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Slavery in the Antebellum South 1820 - 1860

Feb 23, 2016

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Slavery in the Antebellum South 1820 - 1860. What IS slavery ? How would YOU define “ slave ” - ???. I. What IS slavery ? How would YOU define “ slave ” - ???. In U.S. history, we understand SLAVE to mean …. A person who is the property of another person - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Small Group Discussion QuestionsWhat is slavery? When did slavery begin in America?

How did slavery in the antebellum period differ from slavery in the early colonies?

How did the cotton gin affect the Southern economy?What effect did this have on slavery?

In U.S. history, we understand SLAVE to mean A person who is the property of another person

A person who is entirely under the control/domination of another person

A person with no legal rights or protectionsWhat IS slavery? How would YOU define slave - ???2These first 20 Africans were not made to be slaves by the Jamestown colonists they became indentured servants, NOT slavesUnfortunately, the idea of slavery in Virginia evolved/grew gradually, beginning slowly & eventually leading to life long enslavementHow/when did slavery start in colonial America?

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1619: Arrival of "20 and Odd" Blacks aboard an English pirate ship, under the Dutch flag. Were sold/traded into servitude for supplies. 1630's: it was considered "customary practice to hold some Negroes in a form of life service some blacks were able to hold on to their status of being indentured servants, thus, eventually gaining their freedom. 1639: All persons except Negroes are to be with Arms and Ammunition. 1640: John Punch, a runaway indentured Servant, first documented slave for life.1662: Slavery was recognized in the statutory law of the colony. Legislation was passed defining the status of mulatto children (black and white). Children would be considered the same status as the mother. If the child was born to a slave, the child would be considered a slave. 1667: Baptism does not bring freedom. Until the General Assembly outlawed it, baptism could be the grounds for a black slave to obtain his/her freedom. It was considered for a period of time that it was not proper for a Christian to enslave a fellow Christian. 1670: Blacks or Indians could no longer own white indentured servants. 1680: An act was passed preventing insurrections among slaves. Blacks could not congregate in large numbers for supposed funeral or feasts. Blacks must also obtain written authorization to leave a plantation at any given time. They could not remain at another plantation longer than 4 hours. 1691: First act prohibiting intermarriage. No Negro or Mulatto may be set free by any person unless they pay for the transportation out of the colony within six months or forfeit ten pounds of sterling so that the church wardens might have the Negro transported. 1692 Negroes must give up ownership of horses, cattle or hogs. Separate courts for the trial of slaves charged with a capital crime, thus depriving them of the right of a trial by jury. 1705: Slave codes written into law 6

Emancipation in the North7

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12Cotton is measured in BALES

A bale is COMPRESSED cotton. If interested, add pic of methods used to form bales.13How many more BALES of cotton were produced in 1860 compared to 1800?

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Where is cotton production thriving?15ENSLAVED-PERSON POPULATIONCOTTON PRODUCTION

16Northern FactoriesEuropean MarketsWhat is the Souths COTTON KINGDOM doing once they harvest all this cotton? Who is buying cotton?17

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19Day 2Describe the images below:Who do you think they are?What are they doing?

#1#2Slavery not solely a matter of color

What did slavery look like in America?

Not only what did it look like WHAT was it LIKE?23

"the [groups of slaves are] marched close to a fire previously kindled on the beach. Here marking-irons (aka branding-irons) are heated, and when an iron is sufficiently hot, it is quickly dipped in palm-oil, in order to prevent its sticking to the flesh. It is then applied to the ribs or hip, and sometimes even to the breast. Each slave-dealer uses his own mark, so that when the [slaves] arrive at their destination, it is [easy to tell] to whom those who died belonged" (Travels in Western Africa in 1845 & 1846 [London, 1847; reprinted London, 1968], vol. I, p. 143)."the [groups of slaves are] marched close to a fire previously kindled on the beach. Here marking-irons (aka branding-irons) are heated, and when an iron is sufficiently hot, it is quickly dipped in palm-oil, in order to prevent its sticking to the flesh. It is then applied to the ribs or hip, and sometimes even to the breast. Each slave-dealer uses his own mark, so that when the [slaves] arrive at their destination, it is [easy to tell] to whom those who died belonged" (Travels in Western Africa in 1845 & 1846 [London, 1847; reprinted London, 1968], vol. I, p. 143).

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What did slavery look like in America?Not only what did it look like WHAT was it LIKE?25

"the [groups of slaves are] marched close to a fire previously kindled on the beach. Here marking-irons (aka branding-irons) are heated, and when an iron is sufficiently hot, it is quickly dipped in palm-oil, in order to prevent its sticking to the flesh. It is then applied to the ribs or hip, and sometimes even to the breast. Each slave-dealer uses his own mark, so that when the [slaves] arrive at their destination, it is [easy to tell] to whom those who died belonged" (Travels in Western Africa in 1845 & 1846 [London, 1847; reprinted London, 1968], vol. I, p. 143).One of the slave's greatest fears was to be sold off and separated from loved ones. According to Mortimer Thomson, a newspaper correspondent who covered the Butler sale, "The expression on the faces of all who stepped on the block was always the same, and told of more anguish than it is in the power of words to express."26Slave Auction Notice, 1823

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Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856

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What do you notice about this picture? What catches your attention?!29What did slavery look like in America?

Not only what did it look like WHAT was it LIKE?30

"the [groups of slaves are] marched close to a fire previously kindled on the beach. Here marking-irons (aka branding-irons) are heated, and when an iron is sufficiently hot, it is quickly dipped in palm-oil, in order to prevent its sticking to the flesh. It is then applied to the ribs or hip, and sometimes even to the breast. Each slave-dealer uses his own mark, so that when the [slaves] arrive at their destination, it is [easy to tell] to whom those who died belonged" (Travels in Western Africa in 1845 & 1846 [London, 1847; reprinted London, 1968], vol. I, p. 143).This is a photo of a SLAVE PEN, located in Alexandria, Virginia. The photo shows a doorway with barred gate opening to courtyard, pens are visible to right. Two of the six pen doors are open.

The domestic slave trade transported 100s of thousands of slaves from the upper south to the Cotton Kingdom culminating in the internal sale & transportation of 250,000 enslaved people in 1860, from the upper south to the deep south where slave labor was in high demand.

Library of Congress - http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpb.01468/ *&*http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpb.01470/31Constant threat of physical violence

Constant threat of splitting apart families &/or harming a persons family/friends if he/she misbehaved

laws called SLAVE CODES designed to limit the power of African AmericansHow did the Antebellum South manage to control 4,000,000 enslaved people?32

Iron Mask, Collar, Leg Shackles and Spurs Used to Restrain Slaves. Illustration in The Penitential Tyrant / Thomas Branagan, New York. Printed by Samuel Wood, no. 362, Pearl Street, 180733

5 generations, contrasted w/Fred Douglas knowing no father, seeing his mother but 5 times in his life 34

This slave quarter complex was located on a plantation near Bunkie, Louisiana. In the background is a large sugar house. There is only a low wooden fence surrounding these slave quarters.

"Negro family representing five generations on Smith's Plantation, Beaufort, S.C." A group portrait of ten slaves in front of the doorway to their quarters. Photograph by Timothy O'Sullivan. 35SLAVE CODES laws meant to keep African-Americans powerless, & to prevent slaves from running away &/or rebellingSlave Codes made it illegal for enslaved people to

Learn how to read. Gather in groups of more than two. Own or carry guns. Have their children born free. Marry a white person. Testify in court. Lift a hand against a white person, even in self-defense Charge slave owners with a crime, even if they killed their own slaves. Visit other plantations, or leave their plantation without written permission. 36How did people RESIST, & Fight Back?

37They kept HOPE; they kept religionS of Africa & mixed them with Christianity.

38Music - Spirituals

39They Ran-away

40 & some came back again & again, to rescue more people from the horrors of slavery.

41Some not only escaped, but then Dedicated their lives to speaking out & Writing Books about the horrors of slavery

42They did everything they could to hold onto their families.

43Some slaves planted fields during the day & sabotaged plantations during the night setting fires, uprooting plants, breaking tools

44Violence Nat Turner, Gabriel Prosser, John brownhttp://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/081_cwaf7.html

45What is an additional question you have about slavery?46Monticello reunion

Betty and Phoebe Kilby first met in February 2007. They are linked by a slave past.

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