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Stress and anxiety 2012

May 11, 2015

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Sports

  • 1.Stress and Anxiety

2. Learning Outcomes State the different types of anxiety Describe the link between anxiety, arousaland performance State ways in which anxiety is measured andanalyse the pros and cons of differentmeasures Explain how different techniques are used tocontrol anxiety 3. Effects of arousal and anxiety Arousal is measured in the Reticularactivating system in the brain stem Responsible for Organising behaviour Arousal effects behaviour Effects of arousal not always negative 4. Negative v positiveDistress (or commonly Negative effects stress) Cognitive effects Cognitive effectsConfusion ConfusionSomatic effects Lack ofLack of concentrationconcentration Irrational Irrational IncreasedIncreased thoughtthought Increased Increasedsweating sweating bloodbloodheart rate heart ratepressurepressure 5. Definitions of Stress Used to describe negative feelings a personexperiences in a potentially threateningsituation.Seyle (1956) The non-specific response of the body to anydemand made on it. If we are placed in a situation in which we feel pressurised, unable to meet the task or worried about the consequences, we may experience stress. 6. Examplesofstressors 7. Stress can be initiated by stressors (perceiveddemands), are stressor could be any demands placedon the performer that initiate stress:Threatens our self-esteeme.g. audienceCauses us personal harme.g. fear of injuryDevelops fear of the unknown e.g. performance of the oppositionCauses frustration e.g. mistakes being madeIncreases pressure e.g. pressure from parents, crowd and/or coach 8. StressorStressorFrustration, Foul, conflict Competition DemandsClimate, Fatigue, Playing badly, Injury worry Alarm, Resist, exhaust. Cognitiveor somatic Eustress or distress!Stress experienceStress experience 9. McGrath (1970) suggest that when placed in a stressful situation, a performerwould respond by progressing through four stages:Environment Demands SituationAthlete Athleteperception perceptionis so is soimportant! important! Perception of the environmental demands Threat or challenge Stress response (physical &psychological) Eustress orEnhanced or DistressimpairedperformanceActual behaviour 10. The Effects of Stress on Performance 11. Anxiety Anxiety is a negative aspect of stress andincludes irrational thoughts and fear of failure 12. Anxiety When an athletes performance suffers in animportant event, it is often because of too muchworry about the outcomebeing solelyconcerned with winning causes an increase inanxiety. T. Orlick, Psyching for Sport Mental training for athletes, 1986Causes = expectations, audience teammates evaluation (evaluation apprehension) 13. Two components of AnxietyCognitive anxiety = Thoughts PsychologicalThoughts, nervousness, apprehension or worry thata performer has about their lack of ability tocomplete a task.Somatic Anxiety = physiologicalPhysiological responses to a situation where theperformer feels they may not cope increasedhr, sweaty palms, muscle tension. 14. Cognitive responses to anxiety Somatic responses to anxiety Loss of concentration Sweating Feelings on apprehension Increased muscle tension inability to cope Feelings of nausea Attentional narrowing Increased heart rate Fear of failure Increased breathing rateThese are PYSCHOLOGICAL responses These are PHYSIOLOGICAL responses 15. Symptoms of AnxietyCognitive State Anxiety =Somatic State Anxiety =worry, negativity, nervousness perception of physiological changes 16. Researchers have distinguishedTHREE FURTHER TYPES 17. State Anxiety (A-state) = anxiety felt in a particularsituation. A temporary emotional reaction of someone in asituation that they experience as threatening.E.G.A basketball players level of state anxiety would changeduring the match. Prior to tip off elevated level (nerves) During match lower level Final seconds faced with 3 free throws extremely high level. 18. Trait anxiety (A-trait) = an enduring personalitytrait, giving a tendency to view all situations asthreatening.Anxiety as a personality trait is a tendency to react tosituations in an anxious way.E.G. Two rugby players with equal skill are put under pressure to kick a last minute goal. They have different state anxiety reactions to the situation because of their personalities their level of trait anxiety. 1)Laid back (low trait anxiety), doesnt perceive kick as overally threatening, doesnt experience any more state anxiety than expected. 2) High trait anxiety, finds all situations threatening. 19. Competitive Anxiety Form of anxiety is specific to sport Threats include: Not playing well Letting team down Meeting training demands before the event Personal relationships Injury Martens the tendency to see competitivesituations as threatening 20. There is a direct relationship between a personslevel of trait and state anxiety. Those who score high on measures of traitanxiety experience more state anxiety in highlycompetitive and evaluative situations. Through experience, an athlete with high traitanxiety can learn to cope with a particularsituation and lower their state anxiety. Knowledge of a persons level of trait anxiety willenable a prediction to be made about how theywill react to competitions, being assessed and inthreatening conditions. 21. Measuring Anxiety 22. MEASUREMENT OF STRESSQUESTIONNAIRES Martens Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT - 1977) measures emotional and physiological responses tostress in the competitive situation Speilbergers State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI - 1970) measures emotional and physiological responses tostress in general and specific situations Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI 1990) 23. Pros and Cons Quick Socially acceptable Easy answers Cheap Misunderstanding Lots of info question 24. More measuresBEHAVIOURAL MEASURES the performance of sports players is observed a subjective methodPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES require laboratory testing equipment, objective methods examples : galvanic skin response Electrocardiogram (ECG) Electroencephalogram (EEG) 25. Problems Observations involves Physiological methodslooking for symptoms of put performers inanxiety artificial circumstances Can take place in Wired upartificial environments Can increase anxietywhich lead to extraanxiety 26. Controlling StressThe coach and performer can control stress throughapproaching the problem in two ways:1) Controlling & redirecting the performers thoughts & attention - reducing cognitive anxiety.2) Reducing & controlling thephysiological components ofanxiety reducing somaticanxiety. 27. Cognitive techniques for controlling anxiety Internal/external and stress Imagery by method of relaxing by creatingmental images to escape the immediate effects ofstress. The principle is to recreate an environmentthat is very relaxing.Mental Rehearsal Visualisation the process of creating a mentalimage of what you want to happen or feel, lockinginto the perfect performance. This divertsattention away from the cause of anxiety. 28. Attention control maintaining concentration onappropriate cues. This aims to improve theperformers ability to focus on appropriate cuesthen the number of errors caused by otherdistractions is reduced. Self-talk developing positive thoughts aboutones actions. Is vital that self talk remainspositive and focus on self-instructing motivationalcontent. 29. Somatic techniques for controlling anxietyand stress Biofeedback information about the changes inphysiological variables; the performer watches amonitor displaying changes in readings. E.G. heartrate, using a pulsometer or heart rate monitor. Breathing control using diaphragmaticbreathing (breathing deeply) as a means offocusing on relaxation. Encourages full oxygenexchange, reduces the heart rate andlowers/stabilises blood pressure. 30. Centering using deep breathing as a way ofrefocusing your concentration. Requires theperformer to focus particularly on the rate ofbreathing and maintaining a slow, steady pace. Progressive muscular relaxation (PMR) learning to be aware of the tension present inmuscles and removing it by relaxing. This is doneby alternating extreme tension that is held for afew seconds the releasing the tension to relax. 31. Goal SettingA technique used to control anxiety by directingattention away from stress and towards anachievable target. Outcome goals achievement of a particularresult e.g. qualifying for the next round.Achievement will increase motivation but theperformer cannot control the factors influencingthe outcome e.g. officials, opposition andweather. Can lead to increase in anxiety if resultis not achieved. 32. Performance goals the performers attemptsare judged against others or even withthemselves. E.G. achieving a certain time in acompetition. Motivation will be maintained if notincreased. Process goal concentrate on the performerstechniques and tactics, process goals ofteninfluence performance goals. E.g. to perform aslower backswing during a bunker shot may wellimprove efficiency of the stroke. 33. Learning Outcomes State the different types of anxiety Describe the link between anxiety, arousaland performance State ways in which anxiety is measured andanalyse the pros and cons of differentmeasures Explain how different techniques are used tocontrol anxiety

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