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Scholarly Communication & Publishing Implications for Libraries

Dec 25, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Scholarly Communication & Publishing Implications for Libraries
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  • Issues Access Formats (multiplicity) E-books, e-journals, e-etc. Digital libraries Availability Remote storage Local browsability Preservation Scholarly communication Rising costs of periodicals Role of monographs vs. periodicals in meeting information needs Open Access Use patterns Interlibrary cooperation 2
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  • What is Information Information-as-a-process: the process of being informed Information-as-knowledge: That which is imparted when someone becomes informed. Being informed is a state of knowing something. Knowledge is based on belief. A change of knowledge is a change of belief. Information-as-thing: physical objects (e.g., data or documents). 4
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  • 5 Information Life-cycle (traditional) Creation Production Retrieval, Access, Use Storage Preservation/ Archiving (of What? Planning Security
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  • 6 Information Life-cycle (digital) Creation Production Retrieval, Access, Use Storage Preservation/ Archiving (of What?
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  • Information Life Cycle Creation and dissemination of knowledge different in a digital environment Might bypass traditional publishing, dissemination, and announcement steps In some cases, information is nearly inseparable from the tools with which it is produced. 7
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  • Issues of Information Gathering Information overload- the digital information universe is expanding at a rate of six-fold per year. In 2007, for the first time data production exceeded storage ability (IDC white paper) College students- regardless of information need/purpose- rely on a small set of common resources. Little variation in frequency or order of use (PIL, 2009 report) Generally favor brevity, consensus, and currency in sources (PIL, 2009 report) 8
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  • Issues of Preservation Digital formats offer new preservation challenges- shorter shelf life, dependence on ever-changing technology Preservation of content and/or preservation of format- the feel of the information 9
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  • Scholarly Communication is the system through which research and other scholarly writings are created, evaluated for quality, disseminated to the scholarly community, and preserved for future use The system includes both formal means of communication, such as publication in peer-reviewed journals, and informal channels, such as electronic mailing lists. C&RL News (Sept. 2003), p. 526 14
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  • Scholarly Communication Five core activities 1.Fund research and communication 2.Perform research and communicate the results 3.Publish scientific and scholarly works 4.Facilitate dissemination, retrieval, and preservation 5.Study publications and apply the knowledge Economic implications of alternative publishing models. Jan 2009 available from Educause 15
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  • Scholarly Communications: Outlets Subscription or toll access publishing Open access Self-archiving/Institutional repositories Cost benefit analysis suggests that benefit of OA will outweigh costs, savings could pay for itself. 16
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  • Open Access It is content that is available on the internet and that can be accessed, read, printed, copied, searched, downloaded, or forwarded free of charge. Those who do the work should own the literature Who bears the costs? CLIR Issues (Nov.-Dec. 2004), p. 1 See Serials Review 30(4) (2004), which is a special issue on open access 18
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  • Johns Hopkins University Scholarly Communications Group http://openaccess.jhmi.edu/ Scholars and researchers both create and consume scholarly information; scholars and researchers add the true value to scholarly communication Scholarly communication has become an international, multi-billion dollar business Ongoing consolidation of the publishing industry is squeezing out competition 19
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  • (Continued) Currently, 121 North American members of the Association of Research Libraries spend a total of $765M on journal subscriptions. During the period 1986-2006, the average journal subscription price increased by more than 10% annually. Over the past 15 years, the price of research journals increased more than 200%. Due to rising prices, libraries can offer access to increasingly smaller portions of published literature. 20
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  • Open Access, Institutional Repositories, and Self-Archiving 21
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  • SPARC A worldwide alliance of research institutions, libraries, and organizations that encourages competition in the scholarly communications market. SPARC introduces new solutions to scientific journal publishing, http://www.arl.org/sparc/home/index.asp?page=0 22
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  • SPARCs Agenda Incubation of competitive alternatives to current high-priced commercial journal and digital aggregations. Implemented by publisher partnership programs and advisory services that promote competition for authors and buyers. Organic Letters (competitor to Tetrahedron Letters) Published by American Chemical Society Published over 14,000 pages of original research In 2001 beat its competitor in impact factor 23
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  • SPARCs Agenda Public advocacy of fundamental changes in the system and the culture of scholarly communication. This encompasses outreach targeted to various stakeholder groups (e.g., librarians, faculty, and editorial boards), as well as ongoing communications and public relations activities that publicize key issues and initiatives. 24
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  • Others DSpace MITs digital repository to capture, distribute, and preserve the intellectual output of MIT. arXiv Pre-print archive, esp. for publications of physics, math, and nonlinear science, etc. Offers: Free access via the Internet; Minimal editorial oversight; comments from other investigators, both supporting and opposing. 25
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  • DLIST Digital Library for Information Science and Technology, http://dlist.sir/arizona.eduhttp://dlist.sir/arizona.edu It is an Open Access Archive, a cross- institutional, interdisciplinary repository for information sciences, including Library and Information Science. Its goal is to create change among LIS faculty by encouraging self-deposit behaviors. Should I deposit my papers, presentations, articles, and add links on your personal or professional website to DLIST? YES? NO? 26
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  • DLIST Update Crashed. Exploring options and alternative The resources and metadata are fully recovered, and we hope to put them back online in a new repository soon. 12/3/09 27
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  • Institutional Respositories Institution-specific open access archives (MITs Dspace) Meant to enable collaboration, enhance access Biggest issue is buy-in/uptake by faculty Concerns over copyright Lack of time/knowledge of system Concerns over impact Responses: Mandatory self-archiving Marketing/promotion Library-assisted archiving 28
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  • OA/IR: Issues Overview AdvantagesDisadvantages/Challenges Free for users More sustainable Helps bridge the digital divide Greater access Opportunities for greater collaboration/cooperation Could increase impact factors Free to use doesnt mean free to produce Who pays? Limited uptake in some fields/schools How to create buy-in Dealing with copyright/intellectual property issues Questions of quality? 29
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  • Who controls? Publishers Peer Review Universities (e.g., control over where faculty can publish) 30
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  • Finally Libraries have always been valued for and measured by their collections. [1] Is this true today as libraries develop more services and collections are not just those physically owned? Now collaboration, consortia, etc. 1 Schmidt (2004, p. 360), from Library Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical Services 31
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  • Ethics Code of ethics (ALA) Examples: We provide the highest level of service to all library users through appropriate and usefully organized resources; equitable access; and accurate, unbiased and courteous responses to all requests We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to censor library resources 32
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  • Diversification of collectionsall (many different) perspectives Protecting confidentiality Misconduct (falsified research, plagiarism) represented in collections Office of Research Integrity http://ori.hhs.gov/html/programs/instructresource.asp 33
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  • Relevant Information Policies Information Policy: Statements, directives, laws, etc. that guide operations and set parameters involve multiple constituencies and stakeholders, with competing interests and expectations 34
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  • Intellectual Property Rights Copyright Copyright is rooted in the Constitution: Copyright assigns to the owner of a work control or exclusive rights to prohibit others from using that work in specific ways without permission and to profit from the sale or performance of the work for a fixed time