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Slavery in America From Colonial America to Antebellum U.S

Dec 22, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Slavery in America From Colonial America to Antebellum U.S.
  • Slide 2
  • Earlier Forms of Slavery Slavery existed in many places and forms throughout human history: Greeks, Romans, Slavs, Muslims, Africans, Europeans Differed from place to place, time to time Majority of slaves before Atlantic Slave Trade: Slaves captured in wars (POWs) Payment for debts (could sell self into slavery) Usually temporary situation, at least generationally (status of slave not inherited from parents) Ways of gaining status for some slaves (some social mobility) African slavery existed before Atlantic Slave Trade POWs, agricultural work, some soldiers, some gained high status Most were of low status or debtors Could marry non-slaves, children were free
  • Slide 3
  • Environmental And Geographical Variety of Africa
  • Slide 4
  • Spread of Islam in Africa up to Middle Ages
  • Slide 5
  • Trade Across the Sahara Trade brought west African societies into contact with Berbers, Arabs, other African tribes The importance of camels necessary to cross desert Huge camel caravans to west Africa West African rulers and kingdoms converted to Islam: used Islamic law, institutions, and writing Link to Trade and Spread of Islam in Africa (Art) Link
  • Slide 6
  • Islam & Slave Trade Muslim demand for slaves of all races: not religious, for political power and wealth Variety of uses for African slaves: for household, military, and labor Different than Atlantic slave trade which was racially- and plantation-based Slave caravans from west Africa across Sahara Muslims also traded in slaves from east Africa coastal ports on Red Sea and Indian Ocean carried slaves from African interior
  • Slide 7
  • Empires of Medieval Africa
  • Slide 8
  • West African Kingdoms: Ghana Ghana land of gold Strong kingdom before Islam Controlled trade of gold & salt Berber traders converted elite to Islam Then Berbers adopted militant form of Islam followers were called Almoravids Conquered Spain, converted Ghanaians Art of the Almoravid Period Trans-Saharan Gold Trade
  • Slide 9
  • West African Kingdoms: Mali Mali (1200-1450 CE) Mandinke People Successor to state of Ghana Upper Niger River Good agriculture & lots of rainfall Strong Rulers: Sundiata, Mansa Uli, Mansa Musa MM Pilgrimage to Mecca 1324 CE Very rich & powerful visited kings of other nations Timbuktu became center of learning & culture (p. 134) Mosque in Djenne (Mali)
  • Slide 10
  • Empire of Mali (1200-1450 CE)
  • Slide 11
  • Ife West African Bronzes 12 th -15 th -century CE Symbols of power and religion Connection with spirit world Power of kings To reach spirits Over people Link to images Link Link to videos
  • Slide 12
  • Effects of trade on West Africa Connections to other cultures Spread of Islam Slave trade Growth of African merchant class and cities Consolidation of kingdoms to control trade Power used to control trade and people: enslaved non-Muslims and unprotected Example, Ife bronzes: show kings AND captives
  • Slide 13
  • European Exploration & Labor Systems Colonization & Empires based on exploitation of native and African populations Spanish system = encomienda labor system = mining and agriculture by natives (slaves/serfs) Portuguese, French, and English = enslavement of Africans Creation of plantations in Caribbean, No. and So. Americas to grow staple crops: sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton Racial system of slavery eventually developed Europeans rationalized only blacks could be slaves
  • Slide 14
  • Slave trade transported slaves throughout Atlantic World majority of slaves outside U.S.
  • Slide 15
  • Slide 16
  • Atlantic Slave Trade Europeans tapped into existing slave trade in Africa Atlantic slave trade increased demand for slaves exponentially Atlantic demand dramatically intensified and expanded slave trade within Africa Slave trade greatly affected African societies Increase power of kings and elites Created new trader elite on coast multilingual, multi-ethnic, married Europeans, mixed-race children Affected political boundaries and states Led to increased warfare and slave raids, conducted with Euro. guns Created thousands of refugees Created African dependence on foreign goods, preventing indigenous economic development still seen today
  • Slide 17
  • Slavery and Industry Often people think of slavery and industrialization as two separate processes But there are major links and connections: Time periods Goods Methods of production Machinery Methods of labor control Emphases on efficiency and productivity European middle classes involved in both: merchants, bankers, shipping, plantation owners Slavery and industrialization connected in major ways reinforced each other, affected the development of each other
  • Slide 18
  • Slave Captives Slaves were usually captured by African slave raiders In early years of Atlantic trade, kings or traders sold slaves that were on hand As trade deepened and expanded, demand for slaves increased, and raiders had to go further into the interior for supplies of slaves Usually went up one of the major rivers in canoes Raided villages Link to clip of slave capture from the film Amistad Link Raiders took slaves to coastal forts or factories run by Africans or mixed-race trading families Slaves were usually kept in pens on the beach Many slaves died en route to forts and on beaches before ever setting sail for the Americas
  • Slide 19
  • African Slave Factory on African Coast
  • Slide 20
  • West African Slave Fort or Factory
  • Slide 21
  • Tools of the African Slave Trade
  • Slide 22
  • Slave Fort and Boats
  • Slide 23
  • Slave Fort, Ghana, 1973
  • Slide 24
  • Slave Ship Middle Passage: efficient and controlled transportation of goods AND murderous enslavement and exploitation of fellow humans
  • Slide 25
  • Below-decks of Slave Ship, 1845
  • Slide 26
  • Atlantic Slave Trade, 1701- 1810
  • Slide 27
  • Cuban Sugar Mill Slavery and Industry: use of new technologies, machinery, labor control for more efficient production of consumer goods
  • Slide 28
  • Sugar Plantation
  • Slide 29
  • Sugar Mill
  • Slide 30
  • The Merchant Ship: Industrial? A factory at sea Discipline Control Hierarchy Economic profit Engaged in Atlantic trade
  • Slide 31
  • Consumption, Production, Finance Relationships between new forms of industry and new forms of consumption New forms of popular consumption fueled and reinforced the development of industrial production slave and free New forms of banking, finance, insurance to fund and secure Atlantic trade Examples: sugar plantations, rum, coffee, tea, tobacco, cotton Conclusion: most inhabitants of the Atlantic world were connected to slave systems in some way not equal ways, of course
  • Slide 32
  • The Coffee House: meeting place, banking, dealing, consumption
  • Slide 33
  • New Forms of Consumption Cheap sugar, textiles, guns, rum Not just for royalty anymore Growing middle-class conspicuous consumption: Cakes, sugary treats, for example But also working-class consumption Coffee houses places to talk politics Sugar cheap calories for factory workers Cheap goods for Atlantic Trade New consumption patterns tightened relationships, both positive and negative
  • Slide 34
  • North American Slavery Distinctions: General differences between North American and Caribbean/South American slavery Differences by size of plantation By region northern slavery, upper vs. lower south, western slavery By crop tobacco, rice, sugar, coffee, cotton Changes over time (for example, after Am. Revolution; after end of Atlantic slave trade; after LA Purchase) Link to clip on slavery in the Carolinas (from the PBS series, Slavery and the Making of America (2005) Link
  • Slide 35
  • Slaves in the Original Thirteen Colonies (1750-1860)
  • Slide 36
  • Slaves as Percentage of Southern Population (1750-1860)
  • Slide 37
  • Slaves as Percentage of Southern Population (1750-1860
  • Slide 38
  • Pirates What do pirates represent? Blackbeard the Pirate Link Link to National Geographic article on Blackbeards ship, recent archaeological work on the underwater wreck
  • Slide 39
  • Blackbeard and North Carolina Blackbeard hijacked French slave ship La Concorde off Caribbean island of Martinique; set slaves free Ship had been used for at least 3 slaving voyages, around 500 slaves each 61 died on Middle Passage on last voyage 16 crew members also died Blackbeard plundered ships in triangle and Atlantic/Caribbean trade
  • Slide 40
  • Atlantic Resistance to Power? At their most radical: Pirates represented rare form of interracial lower-class solidarity Whites, blacks, and people from all over the Atlantic fought Atlantic industrial and slave systems together But.white resistance to power, authority, and exploitation usually took other forms: Problem of racism - usually divided white working-class fro