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PART ONE: SLAVERY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA. A:SLAVERY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1818: The year of the birth of Frederick Douglass, slavery was already an old

Mar 26, 2015

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PART ONE: SLAVERY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA Slide 2 A:SLAVERY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1818: The year of the birth of Frederick Douglass, slavery was already an old institution in America. Two centuries had passed since the first 20 Africans landed in Virginia from a Dutch ship. After the abolition of slavery in the North, slavery had become the peculiar institution of the South that is, an institution unique to Southern society. Slide 3 SLAVERY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA Despite the hopes of some of the Founding Fathers that slavery might die out, in fact the institution survived the crisis of the American Revolution and rapidly expanded westward. On the eve of the Civil War, the slave population had risen to 4 million, its rate of natural increase more than making up for the prohibition in 1808 of further slave imports from Africa. Slide 4 SLAVERY IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA In the South as a whole, slaves made up 1/3 of the total population and in the cotton producing states of the Deep South about . 1850: Slavery had crossed the Mississippi River and was expanding rapidly in AK, LA, and eastern TX. 1860: 1/3 of the nations cotton crop was grown west of the Mississippi River. Slide 5 COTTON IS KING The Old South was the largest and most powerful slave society the modern world has known. Its strength rested on a virtual monopoly of cotton, the Souths white gold. By the 19 th century, cotton had assumed an unprecedented role in the world economy. Slide 6 COTTON IS KING About of the worlds cotton supply came from the Southern USA. 1830: Cotton had become the most important American export. On the eve of the Civil War, it represented well over the total of American exports. 1860: The economic investment represented by the slave population exceeded the value of the nations factories, railroads, and banks combined. Slide 7 B: SLAVERY AND THE NATION 1816: Henry Clay stated Slavery forms an exception to the general liberty prevailing in the United States But Clay, like many of his contemporaries, underestimated slaverys impact in the entire nation. Slide 8 SLAVERY AND THE NATION The free states had ended slavery, but they were hardly unaffected by it. The Constitution enhanced the power of the South in the House of Representatives and Electoral College and required all states to return fugitive slaves from bondage (3/5 Compromise/Fugitive Slave Clause) Slide 9 SLAVERY AND THE NATION Slavery shaped the lives of all Americans, white as well as black. It helped determine where they lived, how they worked, and under what conditions they could exercise their freedom of speech, assembly, and press. Slide 10 SLAVERY AND THE NATION Northern merchants and manufacturers participated in the slave economy and shared in the profits. Money earned in the cotton/slave trade helped finance industrial development in the North.. Northern ships carried cotton to NY and Europe, northern bankers financed cotton plantations, north companies insured slave property, and northern factories turned cotton into cloth. Northern manufacturers supplied cheap fabrics (Negro cloth) to clothe the Souths slaves. Slide 11 SLAVERY AND THE NATION Slavery led the South down a very different path of economic development than the North, limiting the growth of industry, discouraging immigrants from entering the region, and inhibiting technological progress. Southern banks existed primarily to help finance the plantations. Slide 12 SLAVERY AND THE NATION Southern railroads mostly consisted of small lines that brought cotton from the interior to coastal ports. The South produced less than 10% of the nations manufactured goods. Yet the Souths economy was hardly stagnant, and slavery proved very profitable for most owners. Slide 13 SLAVERY AND THE NATION Slaverys economic centrality for the South and the nation as a whole formed a powerful obstacle to abolition. Senator James Henry Hammond of SC declared, No power on earth dares to make war upon it. Cotton is king. Slide 14 C: THE OLD SOUTH: SOME GENERALIZATIONS Slide 15 THE OLD SOUTH: SOME GENERALIZATIONS The further North, the cooler the climate, the fewer the slaves and the lower commitment to maintaining slavery. The further south, the warmer the climate, the more slaves, and the higher commitment to maintaining slavery. Slide 16 THE OLD SOUTH: SOME GENERALIZATIONS Mountain whites along the Appalachian Mountains would mostly side with the Union during the Civil War WV, east TN, northeast KY, west SC, northern GA and northern AL. Slide 17 THE OLD SOUTH: SOME GENERALIZTIONS The southward flow of slaves (from sales) continued from 1790 to 1860. There was not a unified South except for resistance to outside interference (federal government). Slide 18 D: REGIONS OF THE SOUTH Slide 19 THE BORDER STATES The Border States were: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. Plantations were scare; cotton cultivation almost nonexistent; Tobacco was the main cash crop. Unionists would overcome the Secessionists during and after the Civil War. Slide 20 THE BORDER STATES 1850: Slaves accounted for 17% of the population of the Border States. There was an average of 5 slaves per slaveholder. 22% of white families owned slaves. 1850: Over 21% of Border State blacks were free. Overall in the South 46% of blacks were free. Produced over 50% of Souths industrial products. Slide 21 THE MIDDLE SOUTH The Middle South: VA, NC, TN, and AK. Each state had one section resembling the Border States and another resembling the Lower South. Some industrial production used slave labor. Unionists prevailed before the War; Secessionists prevailed after War began. Slide 22 THE MIDDLE SOUTH There were many plantations in eastern VA and western TN. 1850: Slaves accounted for 30% of the population of the Middle South. There was an average of 8 slaves per slaveholder. 36% of white families owned slaves. Slide 23 THE LOWER SOUTH The Lower South: SC, FL, GA, AL, MS, LA, and TX. Most slaves were located in the cotton belt or black belt of the Deep South. Plantations were prevalent. Cotton was king. Produced 95% of Souths cotton and almost all of its sugar, rice, and indigo crops. Slide 24 THE LOWER SOUTH Secessionists would prevail after Lincolns election in 1860. 1850: Slaves accounted for 47% of the Lower Souths population. There was an average of 12 slaves per slaveholder. 43% of white families owned slaves. Slide 25 THE LOWER SOUTH Less than 2% of Lower Souths blacks were free. Lower South was the area where the brutality of slavery was most harsh. Slide 26 E: SOUTHERN SOCIETY Slide 27 THE PLANTER ARISTOCRACY The South was ruled politically and economically by wealthy plantation owners. 1850: Only 1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves; yet they dominated Southern politics. The South was the least democratic region of the country. Slide 28 THE PLANTER ARISTOCRACY There was a huge gap between rich and poor. South had a very poor public education system thus planters sent their children to private schools. Planters carried on the cavalier tradition of early VA. Planters: a landed genteel class Slide 29 THE SOUTHERN WHITE MAJORITY 75% of white Southerners owned no slaves. Mostly subsistence farmers and did not participate in the market economy. Poorest were called white trash, hillbillies, or crackers. Fiercely defended the slave system as it proved white superiority. Slide 30 THE SOUTHERN WHITE MAJORITY Poor whites took comfort that they were equal to the planter class. They hoped someday to own slaves. Slavery proved effective in controlling blacks and ending slavery might result in race mixing and blacks competing with whites for jobs. Slide 31 MOUNTAIN WHITES Lived in the valleys of the Appalachian Mountain range. They were independent small farmers located far from the Cotton Kingdom. Hated wealthy planters and slaves. During the Civil War, they were Unionist. This significantly hurt the Confederacy. Slide 32 F: FREE BLACKS OF THE SOUTH By 1860: Numbered about 250,000. In the Border South, emancipation increased starting in the late 18 th century. In the Lower South, many free blacks were mulattos white father and black mother. This was evidence of the sexual intimidation and abuse by male slaveholders. Slide 33 FREE BLACKS OF THE SOUTH Some were able to buy their freedom from their labor after hours. (Task System) Some owned property. A few even owned slaves though this was very rare. Slide 34 FREE BLACKS IN THE SOUTH Faced discrimination in the South. They were prohibited from certain occupations and from testifying against whites in court. They had no political rights. They were always in danger of being forced back into slavery by slave traders. Slide 35 G: FREE BLACKS OF THE NORTH Free blacks numbered about 250,000. Some states forbade their entrance or denied them public education. Most states denied them suffrage. Slide 36 FREE BLACKS OF THE NORTH Some states segregated blacks in public facilities. They were especially hated by Irish immigrants with whom they competed with for jobs. Racist feelings often stronger in the North than in the South. Much of Northern sentiment against spread of slavery into new territories due more to intense racial prejudice than humanitarianism. Slide 37 FREE BLACKS The distinction between slave and the free is not great. Frederick Douglass Slide 38 H:THE PRO-SLAVERY IDEOLOGY In the 30 years before the outbreak of the Civil War, even as Northern criticism of the peculiar institution began to deepen, pro-slavery thought came to dominate Southern public life Fewer and fewer white Southerners shared the view, common among the Founding Fathers, that slavery was, at best, a necessary evil. Slide 39 THE PRO-SLAVERY IDEOLOGY 1837: John C. Calhoun: Many in the South once believed that slavery was a moral and political evil That folly and delusion are gone; we see it now in its true light, and regard it as the most safe and stable basis for free institutio