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Antebellum Slavery

Jan 03, 2016

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Antebellum Slavery. Chapter 6 Life in the Cotton Kingdom. What does Antebellum mean?. A period of time before a war, usually refers to the American Civil War. 1820 – 1861 (start of Civil War) for reference purposes only. Section 1: The Expansion of Slavery. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Antebellum Slavery

Chapter 6Life in the Cotton KingdomWhat does Antebellum mean?A period of time before a war, usually refers to the American Civil War.

1820 1861 (start of Civil War) for reference purposes onlySection 1: The Expansion of SlaveryInvention of cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793Led to rapid expansion of slavery need land!Slave population increased tremendously, 1790-1860Grew fastest in Alabama and MississippiU.S. Slave Population, 1820 and 1860

Slave Population, 18201860Map 62. Slavery spread southwestward from the upper South and the eastern seaboard following the spread of cotton cultivation.

Source: Sam Bowers Hilliard, Atlas of Antebellum Southern Agriculture (Louisiana State University Press, 1984), pp. 2934.Cotton Production in the South, 18201860Map 61. Cotton production expanded westward between 1820 and 1860 into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and western Tennessee.Source: Sam Bowers Hilliard, Atlas of Antebellum Southern Agriculture (Louisiana State University Press, 1984) pp. 6771.

Ownership: Slaves in the Old SouthSlavery unevenly distributed think about the statistics from yesterday!

25% of white families owned slaves by 1860Nearly half of slaveholders owned fewer than five1% owned more than fifty slaves

Slave-Owning Population (1860)

Black SlaveholdersThere were Black Slaveholders, because . . .

They did it to protect families from sale and disruption.Not very popular. In 1830, only 2% of free blacks owned slaves.Section 2: Slave Labor in AgricultureSlaves in the South55% cultivated cotton (field slaves)20% grew tobacco or produced sugar, rice, hemp (field slaves)15% domestic servants10% trades and industries

An engraving dating from about 1860, slaves harvest cotton under white supervision on a southern plantation.Source: The Granger Collection, NY Section 3: Other Types of Slave Labor25% of all slaves did non-agricultural dutiesHouse slaves ~ elite slaves (cooks, maids, nurses, butlers, gardeners

+ Less physically demanding+ Better food and clothing

- Grueling to work in 19th century kitchens (Belle)- Constantly under white supervision

Photograph by L.D. Andrew, 1936, from a vintage photograph taken ca. 1880 - Georgia)http://www.gwu.edu/~folklife/bighouse/panel9.html

Domestic Slave with Planter's Family," Virginia, ca. 1859-64

http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/slavery/details.php?categorynum=9&categoryName=Domestic%20Servants%20and%20Free%20People%20of%20Color&theRecord=10&recordCount=56;Section 3: Other Types of Slave LaborSkilled craftsmen ~ more elite than house slaves and included carpenters, blacksmiths, and millwrights

+ Could travel for supplies and gave a taste of freedom+ Could be hired out (work for $$)Urban SlaveryWere the immigrants of the SouthJobs include: domestics, washwomen, stevedores, general laborers + Interacted with free black community+ Had opportunities to hire out ($$)Young African-American Stevedore Loading Cotton onto a Steamboat at New Orleans, 1800shttp://www.art.com/products/p14385227-sa-i3032613/young-african-american-stevedore-loading-cotton-onto-a-steamboat-at-new-orleans-1800s.htm?sorig=0

Industrial SlaveryJobs included textile mills, iron working, lumber industryMost industrialist in the South hired slaves

+ Greater autonomy+ Could provide path to freedomWhy did slavery expand in the cotton kingdom?

How was the slave population distributed across the South?

Why did a small number of free blacks purchase slaves?

What types of crops did slaves cultivate in the South?

What type of jobs/labor was performed by the slaves in the South?PunishmentPhysical (Corporal) PunishmentSupported in the BibleEssential to keep the paternalistic character of slaveryKept individual slaves under controlUsed as an example to other slaves to keep control Caused other slaves to work together and protect one anotherLouisiana Slave Displays ScarsIn this 1863 photograph a former Louisiana slave displays the scars that resulted from repeated whippings. Although this degree of scarring is exceptional, few slaves were able to avoid being whipped at least once in their lives.

Source: National Archives and Records Administration The Domestic Slave TradeThe Cotton Kingdom expands to the South and WestUpper South sells excess slaves to Lower South50% of Upper South slaves traded during Antebellum PeriodMany feared being sold down river many slaves in Chesapeake Region escapedA Black Father Being Sold Away from His FamilyThis woodcut of a black father being sold away from his family appeared in The Childs Anti-Slavery Book in 1860. Family ruptures, like the one shown, were among the more common and tragic aspects of slavery, especially in the upper South, where masters claimed slavery was mild. Source: Courtesy of the Library of Congress

The Domestic Slave TradeTraders operated slave prisons or slave pensWashington DC (one of the largest and near the US Capitol)!!!Slaves were chained or roped together and then walked on foot in cofflesSlave Pen in Alexandria, VA (1860-1861)

Slave Pen in Alexandria, VA (1860-1861)

A Slave CoffleBefore 1850 Washington, D.C. was a major depot in the domestic (or interstate) slave trade. This woodcut portrays a slave cofflea group of slaves bound togetherpassing the Capitol Building in about 1815.Source: Courtesy of the Library of Congress

Slave Block Where Auctioned Off, New Orleans (18)

The Domestic Slave TradeThis business was opposite of the claim that slavery was a benign institutionDescription often used by slaveholders Section 3 Essential Questions

Why was physical punishment so widely used by slaveholders?

What was the domestic slave trade?Section 5: The Socialization of SlavesSurviving SlaveryUsed folk tales (Brer Rabbit) to teach children how to conduct themselvesLearned to watch what they said around whitesLearned not to talk backLearned to camouflage their feelingsTurned toward religionReligionHelped in copingMid-19th century most slaves ProtestantBiracial Baptist and Methodist churchesRacially segregated seatingShared cemeteries and joined together in communionPlantation churches told slaves Servants obey your mastersPreferred semi-secret black churchMoses and deliveranceEmotionalPlantation BurialBritish artist John Antrobus completed this painting in about 1860. It is named Plantation Burial and suggests the importance of religion among enslaved African Americans. Source: John Antrobus, Plantation Burial, oil painting, The Historical New Orleans Collection. 1960.46

Section 5 Essential Questions

How did African Americans adapt to life under slavery?