternate at random.

    Now let your opponent sir on the Aoor in the position shownin Fig. 1 Kneel on your right knee close behind him. Pur your rightforearm round his neck, clasp your hands together and gradually,without jerks, tighten your grip until he raps on his thigh. Repeatthree times and change places with your opponent.20

    Resume your position behind the sirting opponfore. Bring your righr forearm round his neck andright wrist anticlockwise as if unscrewing a screw rhenthis twisted position under his chin. C lasp your hanin Fig. 2. Tighten your grip until he taps.

    Note the way the hands are kept ready in Figas rhe position of the left forearm placed on theshoulder. ris also essential that rhe left hand shouldupwards and be under the right and nor vice versa.

    The derails of the two lasr paragraphs are of pimporrance for rhey transform rhe simple tighteniarm into a complex movement which, in addition to

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5pression of the throat, exerrs a constriction of the wind-pipe(trachea) and a pull upwards. The act ion of your right forearmunrwisring itself back to irs normal position is similar to that ofthe wheel in Fig. 3 and the effect on the windpipe (trachea) isthe same as on the rack, plus a compression.

    The relative position of y ur hands makes sure that the narrowest and hardest parr ofyour right forearm is in contact with theopponent s throat, thus applying the maximum possible pressure.

    Examine Fig 2 arrentively and note rhe position ofrhe rightarm behind rhe nape of the opponent. Beginners often presstheir chest bone against rhe opponents nape. T his is wrong andir is ineffective.

    Make sure you have grasped correctly what you areed ro do; rry six rimes and ler your opponent go throsame number of movements.Fig. 4 shows rhe movement completed. The tightthe arms is accompanied by a push of rhe right arm orhe shoulder, against the nape and a hardly noticeableyour hands to your left, your forearm rhus sawing hiNote the opponent s position. His balance is slightlybackwards. You are now nor only choking him bur puvertebrae of his neck powerfully aparr.

    Be careful nor to be brisk and jerky bur ro use onlparr of your srrengrh, for rhe dislocation of rhese verte


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    the head, may be fatal and even a slight sprain may produceincurable paralysis of the limbs and trunk.

    Repeat the movement again, paying due attention to allthe details.

    Resume the position of Fig. 4. Lift your right knee off theground, step back one pace without letting go the opponent shead, and break his balance completely. His belt should nowbe touching the ground. Fig. 5 shows this position. He is nolonger sitting, but is lying on his back with his legs in the air.The weight of his body is now added to increase the stress onthe vertebrae of the nape of the neck.

    Study the position of your head in Figs. 5, 13 and 16, andthat ofyour right shoulder in Figs. 26 and 27 if the opponent shead continues to slip out ofyour hold.

    Note how wide apart your feet should be. This gives you avery stable lateral balance which enables you to check any wrig-gling or lateral twist ofa powerful opponent fighting for his life.This is important only during the very short instant of break-ing the opponent s balance afterwards the hold tells instantly,s the slightest effort of your arms and the right shoulder will

    silence the opponent for good.


    Remembering this, do not use too much stretraining. Repeat a dozen times and let your opponsame.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    SE OND L SSONThe Core Technique Completions


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    TAKE up the position of Fig. 2, kneeling on your right kneebehind the opponent. Bend your head forward so that yourright cheek touches his left cheek, get up to your feet Fig. 6)and roll backwards straight on to your back. You must avoidsitting down and then rolling on your back as this is muchslower and moreover, makes the unpleasant contact of the baseof the spine coccyx) with the ground, unavoidable.


    While rolling on to your back wrap your legsopponent, just above his hips where he wears hihook them as shown in Fig. 7. Roll over to your lefthe upper part of your body right backwards, and tiarms, at the same rime pushing yo ur opponent foyour hips as in Fig. 8. he result is obvious.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    Fig SaAgain remember to proceed smoothly without jerks and

    using only a fraction of your full strength. A quarter of yourstrength should be enough to make your opponent tap Theother three quarters should be kept in reserve for an ex-tremely powerful opponent or to make good any imperfec-tion in performance in case of emergency, otherwise, i youare not careful you will have to look for another victim foryour further study.

    You can of course roll over to your right and continue asbefore. This is shown in Fig. 8a. You will soon learn to use thesebackward rolls.


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    Fig. 9 Fig. 10Now both stand upright. Face your opponent s back (Fig.

    9), slide your right arm with yo ur wrist turned anticlockwiseas clearly seen in the figure. Clasp your hands in the usual way,carefully observing all the details, especially that of the pressureproduced by your left forearm on the opponent s left shoulder.Tighten your arms, and when sufficient pressure is exerted byyour right forearm, unrwist (Fig. 10) your right wrist to its nor-mal posi tion. s explained in Fig. 3 your forearm will engagelike a cog under the chin to the correct position.


    Pull the opponents head backwards to lean aright shoulder, pushing forward powerfully (there ithis time), with your hips as in Fig. 11. Note also thright knee in the figure.

    Fig. 9 has been made on purpose to show howan opponent who has become aware of your attalowered his chin, preventing you from sliding yourthe required posi tion. This will, of course, nor becase, but if you get the habi t of rwisting your right

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed o

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    Fig. 14time you wrap your arm around the opponent yo u will find nodifficulty in carrying our your movement even if the opponenthas lowered his chin as described.he opponent s balance having been broken, move back-wards as in Fig. 12, tugging down, and at the same time im-proving yo ur own balance by spreading your legs apart as inFig. 13. Move backwards until the opponents belt touches theground and then push forward with yo ur shoulder, tighteningyour arms with the effect shown in Fig. 14 .

    Repeat, starting from the standing pos1tton as adozen times at leas t, until all the derails are fused intosmooth movement, and then let your opponent do the


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    Fig. 15 Fig. 16f the opponent tries to get hold ofyou as in Fig. 15 which

    is the only thing he can do), rake no notice of him. Tug downsee illustration) and resume the position of the body shown in

    Fig. 16, where the whole weight of your body and the strengthof your loins are brought into play. Be careful and smooth inyour movemenrs while trying. Repeat several times.

    Note the way the opponent is pinned to the ground in Fig.16. Constant pressure against his throat must be maintainedwith the arm, otherwise you will be helping him to sit up andall the pains taken will be wasted.


    The movements shown in Figs. 5, 14 and 16 smax to which all our efforts tend. Repeat it rwenrymore if necessary, until you get the knack ofcompelponent, without hesitation or failure, to submit andaction you would go on until all resistance is blotte

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    Let us examine what your opponent could do to preventyou from achieving this. We have already deale with him whenhe is pressing the chin down, and the movement is carried outwith no difficulty in spice of it.

    He may try to push you back as in Fig. 7 and make youlose your balance. Here che movement that we have learned inthe beginning of this lesso n comes in. If you feel him attempt-ing such an action, yield co it, roll straight on your back F ig.18 and finish as usual.


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    e could also catch your right forearm as shown in Fig.19, thus making it imposs ible to produce any compression ofthe throat and push you backwards, at the same time bringinghis other hand to help the first as in Fig. 20. Again yield to hisimpetus, roll on your back, wrap yo ur legs around him but donot hook them. Fig. 21 shows how the legs are wrapped aroundhis thighs this time. Turn to your right side or left side as shownin Fig. 22, push your groins as far forward as you can withoutjerking, of course, while training), your legs holding his thighbackwards and now tug powerfully but gradually further back-wards, straightening your back, while holding him tightly withyour arms close to your chest. e cannot make the usual sign of30

    submission, for if he lets go with his hands a suddenflexion of his body will break the sma ll of his backb

    The same result will be achieved if you jerk or ustrength. So be careful and let him free as soon as hthis is the only thing he can do in his present predic23 shows the opponent having succeeded in prevright arm from touching his throat. It is obvious lustration that this will not help him to get free.

    You may be tempted to finish the movementa roll on your back; indeed it is easier than the finlearned before and which is shown in Figs. 5, 14 or

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    Nevertheless you must train yourself to proceed gener-ally s we have learned originally as this gives you greaterfreedom and can e performed with lightning rapidity.Moreover as soon as you hear the ominous crack of thevict ims neck yo u are free nd ready to face other opponents.

    You can also just bring the opponent on to his back thenkick in the region of his ear and you are again ready to fightother enemies.

    Rolling on your back entangles you for somewh t longerduring which time you are helpless should a thi rd person inter-vene. Learn it properly but use it only when compelled to i.e.

    only if through your slowness or for any other reason yponent succeeds in getting hold of your forearm or inyou off your balance as previously explained.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    THIR LESSONThe Core Technique Silent ttack from the Rear


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    Y U may derive encouragement by realising that after twolessons only, you could deal with a sentry, for instance, muchbetter than if you were armed. f you succeeded in approachinghim within leaping distance (Fig. 24) you have a berter chanceof success in overcoming your opponent than by shooting apistol or using cold steel. The first makes noise; the second doesnot prevent him from making a noise.

    Fig. 24 also shows what to do if you are short and youropponent tall. Take up the position of the shorter man in thefigure, leap on to the opponent s back, throwing your rightforearm under his chin and clasping your hands as usual. (See.Fig. 2).34

    Note the posmon of your feet in Fig. 25. Ysqueeze your opponent with your ees only, butthrowing your legs around his waist. lt is most likethat they will be grabbed and held rightly, and unlestells instantly the opponent can throw himself on tand the base of your spine (coccyx) will bear the bimpact against the ground under the double weight.

    If, on the other hand you follow the illustration cwill see that your feet can be put on the ground if nefact this should be done simultaneously with the cyour hands. Weighing down , while your knees puand downwards, breaks his balance; then proceed as

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    This is your customary movement and Fig. 7 shows the usualresult. Repeat ten or twenty times and change places with youropponent.Again if you are very small compared with your opponent you may though it is very unlikely find yourself hurled forward over your opponents shoulder as in Fig. 28. Cl ing to himsqueezing your knees together as hard as you can and strangleas much as you can.

    On feeling your opponent stooping forward bring yourfeet inside his thighs as in Fig. 29. The illustration shows theposition which yo ur opponent is most likely to assume underthe momentum of the two bodies hurled forward.

    Round your shoulders and ruck your head down will find yourself rolling over as in Fig. 30. After all rhtaken by your opponent you are in rhe most favouration you could have wished for as shown in Fig. 31.

    You will notice rhat the completion of this movemsame as that in Fig. 8 on page 23.

    Though the photographs were taken on concrshould make your first attempts on a soft lawn severbefore attempting it on a hard Aoor. Repeat as manyyou can and let your opponent do rhe sa me. Wirh a liring you will find it easy to make your opponent roll roinstead of rolling srraighr overhead. Little imagination


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    sary to see this on a close inspection of Fig. 29.The reader who is indulging in perusal only without

    practical application is now invited to stop and give it a tri-al. Things look so complex when described in words and onpaper. They re so much simpler to do and to understandby the experience of the physical body. Follow the instruc-tions of this book or those of a better one. Neither are worthreading if they cannot convince you to start practicing at once.

    The first phase of our study is now complete. t is as if youhad acquired a weapon and learned how it functions.

    You have also learned how to handle it so that it does notmisfire. f you feel that the weapon kills and that you candepend on it you can proceed to learn something abouthunting for you need more than a good gun to become askilled hunter. If you don t feel that way continue practicinguntil you are convinced in your own mind that you can masterany opponent providing you can approach close enough frombehind.


    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    FOURTH L SSONMoving ehind the Attacker Defense Against Knife Stab to the Neck


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    ST ND right in front of your opponent, facing him. Reachour your left hand , get hold of his right sleeve halfway betweenhis wrist and his elbow, at the same rime stepping forwardand slightly to your left with your left foot. Fig. 32 shows thisaccomplished.

    Try rhe hold again, this rime wirh a short pull on thegrabbed sleeve towards your right and a larger step with yourleft foot behind the opponem, just skimming his body.

    Start again, making sure you let go the sleeve ar the end ofyour short pull ro the right and lifting your right arm bem arright angles at the elbow. Fig. 33, naturally leading to Fig. 34,shows this in action. C lasp your hands as usual, your left fore- 8

    arm carefully placed on his shoulder in the way alreTighten your arms, pushing forward with your groihave learned how ro secure the lock on a man who mg you.

    This short pull Fig. 32 is nor meant to be stroto pull the opponent forward. He may be so much hstronger than yourself rhat ir is impossible for youthis. Moreover, rhis is nor looked for. A man pulled will always stiffen his body to resist. It is only measure rhar during rhe short interval while you are shbody on to your left foot Fig. 33) your opponentin resisting your pull, i.e., he is nor doing anything

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    Fig 34a Fig 34bwirh your securing rhe advantageous position behind him.

    Ifyou bend and lift your right arm just when you shift yourbody on to your left foot, there is no great harm in pulling thesleeve hard. Bur roo hard a pull will spoil everything. The rightone is the pull rhat is just sufficient to make him step forwardwith his right leg as shown in Fig. 33.

    Another very important thing to observe is the noncha-lant and relaxed attitude Fig. 32 . The motion should notstiffen your legs and hips. Relaxation comes of course withskill, but if you think of it you will acquire it sooner.

    Now try twenty times at least and change places with your

    opponent The more you do this movement the betterit until the pull on rhe sleeve ends wirh rhe opponenposition of tapping in one smooth single stroke, andagain.

    The same movement is now t be repeated, pulopponents left sleeve with your right hand. Now stepwith your right foot and slightly to your right while pusleeve with a short soft motion, at the end of which ythe sleeve. Bring your right hand around the opponenand conclude as usual. You must not invert the positionhands in rhe final lock, irrespective of whether the hoplied after shifting yourself into position, either from


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    Fig 35 Fig 6 Fig 37or the left of the opponent.

    There should be only one way t finish off the hold. Ifyou learn both holds you leave room for confusion at the mostcritical moment. ome people have a mania for symmetry inthe movements of their body. They must know that perfectsymmetry is almost excluded and n our case futile and en-dangers the soundness of the whole edifice.

    You can hardly imagine an attack by an armed or unarmedadversary wirhour his arm more or less thrust forward. Anysuch attack is liable to be thwarted and turned to your advan-tage by the methods you have learned. We shall go through themost dangerous ones and the less obvious.40

    Fig 38Suppose your opponent is about to stab you.

    for your throat or more generally for the upper ptrunk in which case he will be holding the knife anthe manner shown in Fig. 35.

    This is a very dangerous attack for the slightestof the weapon will sever viral organs like the commor jugular vein or if the blade is wide both at oncpenetration will cut through the bronchus.

    To the disappointment of those who believe nattaken the greatest care of man it is quite obvious ttection is provided for this part of the body Unlesswhole of the body to destroy our assailant nothing

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    between us as a mechanical shield. In facr any animal or beastarracking a man goes primarily srraighr for his rhroar wirh irsfangs.Ler your opponent rake a smoorh stick with rounded endsand use ir as a knife. Ar rhis srage ro use a real knife will belooking for trouble and yo u may be sure you will ger ir. So stickro rhe stick.

    Fig 36 shows the relative positions ro be taken up. Let youropponent proceed in slow motion, moving his stick towardsyour throat. With your left hand, the thumb being kept Aatalong the palm as seen in Figs. 37 and 38 push over his armrowards your right. This push should be a brisk, short sweep.

    Your hand should rouch rhe opponents arm just abovebow, if is arm is somewhat bent at the elbow (Fig 37the elbow if the arm is more or less straight as in Fig. 38Step wirh your left foot forward and ro your leftsame rime lowering your body by bending rhe knees. Fivery instructive in this respect. Keep your eyes open forhe opponents elbow. Note how far rhe steel is kept awayou in correct execution. Even a bayonet would notenough to rouch you. This is where our method is sosafer than some used elsewhere.

    The push over to your right is not meant ro turn yponent, though in swift action it sometimes does. It


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    only clear the way for you to move behind the opponent asalready explained in conjunction with Fig. 33.

    t is obvious that the thrust being deviated and avoidedthe usual fate awaits your assailant and Figs. 39 42 are self-explanatory.

    Repeat slowly ten times and after your opponent has donethe same try a little faster. Try to be simple smooth and precisein your movement. o haste or use of strength will makeyour movement more efficient but calm repetition will.

    o repeat as many times as you can before becoming boredwith it and change positions as customary.


    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    FIFTH L SSONDefense Against Knife Stab to Abdomen ndAgainst Alternate Attacks


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    GO through rhe last lesson rapidly.Now ler your opponent arrack you with his wooden knife

    as in Fig. 43. Note rhe point of rhe knife thrusting upwards. Asimple thrust forward is very likely ro hir rhe belt, cartridges orother objects rhar will stop rhe knife from producing a deadlywound.

    Stand exacrly in front of your attacker, hardly lifting yourheels from rhe ground, your hands hanging relaxed. Let himthrust his weapon, aiming at yo ur abdomen. Step with yourleft foot to your left and slighrly forward, while your left handpushes rhe attacking arm (behind the elbow) over to your rightwith a short, smooth and quick movement.44

    Examine Fig. and note the stooping attitudewhich is due to the man withdrawing his abdomenthe point of the knife. Keeping slighrly on your cilitates this attitude. Note also rhe position of therighrly alongside the other fingers, the hand being h

    Start the movement afresh, another thrust beiat your abdomen. Your sharp push of the opponenyour right is now accompanied by a smarr stepbringing you behind him as usual. Fig. 5 shows th

    Beginners often keep up the pressure with thagainst the opponents elbow roo long. This shouldfor once the knife is deviated, following up the e

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    no purpose. Moreover, it hinders your movement forward anddelays your left hand clasping your right hand. This figure alsoshows your right arm already bent and sliding under the oppo-nents chin before he has realized what is happening.

    ote that you need not hurry. Your movement is swiftbecause you re doing the right thing without wasting yourtime useless agitation being eliminated by the dear knowl-edge ofwhat you re doing.

    Fig 46 shows another view of the position depicted in Fig 44.Repeat the attack and when in position behind the oppo-nent (Fig. 45) press your groins forcibly against his hips after

    having tightened your clasped hands as usual.Figs. 47 and 48 show the succession of movements

    to the known finish shown in Fig 42.Repeat twenty times and then let your opponent

    same.Now let yourself be attacked, the knife arriving

    throat and then at your abdomen, alternating the two unare willing to let your opponent take your place.

    You should be able by now to parry a straight rightjaw Examine Figs . 7, 38 and 9 and you will see that tdifference between a straight right punch to your jaw and t

    FIFTH L SSONthrust is that the punch approaches you faster than the knife. But After you nd your opponent have repeated

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    if you followed the instructions, your movements ought to besmooth and therefore swift enough to avoid the punch. Anyway,try it slowly at first, then gradually work up to normal speed.

    t is more common to speak about a straight left to the jaw,and this reminds us that we must learn how to parry a knifethrust delivered with the left hand.

    This is very important for there re many more peopleleft-handed when using a knife than when doing anythingelse for handling knives is not taught by parents t homenor by teachers at school so that the number o people whore likely to hold the knife in their left hand is relatively

    important.Read pages 38 and 39 again (Fourth Lesson) nd note care-

    fully that the lock is to be performed as usual by throwing yourright arm around the opponent s neck nd not otherwise as youmay be inclined to do.

    Try to push the attacking left elbow over to your left, slid-ing forward with your right foot. Here it is even more impor-tant than before to break very readily the contact of your righthand with the opponent s elbow, as you need it for the lock assoon as possible.6

    number of times, try the knife thrust at the region omen, delivered equally with the left hand.

    You will find no difficulty now in parrying a sThis being tried as many times as necessary until yversant with the movement, give your opponent aportunity of learning it.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed o

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    SIXTH L SSONDefense Against Alternate Left Right Attacks Understand Timing

    REHE RSE rapidly the previous lesson.You will find no difficulty now in parrying an uppercutdelivered with the right or the left. To make sure, just try me

    thodically, slowly to begin with, gradually speeding up to normal action. Twenty trials with the right hand and as many withleft are enough.

    Now alternate attacks. Let your opponent try to hit youfirst with his right then with his left, then again with his right.All the movements with the fist should now be rehearsed inthis way.

    This being judged adequately done and with satisfactoryresults, but on no account otherwise, let your opponent attackyou regularly and rhythmically with either hand as he chooses,the movements being regular but the alternation at his choice.

    Exercise these and you will soon find out that you knowan instant before the blow is delivered with which hand itwill be done.

    There is of course, no use in going through the knife at-

    tacks alternating right and left. You push over to the shand thrusting the knife and that is that. You do nowhile the assailant does the actual action o killing.

    It might be profitable to make clear a basic principlelying Judo, the present lessons being on similar lines. A Srai fable will serve this purpose without abstract specula

    A famous expert in the art wished to find out who his disciples had grasped his teaching most fully. e gthem and asked the following question.

    Imagine your sleep disturbed by the noise of fowhich you realise to be those of your declared enemy. Yhear him cautiously opening the door. e is armed; hestealthily into the room, shuts the door to prevent the haof dawn from waking you up and then proceeds noiselewards you. Knowing what you do, what is the precise myou would rise to attack and destroy your enemy? Cexplain your choice?Try to answer the old man before learning the repl

    SIXTH L SSONfavourite pupils, which made him so happy that he did not attack is made on the assailant at the moment h

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    mind departing for a better world. Anyway, so runs the story.The answer that made the master happy was, that the as-

    sailant should be attacked while he is shutting the door.The justification of this is that before shutting the door the

    assailant is all attention and may take up a different line of ac-tion as circumstances change. He may even give up for the timebeing and look out for another opportunity.

    After shutting the door the odds are too mu h in hisfavour considering the recumbent position of the victim.

    But he will not shut the door until he is satisfied that ev-erything is all right. Thus while shutting the door, his mindmoves from caution to the conviction that he has cornered hisprey. He has trapped his victim and is so sure of it that he willprobably not mind his victim now waking up, once the door isshut behind him. So before this is accomplished, and while heis engaged in this action, attack him. This is the moment Takehim unaware at the very moment when he is about to relaxdue to the feeling of safety creeping into his mind. This isyour chance, for now he is most vulnerable.

    If you examine all the illustrations you will see that the8

    irrevocable; when he is most sure of his prey. Ththat is now clear. Before the act of killing is undertafeint, or change his mind. You must attack while heknife with weight and determination, not before.afterwards is too late so that you must time your acorrect moment. If you have been following the and practicing them, you will certainly feel whichmoment. You must attack when the assailant is enaction which he believes to be final.

    You will know what he is going to do the nextthe exact position of his body as though he were mo

    The previous exercises were intended to put thstate of readiness to strike out at the right momenuse of the only chance available.

    t is easy to understand now why it has never bthat you should be swift. There is no need to be swas your timing is correct. The important thingthe proper moment as described. Smooth action, cleand, above all, practice will achieve far more than himportant because you are going to use naked knivetraining, so you must go slowly.

    Let your opponent attack you in slow motion to begin with,Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    in all the ways of attack we have seen. t least twenty exercisesshould be done at every stage before going on to the next.

    These repeated warnings may induce the idea of great dan-ger. The danger is slight, but, i one in a thousand o theexercises leads to an injury there will be a fair number ovictims There is no need to be scared stiff; to be careful isenough

    Carry yourself easily, breathe normally and don t stiffenyour muscles. It is astonishing how much more simply and eas-ily one does things breathing freely and with the face relaxed,especially the lower jaw.

    The purpose of training with bare weapons is not to learnanything new nor to improve your speed, but to accustom youto the sight of the weapon, so that you maintain this relaxedand easy attitude in real combat. Without that attitude ofmindand body all the speed you possess is of little practical avail.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    S V NTH L SSONOvercome ttack with ayonet rom the Rear


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    TH content of this lesson and the illustrations may notconvince rhe reader. This is understandable because the resultpromised is difficult ro believe. The fact is that it works. Thosewho follow the instruction, practicing regularly as advised, willfind no difficulry in obtaining rhe result shown in Fig. 55, andthis is all we are concerned with.

    Let your opponent fix his bayonet with irs scabbard onhis rifle. Lift your hands, turn your back to him and let himthrust the end of his scabbard at your back. Such a situationcan occur on ly if the opponent wants you ro go ahead ro adestination he has chosen. He uses his bayonet ro urge youforward. You do nor obey very readily. He certainly does nor52

    kill you - he could have done so before. He certayou alive, for some rime at least.

    There is no choice left and you must obey. Yostep by step. Try ro do so in action, then examine F50 and then try again walking in front of the bayon

    You will feel that starting with your right foot frsition shown in Fig. 49 which is the normal, usual aone, every time your right foot is advancing the cothe scabbard is broken see Fig. 50).

    Repeat the movement and observe now thatyour right foot is advanced your hips are turned and

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    Fig. 53especially the parr at which the bayonet may be applied is notperpendicular or normal to the bayonet but inclined.

    In fact the angle is quite grazing and the smooth end of thescabbard will slide forward when pushed as if on an inclinedplane. Start afresh and try to produce a sufficient tension ofyo ur hips to make the scabbard end slip forward. You will seethat a conscious movement hardly noticeable from that of nor-mal walking is ample.

    Now try again and when you feel ready advance your rightfoot half completing the shifting of your balance on to theadvanced foot; complete the normal twist of your hips whileyour left arm is lowered in a backward short swing ro take you

    Fig. 55out of he way of the point of the weapon and step withfoot rowards your opponent. Examine Fig. 5 and tryis easier to perform the movement if the right foot stepwhat on the ball of the foot and the twist ro the leftwithout letting the heel down heavily on to the ground

    Fig. 5 is taken in full action. Observe how simswing with left arm is done and the longer step withfoot. The man behind you has now set his mind onforward his weapon and he cannot check this tendenthe inertia of his body moving forward. Fig. 52 shonatural it is for him tO complete the started pace even ibring his left foot nearer to the right. Do not act jerkil


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    Fig 49 Fig 50will do this and so come into the best position to enable you tothrow your right arm round his neck in the usual way as shownin Fig. 53; finish as shown in Figs. 54 and 55. You should ofcourse proceed so that the result is obtained independently ofthe opponent completing his pace or not.

    Repeat a dozen times then read the text again and abovell attentively scrutinise the illustrations then proceed with an-

    other twenty repetitions.Any movement of the body when described sounds com-

    plicated. That is where demonstration is a great help as it bringseve rything into a clear perspective. However after a few trialsyou should succeed in fusing all the details into a simple pur54

    Fig 56 Fig 57poseful action.

    This movement helps you to turn the cables on ywise complete master in a situation from which you cly imagine escape to be possible. Moreover you unabring in a prisoner. So after your opponent has gonthe exercises repeat as many times as you can.

    In action some may argue chis is a very riskyNo doubt it is but after a hundred repetitions yoyourself prone to argue to the contrary. The thing tois that in a position like that shown in Fig. 49 youworth much unless you are prepared to talk and buylife at the cost of many of your comrades.

    Let us now see the incidental difficulties that may arise inHadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

    your left foot from the knee as shown in Fig 57.

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    practice due to imperfect action or circumstances. The point ofthe bayonet is sharp and will not slip forward even when hardlyin contact with your back. f you misjudged the distance or iffor any other reason you turned to your left too soon, the bayo-net tending forward will penetrate through the clothes, grazingyour body. It may even wound you, though obviously this can-not be very serious as the weapon is skimming your body.

    Should this happen or, as it did once in training in theconditions shown in Fig. 56, where the scabbard slid throughthe belt loop, you cannot apply the usual neck lock, as you areprevented from completing the turn ofyour body. Take hold ofthe rifle as shown in the Fig 56, put your right foot short onthe ground, lifting the left foot off the ground. To get the rightidea of how the movement is done look back to Fig. 51 andimagine Fig. 56 being the continuation of it.

    From standing on your left foot, Fig. 51, stamp your rightforcibly down in place of the left foot lifted off the ground; it issomewhat of a hop from one foot to the other.

    The body should be kept straight in the hips, the head andshoulders thrown back to the right corner so that your left thighis horizontal Fig. 67 shows this instant clearly) and shoot out

    t is obvious that you cannot try out the effect of theeven if your movement is smooth and you must take grthat it does not happen by itself through slackened attenexcessive playfulness. Try a dozen times and change pas customary.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed


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    Alternative Movements Against Bayon et ttack from the Rear


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    REPE T rhe rwo movements of rhe last lesson.The second movement was necessary because of a mechan

    ical obstacle preventing you from turning sufficiently to yourleft. If for any reason your turning is delayed so that when it iscompleted you are in a position similar to that shown in Fig.58, from which ir is nor handy to secure the usual lock on rheneck, get hold of rhe rifle with your left hand see illustration).Catch any parr of his kit nearest to shoulder or as shown in Fig.39. At rhe same rime lift your right foot and stamp it down atthe back of his left knee, pulling with your right hand in thedirection of your right elbow.

    Stamping your foor as shown in Fig. 6 will obviously dis-58

    locate the knee joint. In training press your foot prjust behind the knee so as to bend it only and forcponent to kneel on it as in Fig. 61.

    Grear care must be taken nor ro be roo efficienrif you are training in the village hall or similar placewooden floor, intended to accommodate dancers, and likely to produce sprains. If in addition ro the wyou are wearing your iron clad boors, you have all thsary to get into trouble.

    Having brought the opponent on ro his kneehold with your right hand and throw ir around his ning the usual neck lock as in Fig. 61.

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmed

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    In training it is impossible ro complete the movemenr i.e. [ bring me opponem on [ his back so chat his belt rouchesme ground and then push his head forward as in Figs. 5 14 or16.

    Ir is easy realize that any furrher urge backwards appliedthe kneeling man in Fig. 61 unless purposely done so slowly

    as enable him disengage his left knee will damage thisbeyond repair. In face even in action mere is no need to gofurrher chan securing the lock as in Fig. 61 if there is no otherdanger lurking near you.

    Repeat slowly a dozen times.

    On dose examination of me figures you will nochis last movemenr is possible only if me opponem prebayonet forward rhus advancing his left foot as in Fig.

    Ifyour movemem is round smooth and simple asbe if you have been practising properly all along you myourself turning too rapidly completing your rotatiothe opponent has me leisure to realise what is happechis happens you will find yourself in the posicion sFig. 62 where the opponent has hardly had time to malone advance his left foot. Close your hand on the rithe figure bend your right elbow bringing your righeld flat towards your left shoulder and deal out a


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    blow with the outer border of it against his throat at the Adam sApple. (Fig. 63).

    Pay attention to your left hand gripping the rifle. This actseems superfluous at first sight - it is on the contrary very important as it keeps your opponent away from you at a fixedd istance. Any ttempt on his part to dv nce or to recedecarries you with him automatically keeping you at the beststriking dist nce. t also m kes the we pon as much yourss his.

    The blow must be a sharp and swift swing producing a curas if with a sword. The soft padded edge of your hand berweenthe small fi nger and wrist, is the part that comes in contact and60

    produces the blow.Needless to say do not hit with any power unle

    is really at stake, for you may intend to deal just abut if your movements are anything like approachispeed of execution your opponent is rai ling on towith a certain velocity which you may nor have takcount.

    Repeat a dozen times and change places with yourn the introduction it is pointed out that amo

    vantages of a unique movement are the restrictedthe absence of having to make a decision before us

    Hadaka Jime: Practical Unarmedsatisfy you, neither does it go with the rapid first-aid

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    examining the four ways in which we have learned to attackan opponent forcing you forward at rhe point of his bayonet,namely, the normal neck lock, the kick, the knee crushing end-ing with a neck lock, and the last, the cur at the Adam's Apple,you may realise what was meant by difficulty of choice. Whichmovement are you going to use? Will you make up yourmind to use one of them before you start turning or willyou turn and take a chance? hese and other questions areprobably creeping into your mind

    There are two ways of settling them. he first is trainingBut sufficient time must be allowed for that purpose, so thatthe movements become automatic. This solution will hardly

    we set out to provide.he second is what I have adopted in practice

    tried the four different ways open to you after the twisbody to the left, which puts you out of the way of theand closer to the opponent, so that another thrust ssible, unless the opponent withdraws at least one paceup your mind which of the four you prefer Forget ters and practise only the one you prefer

    My advice s to stick to the neck lock in the firand learn the kick for a case of emergency only, as exoriginally.

    It should be borne in mind that if your opponent drely entirely on his weapon and tries to rid himself ofslightest pretext, he can rake up a line ofaction similar tThat s why you should train, and the exercises were sorhar the