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Immigrants & urbanization

Jun 20, 2015





2. SSUSH12 The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth. a.Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America. SSUSH13 The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era. b. Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements. 3. CAUSES OF IMMIGRATION: PUSH V. PULL FACTORS Push_____ Famine Lack of opportunity Racial, religious, political persecution Compulsory military service Pull____ Economic opportunity industrialization created jobs Freedom from persecution RR advertisements Legislation Contract Labor Law 4. THROUGH THE GOLDEN DOOR Many immigrants came to American in hopes of having a better life; some wanted to come to stay, others wanted to come only for a short while, and then return home Roughly 20 million Europeans emigrated to the US b/t 18701920. Most were from Western and Northern Europe Many left their homeland b/c of religious persecution (Jews) Some left b/c of rising populations in their homelandsno opportunities to better their lives 5. NATIVISM A political movement seeking to guarantee better treatment for native-born Americans. The American Protective Associationcalled for the teaching of American culture and English-only instruction in schools. Fought for the Chinese Exclusion act Supported forced literacy tests for immigrants. The biggest targets were immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Asia. 6. IMMIGRANTS Chinese and Japanese immigrants came to the west coast b/t 18511883. Nearly 300,000 Chinese arrived and settled in California during the gold rush Chinese immigrants helped build the nations RR lines Once the RR was complete, they turned to farming out west The US annexation of Hawaii in 1898 resulted in massive Japanese immigration to the west coast About 260,000 immigrants from the West Indies came to the east coast by 1920 About 700,000 Mexicans emigrated to the US by 1910 7. Steerage Accommodations 8. ELLIS ISLAND Nearly all immigrants traveled by steamship to the US; they stayed in the ships cargo holds, and were not allowed to come up to the ships deck Disease spread quickly on these trips due to the lack of sanitation Once they arrived in the US, many did not know whether they would be admitted into the country Immigrants on the east coast had to go through Ellis Island, NY for inspection before being allowed in the US Physical exam Documents to determine legal status (no felony, ability to work, at least $25) 9. Ellis Island, 1905 10. ELLIS ISLAND, NY 11. Ellis Island Processing Facilities 12. Rejected Ellis Island immigrants, waiting for deportation 13. An immigrant in quarantine 14. IMMIGRATION BY NUMBERS, 1865-1920 1865-1890 (First Wave) Germany2.8 million Great Britain1.8 million Ireland1.4 million 1890-1920 (Second Wave) Italy3.8 million Russia3 million Millions more from eastern Europe, Greece, Armenia and Middle East. 15. ANGEL ISLAND While European immigrant had to go through Ellis Island, NY; Asian immigrants had to pass through Angel Island in San Francisco, California Conditions in Angel Island were much worse than Ellis Islandmany more were denied entrance into the US Once in America, immigrants sought out people within their culture so they would understand the language/ customs, even though they were in America Large urban cities had individual communities within them; Chinatown, Little Italy, Russia, Irish, etc. were common in NY, Boston, San Francisco Many native born Americans felt threatened by so many immigrants in the US 16. ANGEL ISLAND, CA 17. IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS Native born Americans felt as if the country was a melting potmixture of people of different cultures blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs. However, many immigrants refused to abandon their culture strong anti-immigrant feelings began to emerge Nativism overt favoritism toward native-born Americans began to evolve during the early 1900s Nativists believed that Anglo-Saxons were superior to other ethnic groups, and favored immigrants from right countries like Britain, Germany, & Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Finland). Nativists disliked those from wrong ethic blood like Slavic, Latin, and Asian Many Nativists also felt religious beliefs of immigrants was important; Jews and Roman Catholics would undermine the traditional Protestant faith of the US 18. ANTI-ASIAN SENTIMENT People in the west feared that jobs would be given to the Chinese, who would work for less money than native born Americans Sound familiar? In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned the Chinese from entering the US unless they were students, teachers, merchants, tourists, or govt officials. The law was not repealed until 1943 In 1906, the school board in San Francisco segregated Japanese students, which caused them to protest the city President Teddy Roosevelt worked out a Gentlemens Agreement in 1908 w/ Japans govt to stop letting unskilled workers emigrate to the US, in exchange for a repeal of the school segregation law 19. REFORMERS MOBILIZE The Social Gospel movement preached salvation through good deeds and services to the poor Many established settlement houses, which were community centers in slum neighborhoods that gave assistance & education to those in need (especially immigrants) Jane Addams (the mother of Social Work) founded Chicagos Hull House in 1889 20. URBANIZATION 21. THE CHALLENGE OF THE CITIES Between 1880 and 1920, 11 million Americans left farms for the cities Driven by drought, floods, falling prices, new opportunities, discrimination. 1880-1910population on farms falls from 72% to 54% This mass migration created modern city life. The Home Insurance Building 22. HOW CITIES GREW Suburbs developed for middle class, live near, not in a city Subways, trains, trolleys, and cars Steel allows for skyscrapers 23. URBAN LIVING CONDITIONS Most workers live in company housing or tenements (cheap apartments). Poverty, overcrowding, neglect, open sewers, and vermin become common. Hundreds crammed into spaces built for a few families. In NYC, 6 in 10 babies died before their first birthday. Fires often destroyed dozens of city blocks (Great Chicago Fire18,000 buildings burned). Many neighborhoods become Ghettos, dominated by one particular ethnic group. Aftermath of the Great Chicago Fire 24. JACOB RIIS Worked as a police reporter on New Yorks Lower East Side in 1873 Wrote a book called How the Other Half Lives, which exposed the lives of tenement dwellers. The book shocked the American public into supporting reform of the tenements. However, wealthy families continue to flee to the suburbs, making cities concentrations of urban poor. 25. New York City, 1867 26. Wall Street, 1870 27. Hells Kitchen, Manhattan 28. Five Points, Manhattan (now demolished) 29. A Flophouse 30. A Tenements Exterior 31. A Tenements Interior 32. Bandits Roost, Greenwich Village 33. Basement Dweller 34. Mulberry Street, Manhattan 35. URBAN PROBLEMS Housing Transportation Water Sanitation Crime Fire Many immigrants had to live in tenements Horrible living conditions! Mass transit made getting around in large cities easy Street cars in SanFran Subways in Boston, NY Fresh water was difficult to provide to residents in large cities Fresh water had to be gathered from the street, then boiled to be safe Everything was thrown into the streets Garbage Sewage Factory waste Pickpocket Thieves 1844 NYC had 1st full time salaried police force The lack of water made fires difficult to contain Cincinnati had 1st fire dept. 36. 200 YEARS OF PROGRESS 37. NEW FORMS OF ENTERTAINMENT Men go to saloons, women to dance halls and cabarets Amusement parks Nickelodeons Vaudeville Sports Baseball Women participate in sports Bicycling Fad Newspapers Yellow Journalism William Randolph Hearst 38. MAGAZINES AND POPULAR FICTION Magazines like Cosmopolitan Horatio Alger Fictional Character Rags to riches stories Samuel Clemens (a.k.a. Mark Twain) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

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