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Immigrants and Urbanization Sec. 1 – The New Immigrants Sec. 2 – The Challenges of Urbanization Sec. 3 – Politics in the Gilded Age

Jan 20, 2016



  • Immigrants and UrbanizationSec. 1 The New ImmigrantsSec. 2 The Challenges of UrbanizationSec. 3 Politics in the Gilded Age

  • The New ImmigrantsSection 1Objectives: 1. Identify immigrants countries of origin.2. Describe the journey immigrants endured and their experiences at United States immigration stations.3. Examine the causes and effects of the nativists and anti-immigrant sentiments.

  • Through the Golden DoorMillions immigrated to the U.S. in the late 1800s and early 1900s hoping to have a better life.Birds of Passage temporary immigrants who came to earn money and return home.Most immigrants came to make a new life and stayed.

  • Push Factors Pull Factors

    PovertyJob OpportunitiesFamineReligious FreedomLand shortagesPolitical FreedomReligious PersecutionLandPolitical PersecutionWarOver-population

  • European ImmigrationOld v. NewCountries of Origin before 1890*Great Britain*Ireland*Germany*Scandinavia

    (Northwestern Europe)

    Countries of Origin after 1890*Italy*Austria-Hungary*Russia

    (Southern and Eastern Europe)

  • Old ImmigrantsWhiteAnglo SaxonProtestantSimilar Language (English / German)Similar Customs

  • New ImmigrantsDarker Skinned / Mediterranean Catholic and JewishPoorerMany Different LanguagesDifferent Customs from each other and from the old immigrants

  • Italian ImmigrantsLeft Italy (mostly southern part) due to economic hardships.Many came as birds of passageCatholic population

  • Jews from RussiaLeft to escape Religious PersecutionPograms organized anti-Semitic campaigns that led to the massacre of Jews in the early 1880s and early 1900s.

  • Immigrants from AsiaChinese came in small numbers in 2nd half of 1800s*California Gold Rush*Jobs building the Transcontinental Railroad and othersAfter railroads completed they worked inFarmingMiningDomestic WorkersMotive: Economic OpportunityEntry: West CoastView One Americans Story from China to Chinatown: Fong Sees American Dream

  • Anti-Asian SentimentMainly affected Chinese and Japanese immigrants on the West Coast.Different Language and CustomsLooked DifferentChinese men wore their hair in a long braid (queue), and dressed in a quilted jacket, broad cotton pants, and a wide-brimmed hat.Laws passed to restrict Asians rights

  • Discriminatory LawsCouldnt own landCouldnt marry CaucasiansCouldnt become citizensCouldnt voteSegregation of schoolsChinese Exclusion Act 1882

  • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882Limited Chinese immigrationWas intended to keep out workers that would compete against white workersBanned entry of all Chinese exceptStudentsTeachersMerchants (Like Fong See)TouristsGovernment OfficialsView Chinese Immigrants @

  • Japanese Immigration1884 Japanese go to Hawaii to workHawaii becomes U.S. territory 1898Migration to U.S. west coast beginsMotive: Economic OpportunityEntry: West CoastEconomic opportunity news spreads by word of mouth and Japanese immigration increases

  • Gentlemans AgreementSan Francisco, California, school board were segregating Asian childrenCaused Anti-American riots in JapanTheodore Roosevelt negotiated a compromiseSan Francisco school board withdrew segregation orderJapan agreed to limited emigration to the U.S.They would no longer issue passports to the U.S. and the U.S. would not accept anyone from Japan without a passport.

  • Immigration from the West IndiesWest IndiesJamaicaCubaPuerto RicoMotive: Economic opportunity and Poverty in the islandsEntry: Southeast

  • Immigration from MexicoAcquisition of Texas and Mexican lands in the Southwest helped many Mexicans become U.S. citizens without moving from their homesMotives for others:Economic OpportunitiesRailroadsFarm workFleeing war and political problems in MexicoEntry: Southwest

  • A Difficult JourneySteamshipAtlantic Ocean - 7 to 10 daysPacific Ocean - 3 WeeksMany immigrants traveled in steerage or the cargo holdsCramped, dark, dirty, stagnant air, louse-infested bunks, few toilets, wide-spread disease, barrack-like sleeping quarters

  • Ellis Island Immigration Station1892-1954More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis IslandAt Peak 11,000 a day5 Hours or more to process immigrantNew York HarborInspectionMedical ExaminationLegal ExaminationLiteracy TestProve ability to workHave at least $25

    Virtual Tour:


  • Watch Ellis Island VideosWatch various video clips about Ellis Island @ including the following:

    Arrival at Ellis Island

    Other links

  • Angel Island Immigration StationSan Francisco BayVery poor conditionsAsians held for monthsDeportationWhy do you think the conditions were more harsh than Ellis Island?Angel Island: Ellis Island of the West @

  • Culture ShockConfusion and anxiety resulting from immersion in a culture that is very different than your ownSome immigrants taken advantage of by con-men, pick-pockets, and thievesHad to find place to live, place to workLive in a world and not understand the language or customsView New Immigrants @

  • Dealing with Culture ShockSought out people like themselves leading to development of ETHNIC COMMUNITIESChinatownLittle Italy*Shared Language Ethnic newspapers*Shared Religion Neighborhood churches and synagogues built*Shared Cultural Values Social Clubs*Aid Societies*Orphanages, Old Folks Homes, Cemeteries

  • Problems with AssimilationImmigrants wanted to be American but at the same time wanted to retain their own culture.Led to hyphenated AmericansMade it difficult to fit into American SocietyNative-born Americans grew to resent and dislike immigrantsReaction to Immigration @

  • Melting Pot or Stewing Pot Melting Pot a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blend together by abandoning their language and customs to become one culture.Stewing Pot a mixture of people of different cultures and races who mix together, each adding their own flavor and spice to the one culture, without giving up all aspects of their home culture.

  • NativismThe overt favoritism toward native-born Americans. Dislike of immigrant groups.Believed in Anglo-Saxon superiority.Viewed new immigrants unfavorably because of religion (Catholic, Orthodox or Jewish), socioeconomic status, and appearance (ethnicity)American Protective Association Anti-CatholicColleges, business and social clubs refused to admit Jews

  • NativismWhat is the message of this cartoon?Who is the person in the lower right hand corner?Who are the people in the middle section?Who are the people in the back section?

  • The Role of the United StatesWhat is the message of this cartoon?

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