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1.0 Introduction

71.2 Problem Statement

81.3 Objectives of Study

111.4 Research Questions

121.5 Research Hypothesis

131.6 Research Methodology

141.7 Justification Of Study

141.8 Scope Of Study

171.9 Evolution Of Multimodal Transport Operation In Nigeria


2.0 Literature Review

202.1 The Concept Of Multimodal Transport Operation

212.2 Who Is A Mutimodal Transport Operator

212.3 Different Types Of M.T.O.S

222.4 A National Strategy For Multimodal Transport Development

242.5 The Multimodal Transport (Mt) Convention

262.6 Custom And Exercise Procedures

272.7 Convention On The Transport Trade Of Land Lock States 1965

292.7.1 Customs Convention On The International

Transport For Goods Under Conver Of Tir Carnets (Tir Conventions)

302.7.2 Customs Convention Containers

312.7.3 International Convention On The

Simplification And Harmonization Of Customs Procedures (The Kyoto Convention 1973).

312.8 Railways

322.9 Road Transport

332.10 Air Transportation

342.11 Sea Transportation/Coastal Services

352.11.1 Inland Waterway

362.11.2 Inland Container Deports (ICDS)

372.12 Pipelines

402.13 Information System







5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 705.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 70 5.2 CONCLUSION 71 5.3 RECOMMENDATION 72REFERECE 75 QUESTIONNAIRE 76 CHAPTER ONE1.1 INTRODUCTIONMultimodal transport (also known as combined transport) is the transportation of goods under a single contract, but performed with at least two different means of transport; the carrier is liable (in a legal sense) for the entire carriage, even though it is performed by several different modes of transport (by rail, sea and road, for example). The carrier does not have to possess all the means of transport and in practice usually does not; the carriage is often performed by sub-carriers). The carrier responsible for the entire carriage is referred to as a multimodal transport operator, or MTO.

Article1.1. of the United Nations Multimodal Convention (which has not yet, and may never enter into force) defines multimodal transport as follows: International multimodal transport means the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport on the basis of a multimodal transport contract from a place in one country at which the goods are taken in charge by the multimodal transport operator to a place Designated for delivery situated in a different country

In practice, freight forwarders have become important MTOs; they have moved away from their traditional role as agents for the sender, accepting a greater liability as carriers. Large sea carriers have also evolved into MTOs; they provide customers with so-called door-to-door service. The sea carriers offers transport from the senders premises (usually located inland) to the receivers premises (also usually situated inland), rather than offering traditional tackle to-tackle or pier-to-pier service. MTOs not in the possession of a sea vessel (even though the transport includes a sea leg) are referred to as Non-Vessel Operating Carriers (NVOC) in common law countries (especially the United States).

Multimodal transport developed in connection with the container revolution of the 1960s and 70s; as of 2011, containerized transports are by far the most important multimodal consignments. However, it is important to remember that multimodal transport is not equivalent to container transport; multimodal transport is feasible without any form of container. The MTO works on behalf of the supplier; it assures the supplier (and the buyer) that their goods will be effectively managed and supplied. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The problem facing the establishment and development of multimodal transport operator business in Nigeria are so enormous and compounding due to so many reasons which are mentioned below:

Lack of Awareness: the inability to plan on the part of the government and experts in the maritime field to educate, enlighten the public on benefits and advantages that will be derived from the concept of MTO problem and prospect of multimodal.

Lack of Feasibility Studies on existing infrastructure or development of new ones if need be. Our inland water, road, rail, and air transport should be encouraged and proper functioning of transport system should be emphasized

The absence of proper committee to harmonize the transport and trade laws. The Government of Nigeria should try to form a body or local industry to formulate regulation and try to integrate it into national legislation on modal of multimodal transport. For about three decades the Federal Ministry of Transport hand not come out with a blue print on transport not until 2003.

Inadequate enforcement of regulation on reliability of transport, safety, transit, door to door services and flexibility in mode of operation is another problem. Problem of changes in national banking laws with regards to allow received for shipment bill of landing or the use of multimodal transport document in Nigeria.

Another problem is shippers and operators do not study and understand trading patterns and trends to identify and develop new opportunities for multimodalism. Lack of introduction of Electrical Data Interchange (EDI) system in distribution chain of MTO in Nigeria is another big obstacle towards the development of MTO in Nigeria.

Insufficient Multimodal Transport handbook for official and practitioners, which would aid in formulating strategies for development of multimodal transport in West Africa is anther plight. This handbook has been prepared as a reference handbook for officials, and practioners. It sets out the basic concepts of multimodal transport, the problem and pitfalls, solutions and the major issues to be tackled by the private and public sector in the process of development multimodal transport in a country. The central objective to evaluate the strategies and specific objective are as follows:-

i. To remove barriers associated with documentation, especially customs-exercise documentation procedure.

ii. To keep pace and facilitate trade development in Nigeria and its sub-region.

iii. To formulate a policy for the development of inland infrastructure which is either non-existing or not sufficiently developed or poorly coordinated for the transportation of containers in Nigeria. iv. To encourage provision of multimodal transport handbook for officials and practitioners which will aid in formulating strategy for development for multimodalism in transportation in Nigeria.

v. To encourage training of administrative and technical personnel that will be involved in the dayday running of multimodal transport.

vi. To prepare a panacea to the problems associated with inland Container Depot(s) (ICD(S)), problem for travel personnel and axle load in Nigeria. This will be achieved by X-raying or highlighting and providing necessary guidelines to remedy the problems mentioned above. vii. To encourage Nigerian Government not only to take part, but also to be seriously committed toward the establishment and development of multimodal transport operation. This can be achieved by itemizing the awareness plan such as seminars, symposia and workshop to educate and enlighten people on the concept of multi-modalism.

viii. To encourage computerization of documents and marketing transactions so as to solve procedural and/or documentary problems.

ix. To encourage the introduction of Electronic Data interchange (EDI) system, this will bring a new era in distribution logistics.1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The importance of having an effective multi-modal transport in Nigeria as a developing country is that:

There will be low traffic rates, safety and reliabilities in shipping. Inland water way and rail system, consequently brings about reduction in overall cost of long haul of transportation of goods which leads to the reduction of cost of raw materials and finished products for imported goods into Nigeria and also those being exported to other countries from Nigeria. It will lead to the development of more economic ties and cooperation among the state and our neighboring West African states. It will also stimulate bigger market for respective national industries. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Numerous questions were intended to be asked on this topic by the researcher but for the purpose of the working duration the researcher narrowed down the research question to the following:

i. Do you understand what MTO stand for?

ii. How did you get information about MTO?

iii. Do you think transporters in Nigeria value MTO?

iv. In your own opinion what do you think are the problems facing MTO in Nigeria?

v. Do you think MTO is efficient and safe in the distribution of goods/cargoes (Njj Gaskel, 1989, Richard D. Swatton). 1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

In other to achieve the objective set for the project, the following null hypothesis together with the corresponding alternative hypothesis to be set in chapter four has been formulated.

Ho: Awareness plan on the part of government and expert in maritime field does not lead to formulation of sound policy of developing (MTO)

Ho:Lack of feasibility studies on existing infrastructure does not inhibit growth and development of MTO in Nigeria.

Ho:Insufficient multimodal transport handbook for officials and practitioners does not aid in formulating strategy for development of multimodal transport in Nigeria.

Ho:Shippers and operators does not study and understand trading and trends to identify and develop new opportunities for multimodalism. 1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The researcher considers the descriptive and observation method as most appropriate for this study. This researcher will be directed towards explaining his observation from the operator. Survey or data analysis techniques were used to investigate general performance of multimodal transport take off in Nigeria.

Secondly, data and other information were gathered from UNCTAD hand book and journal from the international maritime organization (IMO)

Questionnaires were sent to terminal operators, the Nigerian Port Authority, and the Nigerian Maritime Administration 1.7 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY

The analysis of the multimodal transport operation if done will assist, individual operator, firms, Government of Nigeria, port users, insurance companies, shippers, shipping companies as well as any person or group of people that has anything to do with the chain of transportation in Nigeria as well as other West African countries.

It will act as an effective guideline to potential entrepreneur or any interested individual who will like to set up MTO business in any part of Nigeria. It will enlighten the public on usefulness and benefits to be derived from setting upon MTO business in Nigeria. Multimodal transport will stimulate a bigger market for respective national industries. It will lead to the development of more economic ties and cooperation among the state and our neighbouring West African States. It will provide for the need for regional economic block.

Multimodal transport operation modes which offer low traffic rates, safety and reliabilities in shipping, in land waterway and rail system consequently brings about the reduction in overall cost of long haul of transportation of goods which leads to the reduction in the cost of raw materials and finished products for imported goods into Nigeria and also those being exported to other countries from Nigeria.

In any country where multimodal transport is well developed, there are lots of commercial activities and an improved economy. This is because imported heavy and bulky loads in large quantities can be carried from the port by rail debulked into truck carried by road to the importer or customers warehouse.

Multimodal transport provides for good communication network within and among states in Nigeria as well as other countries through E-mail, fax, telex, rail, road, sea, network and satellite communication. It will ensure transit of goods and commodities from the source (origin) in one country to destination in another country. This creates time and utility of goods. In commerce it is said that time is money. The air mode is good for premium transportation.

Multimodal Transport will encourage and bring about the establishment of inland container deport in various parts of Nigeria. This will lead to the spread of information technology like shipping press, data storage, container monitoring device which can provide information about the movement of container at each country as well as expected times of arrival and expected time of delivery of trucks, container handling and repair facilities, truck repair facilities and container freight station, commercially, the depot increase trade flow since people can buy from an intending merchant who unstuffs his container just like ICD at Kaduna/Kano before it collapsed.

Multimodal transport operation will bring about the speedy distribution of finished industrial products in consuming states. This will improve the economy of Nigeria. Above all, the research work will serve as a reliable source of information of reference to other researchers on similar or related topics. 1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY/LIMITATIONS

This research study was designed to discuss strategy for multimodal transport development in Nigeria. This research will be focused on the strategy and practical possibilities for takeoff of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria by way of evaluating and looking into problems and prospects.

In the course of fulfilling this study, the researcher faced a great number of constraints which include; time, finance, lack of information disclosure and lack of materials among others. I wish to point out that despite all these constraints, serious efforts were made to ensure that a plausible study was carried out to meet the entire study objectives. 1.9 EVOLUTION OF MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OPERATION IN NIGERIA

Transport and logistics have been in existence right from the beginning of civilization. In retrospect, we encountered no problems in arriving at the conclusion that world trade, specialization and the concept of comparative advantage owns their origin and survival to the development of the different modes of transport (Allan Branch, 1986).

History reveals that the constitution of the Egyptian Pyramids and the gate wall of China depended on the availability of appropriate transport infrastructure owns it relevance to the appropriate logistics plans which had to be developed and properly implemented for the total success of the projects.

Today, the logistic requirements for moving large goods from consignor to consignee remains the same. However, the techniques are continually being improved upon with a view to rationalize an already highly developed industry. This is necessary owning to the constant erosion of profits by ever increasing operational costs.

The past decades have witnessed tremendous changes in the transport of general Cargo owing to increasing percentage of transports costs on the price of products. These changes include structural, technological and operational as well as organizational changes. The main costs relating to marine transport which constitute the major areas of concern, as far as ports are concerned, include Cargo handling, ships time in ports, pilotage etc. in an attempt to reduce the costs, the concept of utilization, especially through containerization was introduced in the late 60s (Smith, 1981). However, there is no formal record or historical data that talk about the establishment of MOs in Nigeria but the origin and sources of MTO emanated from UNCTAD. One of the most important reasons for the introduction of MTO was the ever increasingly cost of labour in the industrialized countries (Demonie, 1976).

It therefore became necessary to make some trade-offs between labour productivity and capital intensive transport systems so as to reduce qualitative labour inputs.

Technological changes have paved way for capital/labour substitution and increasing the speed of Cargo handling operation in ports, as well as at the transfer point all along the transport chain. As we move up the year, we must constantly recognize and appreciate the changes that are taking place, and put ourselves in the position where adaptation to those changes will become easier. This will further create the basis for the adoption for necessary strategies which will enable the ports remain relevant in the global market-place. CHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

In various researches, there is always a belief that scholars and professionals have written one thing or the other on the subject. It is therefore a tradition to look into such past writings, views and ideas in order to give one a clear understanding of the topic and at the same time provide an insight into existing facts that will guide the thought of the researchers.

The literature review also enriched the knowledge of the writer by providing a systematic investigation into past human experiences, as well as provides the knowledge of the fundamental concept, theories and models on the subject. in addition, other writers have shown that the literature review provides theoretical guide, with which to accept or reject existing knowledge through the findings of the present research.

Fredric Lord Luggard sum-up the problems of Africa in transportation as far back as 1922. Transportation facilities, the formation of a wider variety of spatial patterns of human activities (kadiri, 1996), while politically, transportation along with communication helps in the governing of a Cargo is by single government and tents to promote uniformity in the application of law and justice (Morlok, 1978).

Transportation is vital to the development of any country. Economically, transportation provides and enhances the space, time, quality and utility of goods (David, 1980).2.1 THE CONCEPT OF MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OPERATION

The concept of multimodal transport operation emanates from the United National Convention on international multimodal transport as the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport on the basis of multimodal transport contract from a place in one country at which the goods are taken in change by the multimodal transport operation to a place designated for delivery situated in a different country (David, 1980). 2.2 WHO IS A MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT OPERATOR

According to the definition in the MTO Convention, a multimodal transport operator is any person who on his own behalf or through another person acting on his contract and who acts as a principal, not as an agent or on behalf of the consignor or of the carriers participating in the multimodal transport operations and who assumes responsibility for performance of the contract.

This is the strict legal meaning under the MT convention, but there is a wider and more liberal definition which says that anyone who undertakes to arrange a door to door transport using more than one mode of transport and who issues one mode of transport document for the entire transit is a multimodal transport operator (ATIRAKA, 2004).2.3 DIFFERENT TYPES OF M.T.O.S

Vessels operating multimodal transport Operating - Vo-MTOS. Traditionally, Ship-owners were concerned with carrying the cargo form port to port and limiting their responsibility for the cargo to the time when the goods were on board the ship. Due to containerization many ship owners have now extended their service to include also carriage over land and even carriage by air.

Vessel operating companies such as maritime Transport Operators (MTOS), do not own or operate means of transport of goods by road, rail or air but arrange for these types of transport by Sub-contracting with such carriers.

However, this is rapidly changing. In addition to the unimodal sub-carriers, just like the arrangement between the Nigerian Ports Authority and stevedoring Company (ATIRAKA 2004).

Non-Vessel operating Multimodal transport Operation - NVO-MTOS, other transport operators than ocean carriers may also offer to arrange for door to door transport of cargoes covering more than one mode of transport. For example, in Nigeria, Mediterranean shipping MSC, before the arrival of their vessel had a shot charter agreement with WASA DELMAS for their containers coming in/out of Lagos on Delmas vessels.

The present or associate issues that relate to transport and multimodal transport operation concept in Nigeria according to John Adam (1981), says Transport and mobility have become important factor influencing both urban and rural patterns of life in developed and increasingly, in the developing countries. Transport planning has therefore moved on from being a local issue to become a matter of national and international concern.

A third type of MTOS are those that do not own any means of transport. To the category, we may include freight forwarder, customs, brokers or even in rare cases, ward ruse operators or stevedoring companies. These types of MTOS will have to sub contract for all modes of transport.

A final type of MOTs which in appearance comes very close to the third type above, are those companies which have been established with the exclusive aim for providing multimodal transport services.2.4 A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT

Longman dictionary of contemporary English (1980), defined concept strategy as the art of planning a particular activity; The strategy to adopt the regard to multimodalism is essentially market led and high technology driven, it is also an ongoing strategy with market growth providing the cash flow necessary to fund the contributing investment.

Moreover as the system develops, economics of scale will lower development cost, as it is an exciting time and full of opportunities, but it is one requiring complete professionalism and high quality training at all levels. Qualified experienced personnel are required with complete commitment and clear vision of market need.

As part of guidelines for formulating appropriate strategies for successful takeoff of multimodal transport development in Nigeria. The government should take note of the following.

a. Nigerian government should try as much as possible to remove barriers associated with customs practices, transportation, banking and insurance, so as to pave way for the development of emerging global economy as regards to multimodal transport operation. This will also contribute to increasing employment and extending the benefits of globalization and liberalization to the whole, society (Marcus, 1987).

b. Computerization can provide solutions to some procedural or documentary problems. However, computerizing the activities of various parties involved in the control or monitoring of external trade will be beneficial only to existing administrative and commercial practices are first reformed in depth.

c. Proper and fast services are essential in respect of processing, documentation of cargoes to enable efficient clearance of good, harmonization of documents in line with UNCTADS facilitation of trade helps in backing up developing countries like Nigeria to transfer technology from developed nations from other parts of the world (Falola and Olanrewaju 1986.).

Linkages of ports can be done by making each port essentially accessible to the other by developing the sea transport further and other transport modes that uses rail, road and air. The reverse is the case presently in Nigeria but with government concentration on this sector of the economy, it can be achieved, leading to improvement and its impact being felt on the economy.2.5 THE MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT (MT) CONVENTION

The main thrust of the convention is the unification of the multitudes liability system in use for combined or multimodal transport, this means that:-a. One principal, known as the multimodal transport operator (MTO) is liable throughout the entire transport operation.

b. The shipper is issued one single negotiable or non-negotiable MT document which covers the whole operation.

If this document is viewed into segmented transport, where the shipper has to claim against individual carriers who do not know in most cases, the MT convention is one of the best instruments on the international transportation of goods. In other words, the MT document makes the operator liable to the shipper, (Marcus, 1987).2.6 CUSTOM EXERCISE PROCEDURES

Due to the on-time delivery requirement for the transportation of international consignment, the stream-lining of customs procedures has become very essential for fast container movement.

In Nigeria as in most other developing areas where a countrys government can give considerable impetus to smooth countries transport.

According to Badejo (1998), if the existing customs exercise procedure in developing countries especially in Nigeria are not improved and simplified, the potential advantages of multimodal transport will not be realized. This in particular to developing countries because it improves efficiency and cuts costs without the requirement of any capital investment.

In developed countries on the main containers routes, steps have been taken to reduce customs formalities to the bearest minimum, and in most cases, all container move inland for clearance.

At the port of Aarkhus, Denmark for instance, it takes just a couple of minutes to obtain custom clearance of a container. On an average, the total activities for the clearance of a container takes about two hours.

In Europe, customs problem affecting transit have been solved through the ratification of multimodal conventions. Developing country on the other hand depend mostly on bilateral or sub regional agreements which turn-out to be ineffective in most cases. One classic example is between Nigeria and Niger Republic who negotiated a bilateral agreement on transit of cargo. Presently, however, this arrangement is non-operational.

An interview with customs officials revealed that they are ignorant of the existence of this agreement. This serves to reinforce my earlier statements and further credence to the importance of international conventions, which are statutory and much more easily enforceable by the parties.

Several attempts have been made by the international community to simplify custom formalities which constitute barriers to trade. If developing countries like Nigeria wish to remain relevant in international trade, it is necessary to look at some of these instruments with a view to implementation (Falola and Olanrewaju 1986).

Nigeria government should try as much as possible to remove the barriers associated with customs exercise practices, transportation, banking and insurance so as to pave way for development of emerging global economy as regards to multimodal transport operation. This will also contribute to increasing employment and extending the benefits of globalization and liberalization to the whole of society (Marcus, 1987).2.7 CONVENTIONS ON THE TRANSPORT TRADE OF LAND LOCK STATES 1966

This convention embodies the principles of the freedom of the high seas for land locked states. It requires coastal states to allow ships of their land-locked neighbors equal treatment on their vessel as far as access to and use of seaport is concerned. Goods in transit are not subject to duty. However, charges for the expenses of supervision and administration may be levied. 2.7.1 Customs Convention On The International Transport For Goods Under Cover Of TIR Carnets (TIR CONVENTIONS)

This convention according to Ranker, (1981), was originally an agreement drawn up under the aegis of the economic commission for Europe (ECE) in 1949. It success later led to the negotiation of TIR (Transport International Routiere) convention in 1959. The main objective of the convention is to ensure that goods travel internationally with the minimum of couple of minutes, to obtain customs clearance for a container takes about two hours. The same activities take an average of 7 days in Nigeria. In most cases all boxes are opened for inspections at the ports. These systems constitute a major obstacle to door to door container operations in all parts of the Nigerian states before concession of ports in 2006. Under the provisions of the convention, goods are to be carried in containers or in vehicles whose load compartment cannot be accessed from outside when secured by customs seal. Furthermore, due to the mechanism use, the result of any tampering will be clear visible. The convention contains four basic requirements. a. Those goods should travel in secure vehicles or containers.b. That duties and taxes at risk should, throughout the journey be covered by an internally valid guarantee. c. Those goods should be accompanied by an internally accepted carnet taken into use in the country of departure. d. Serving as a control document in the countries of dispatch, transit and destination. 2.7.2 Customs Convention Containers

Like the TIR Convention, this convention was originated by the ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) countries and later extended to world wide application in 1972. The convention is administered by the customs co-operation council, and their main objective is to facilitate the use of containers in international traffic. 2.7.3 International Convention On The Simplification And Harmonization Of Customs Procedures (the KYOTO CONVENTION 1973).

This convention is based on the promises that the simplification of customs procedure will lead to a reduction in the number of agencies handling the port procedures noting that excellent facilities alone may not necessarily attract traffic to a port.

However, this happens to be one of the most important and common activities been undertaken by the port authorities in recent time. Some major ports have successfully used to co-operative planning in design, aimed at reducing the number of agencies of handing and total transport cost. 2.8 RAIL WAYS

Like the ports, railways are now facing new demands to accommodating the recent development in intermodal transportation. In the united states double stack trains have been introduced, while in Europe, block trains are being extensively, employed for long hand containers transportation. Though these systems are yet to be introduced in Nigeria, there are possibilities for the introduction of block train from the ports to some of the regional cargo centers (Benson and whitehead, 1985).

As far as equipment is concerned, the rail track gauge of 2.5 feet in Nigeria should not constitute a limiting factor for containers transportation. Containers can be carried by narrow or wide gauge tracks as long as the rail car profile is wide enough to accommodate containers. According to Lucky Amiwero (1995), information maximum axle load restrictions for Nigerian Railways is not available.

However, if such a limited factor or restrictions exist, it can be rectified by increasing the number of axle per wagon of a given weight. For developing countries like Nigeria, this may serve to minimize the amount of investment that would otherwise be required for new infrastructure. Also with the ICD blue print in place of the Nigerian Railways is repositioning itself by upgrading its facilities and efficiency.2.9 ROAD TRANSPORT

There are not specific requirement for the carriage of containers by road in Nigeria (SALL 1989), the available restorations are more or less the same as those for all heavy duty vehicles.

The only limitations that apply specifically to container transport are those dealing with permissible height and axle loads. However, the growing container heights and increasing weights, the existing lateral clearance of overhead bridge and in passes needs to be reassessed, there are however some possibilities for avoiding these bottlenecks. They include but are limited to-a. Traffic regulations,b. Construction of new bridges

c. Strengthening of existing bridge construction

Though neither the ports nor haveliars can directly affect these changes, they can use their economic and political clout to influence government in taking adequate action. 2.10 AIR TRANSPORTATION

As far as air transportation is concerned domestic air services are dominated by passenger traffic. A few pure cargo services are operating on some international routes. This however, caters for high value and perishable goods as is the normal case with air cargo transportation (SALL, 1989).

Current available date do not show the existence of any services, linking the ports with air transportation. This may be largely due to the types of cargos (low value) transported by sea, their relative low sensibility to time and the requirement distances can be covered within reasonable times by other modes at reasonable rates.2.11 SEA TRANSPORTATION/COASTAL SERVICES

The development of coastal services /water ways especially along the coastal regions of the world has contributed in making sea transportation system very appealing in physical distribution as it gives the lowest cost method. The carriage of bulky commodities, low valuable goods and some perishable agricultural products (Yams, fish potatoes etc) from the riverine areas of Nigeria and the shipment of the same to various population centres that form the markets, has been made possible the development of coastal services and waterways (ATIRAKA, 2004).

There should be availability of trucking service here which will be made more meaningful with the usage of small water craft fitted with engines for faster movement. The use of barges and pontoons are another method which will help in waterway distribution of goods and services. Bulky and heavy equipment and supplies that could not move by air (helicopter) will be transported on scheduled basis to the required locations in watercraft of various capacities. 2.11.1 Inland Waterway

The transport of containers by inland waterways requires that the waterways remain navigable all year round. Adequate attentions have to be paid to some of the waterways in Nigeria, such as River Niger and Benue. The above mentioned rivers are particularly useful to communication as inland waterways in the states in which they are found. Efforts have to be geared to provide constant dredging for rivers (Kirby 1970), take for instance the Onitsha, Warri and Koko rivers are being contended for dredging by the Federal Government of Nigeria.

Additionally, inland container terminal will have to be contracted as the existing one in Kano / Kaduna are not functioning. However, it must be realized that the provision of capital intensive infrastructure whose utilization is less than 10% is non-economic. According to UNCTED studies, the minimum output than may justify the construction of an inland container terminal is 3,000 TEUS per annum (UNCTAN MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT HANDBOOK, 1993).2.11.2 INLAND CONTAAINER DEPORTS (ICDS)

Inland deports are sometimes referred to as Dry Ports, ICDS promote and facilitates inter modalism as ports are being brought close to consignors and consignees. They further serve to decongest ports. The UNCTAD handbook on multimodal transport (1993) describe ICD as A common user inland facilities other than a port or an airport, public authority status equipped with fixed installations and offering services for handling and temporal storage of any kind of goods (including containers) carried under customs transit by an applicable mode of inland surface transport, placed under customs control and with customs and other agencies competent to clear goods for home use, warehousing, temporal admission, re-export, temporary storage for on-ward transit and outright export.

In addition to the facilitation of inter-modalism, ICDS act to stimulate industrial and commercial activities in the hinterland where they are located. This consequently leads to additional employment and income opportunities for those regions. These benefits will however depend on the efficiency of the UICDS themselves. That is the primary function of the ICDS as being performed.

Consolidation of LCL cargoes Transfer of containers between various modes

Positioning of containers

Temporary storage facilities for containers and other cargoes

Stuffing and stripping of containers

Container maintenance and repair facilities.

There are presently two inland container deports in Nigeria, one in Kaduna, the north central part of the country in close proximity to Niger Republic. This places Nigerian ports in an advantageous position to capture the non-captive markets of Niger Republic.

However, the ICD were first introduced as far as 1979 when Elder. Dempster lines leading other numbers of United Kingdom West/African liner conference UKWAZ joined land with National insurance Corporation of Nigeria (NICON), to establish an ICD in Kano/Kaduna under the management of inland container Nigeria however, there appears to be some structural defects affecting the ICD which includes; a. They are owned by private operators who have no public authority status contrary to the UNCTAD definition of ICD.b. They are neither owned by the ports nor railways corporation. This makes it difficult for the ports to delegate their public functions including security of cargo to the ICD operators.

c. In view of the structural deficiency of the ICDS, they are seriously limited by their ability to provide some of those functions expected of an ICD.d. Taking cognizance of its status, it is difficult for the customs department to delegate their public responsibilities to the ICDS.

As far as equipment is concerned their requirements are not different from those of the ports with very little variations in the types employed (Voigt, 1981).Their numbers capabilities and performance should be related to the expected cargo throughout the ICDS. As indicated earlier however, there are no data for regional cargo distribution which can be used to forecast equipment requirements for the ICDS.

However, Nigeria government is interested on the ICD project. It planned to establish ICDS in strategic zones of the country and two container freight stations. These two includes ICD in Kano. While the two freight station are Maidugain and Funtua, ICD in Ibadan, ICD in Isiall-Ngwa, ICD in Jos, ICD in Bauchi. The funding of the project will be a joint venture between the government and private investors at a ratio of 40% from the government and 60% from the private investors. 2.12 PIPELINES

Pipelines can be defined as line or conduct of pipes of various dimensions used for the carrying of liquid or gas from a source of supply to a point of demand, consumption liquid transported by pipeline is water. Urban centres have networks of pipes supplying water for domestic and industrial uses.

Traditionally, crude oil and refined petroleum products are transported to and from refineries by pipelines. These networks run for long distance across a country. Crude oil accounts for more than 70% of global sea borne trade. The large ships which is called ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) used for the carrying of crude oil are not accessible. The sources of the crude oil export are therefore generally transported by pipeline from the oil wells to the coast where it is loaded into tankers at a terminal. Such terminals are often located in remote areas and consists of temporary farm tanks. At the port of discharge, pipes also transport the crude oil to refineries (ATRAKA, 2004).

Nigeria, as one of the worlds leading exporter of crude oil has a relative dense network of pipelines transporting crude oil and refined petroleum products within the country. Oil is explored in the southern parts of the country, but the consumption of refined products and the refineries are not close to the point of exploration, pipelines are therefore used for this interconnectivity. In the conveyance of refined products in Nigeria, road transport, tankers are competing with the pipelines, which though, over the years have proved to be much safer and durable.


Having considered the different segment involved in the chain of transport, the remaining task is the integration of all these segments into a cohesive and logically linked system for optimum efficiency.

Given the stiffening competition in port traffic with the consequent gradualization of routine port services and costs of the emerging concept for competitive advantage is the introduction of integrated information system for port users (remenyi, 1990). In fact, the application has been expanded to cover not only the port users, but all the parties involved in any international trade transactions according to results of studies conducted by several experts, there are as many as 27 parties involved in the course of one international trade transaction, about 40 original documents and 360 copies relating to the transaction from others processing to the final payment. The main argument against these traditional forms of documentation are that-a. It is slow, relative to the current incurrent increasing container vessel speeds. b. It is prone to error and very expensive. About 30% of paper work is related to transportation. As stated earlier, the number of large and small companies involved in the total flow of information in Nigerian ports ranges between 500 and 1000. These include clearing and forwarding agents, stevedoring groups, port agents, customs brokers, tally firms, ships brokers, liner agents, the port operators, haulage companies to mention a few.

In an attempt to reduce total logistic costs, improve customer services and port efficiency, ports in developed countries have taken advantages of modern technology in communication by in traducing EDI (Electronic-Data Interchange), is generally defined as the computer-to-computer transfer of information relating to commercial and administrative transactions using an agreed standard to structure the data pertaining to that transaction. The most commonly heed advantage of EDI according to the UNCTAD handbook on multimodal transport are-a. It improves information management and data exchange within, and introduces new business strategies such as just-in-time manufacturing and delivery. b. It saves clerical costs by avoiding re-entry of data and allows timely and error free transaction of information to be passed from one computer to another.

c. Allows quicker and safer processing of invoices to bring about speedy payment and thus improves cash flows.

d. It facilities and speeds up boarder controls and other official intervention such as custom clearance.

e. It is indisputably a new way of improving customer service; while helping to reduce total logistic costs.

The type of port organization and cargo clearance difficulties in Nigeria, needs Electronic Data Processing (EDP) services. This is necessary so as to harmonize the flow of goods and data for its activities. It will further help to synchronize the activities of ICDS,

The port, customs, steamship lines, railways, freight forwarder, companies, Banking, insurance and distribution network.The hard and software services itself does not have to be provided by the port authority. It can be contracted out to one of the multitude of thernel party logistics suppliers that exists. Due to the complexity of the total logistic package however, the port have to take the limitation in this regard just like their earliest predecessors like Bremer hawsen, Hamburg, felixtowe, Amstredam, and Antewap. The main objectives should includes:

a. Advance documentation.

b. On line EDP control.

c. Equipment Management.

d. Equipment tracking.e. Statistics

f. Administration including accounts and personnel. CHAPTER THREERESEARCH OF METHODOLOGY


The objective of this study has made imperative, the adoption of a descriptive and analytical method of research in conducting the investigation. The research wants to determine the significance of the strategy for multimodal transport development in Nigeria.

This chapter takes care of the research method and procedures employed in conducting this scientific inquiry. Therefore, emphasis will be placed on the study area, source of data, technique used in the treatment and administration of questionnaires.


Dr E.O. Osuala (1983), states that research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solution to problems through planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. It means that research methodology entails the process of finding solution to problems through the systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data using the various methods of data collection.


The type of data used in this research is the primary and secondary data.


In the primary data, the use of questionnaire was adopted and verbal questioning was also conducted to enable an absolute capturing of the strategy for the development of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria.


The secondary sources adopted were the library information, transport journals, magazines, bulletins, seminar and conference paper as well as the internet sources.


The area of study of this work comprises of Calabar Port, Wori Port, Port-Harcourt Port and Apapa Port Complex Lagos (APM as a model of conducting the survey. These ports were randomly selected. It is my belief that activities and information obtained from these populations will portray a fair view of what is obtained in Nigeria.

To this effect, a total of 25 questionnaires were administered to the various respondents available.


The population used for this study comprises of the staff of the above mentioned organization. Data for this study were obtained from (25) twenty-five respondents. Random sampling could not be used owing to the fact that the list of employees of the organizations was not readily available. Therefore a purposive sampling method was adopted to select the respondents.


Levnie and Gerald (1978), believed that manner in which questionnaire is conducted determines the degree to which to solicits the desired information. The questionnaire contained twenty- five questions. Section A of the questionnaire sought demographic information of respondent, took care of such issues as Age of the respondent, job status of the respondents, educational level and the duration of the respondent in the transport industry.

Similarly, section B address such questions as Awareness of MTO, value of MTO to Nigeria, description f the state of MTO in Nigeria, the pattern and trends in MTO and sources of knowledge for formulation of appropriate strategy for the development of MTO in Nigeria.

Finally there was provision in the questionnaire for respondents of fill in what they feel is the Panacea in outlying, guidelines for success of MTO in Nigeria. Relative to each question in the questionnaire the respondents are then open to the option of either tick or answer Yes or No and make comments where applicable.

The questionnaire was critically examined by my able supervisor to remove ambiguities and finally approved by him before proceeding to the field.


I took time to observe the situation of our ports, railways stations, road network as well as the existing polities and strategies that are in place for the smooth running and successful take-off of the multimodal transport operation. Issues observed are as follows:-

The necessary facilities in terms of resources and expertise were not approved by the government and as such ship-owners, road transport operators are not encouraged to enter the field of MTO.

Import regulations are not streamlined, importers are not allowed to choose between C and F or FOB and carriers are imposed on importers by the foreign counterparts.

Multimodal or combined transport document being used, do not follow the established international Chambers of Commerce (ICC) rule.

I observed that railway transport is most economical for distance of 400-500 kilometers. Unfortunately enough there is a dilapidated railway network and operation in Nigeria, while, road transport certainly is more competitive over short distance.

Nigeria States should seek assistance from UNCTAD, to assist them with modern transport techniques, organized workshops to increase level of awareness of the people, practitioners and users. Above all, there should be improvement in regulatory environment of Cargo transport within the region.


In data analysis, various techniques are applied to arrive at a convincing result for further references. Among these data analysis techniques are:-


Chi Square

Pie Chart

I adopted the Chi-square technique in analyzing the collected data, since, after the chi-square has been used to determine the frequencies, it goes on to conclude whether the deviation can be allowed before the null hypothesis of this study

A chi-square is always a one tail test. The diction rules according to Kohout (1974) states that, if the computed values Xo2 (chi-square) is greater than the labeled critical value X02, the null hypotheses (Ho)is rejected at the stated level of significance. If the test statistic is less than the critical value, the null hypothesis is retained.

The levels of significance are given in the chi-square table. I used a 5% (0.050) level of significance. As stated by spieifel (1972), if for example 0.04 (5%) level of significance is chosen in 100, then we would reject the hypothesis, then there is about 5 chance in 100, then we would reject the hypothesis when it should be accepted, that is, we are about 95% confident that we have made a right decision.

In such a case, we say that the hypothesis has been rejected at 0.05 level of significant which means that we can be wrong with probably 0.05


In order to decide whether to accept or reject the null research questions, some hypothesis were made and these will be tested for validity. The test hypothesis is usually a procedure for deciding whether to accept or reject the hypothesis made, usually there are two situations to a hypothesis, one being the Null hypothesis, represented by the H1 and the other being the alternative hypothesis represented by HO.

The Null hypothesis H1, is always the assumed hypothesis which was tested, and as such where the test does not accept the null hypothesis H0 will be accepted and vice versa.

The statistic used for the test is the chi-square (x2) which kacmier (1979), stated mathematically as:

X2 = FO Fe

FeThe parameters are

X2 =Chi-square

Fo=Observed Frequency

Fe=Expected Frequency

Chi-square is a non-parametric test which is frequently applied to problems in which two nominal variables are cross classified, (Nacmics and Nachmics, 1976). Defined Chi-square as the sum of ratios of differences between the observed frequency (Fo) and the expected frequency (Fe). (Fe) serves as the basis for the chi-square test (Kazmier, 1979).

To complete the x2 , we find the difference between the sum of the square of the observed and expected frequencies and then divide the result got by the expected frequencies. First each cell and then the summation got, the frequency expected for dry cell is given by

Fe (row total)- (column total


If observed values differ greatly from expected values, the X2 will be large indicating a poor experimented agreement, if observed value and the expected value, perfectly agrees with each other, then the X2 value will be 0 (zero) indicating an excellent experiment or perfect experiment agreement. However the value of the X2 can never be less than 0 (zero) (Taylor,1977).

The degree of freedom (referred to as the degree of variability of the factors considered) is an important feature or the X2 distribution. For the contingency test used this is given as:-

d.f=(r-r) (c-1)


r=is the number of rows

c=is the number of columns

Since the chi-square techniques. After determining the extent of departure of the observed frequencies goes on to conclude whether the deviation can be allowed before the null hypothesis of this study. If the values of the observed and expected frequencies perfectly agree with another, the value of the chi-square will be zero. A significance deviation between the observed and expected value however will mean that the chi-square (x2) is large.





This chapter mainly deals with presentation, analyses and interpretation of data collection from the study area. It will deal with information obtained through the issuance of questionnaire.

For the purpose of achieving these objectives in this research, four hypothesis were analyzed in this chapter.

This hypothesis which was formulated in the first chapter of this project would be tested and analyzed to see if the actual impacts of awareness plan on the part of the government and expert in maritime field led to the formulation of sound policy in developing multimodal transport operation in Nigeria.


Based on research, 100 questionnaires were sent to respondents and all were completed and returned to the researcher. It is necessary to point out here that it was from this information that i got from the questionnaire that the hypothesis were tested.


Job Status of the Respondent

The need for investigation into respondents job stats arose out of the intensity to know how well different personnel understand issues affecting the strategy for development of multimodal transport operation.

Table I below depicts that out of 95 respondents contacted, 36 occupied other position aside the two mentioned above, going by the above distribution of the respondents into different job responsibilities it will not be illogical, but rather reasonable to say that some opinions given in this research work are furnished by those directly involved in all transport activities and as the operation of multimodalism.

Table 1: Distribution of the Respondents into job status

Job Status of Respondents FrequencyPercentage

Manager Trainee

Line Manager









4.2.2:Length of Years of the Respondent in the Transport Industry

Table 2 at a glance reveals that of all the 100 respondents contacted, that have been in the industry between one to three years representing 8%. 28% respondents have been in the industry between 6 to 10 years and over 10 years ago, 28% of the respondents have been on the job.

The simple deduction from the percentage distribution above is that most of the people interviewed through the questionnaire have stayed long enough in the industry to understand the working of the industry and to have a clear understanding of how different policies and issues directly or indirectly affect the growth of the industry.

This fact, however, will lead to the authenticity as well as the reliability of the findings of this research work.

4.2.3 Table 2: Respondent Distribution based on their length of yeas in the Industry. Length of years of Respondents FrequencyPercentage

1 to 3 years

3 to 6 years

6 to 10 years

Over 10 year











4.2.4 Table 3: Number of Questionnaire Distributed and Returned

No. of Questionnaire

Sent out No. ofQuestionnaire

Returned percentage



This part of the research focuses on testing the research hypothesis formulated in chapter one. The statistical tool is the chi-square X2 test techniques using the formulae:

X2 =

F0 Fe


X2 =Chi-square

F0=Observed Value

Fe =Expected Value

Null hypothesis one; H0

H0: Awareness plan on the part of Nigerian government and expert of Maritime field does not lead to formulation of sound policy in developing MTO.

Table 4a: Does lack of awareness affect the planning and strategic policy development of MTO?

ResponseNo of Respondents Percentage



Total 7221




Source: question 21 of the questionnaire to get Fe.

F0 Fe


= 95Where

Fe = is constant

Table 4b: computation of X2 values

F0F0F0 F0(F0 f0)2(F0 F0)2/F0



95 47.5









Source: Author field survey, 1999.

The computed value is 15.9

Degree in freedom (d.f)

Since n = 2

= 2 -1

Level of significance (x) = 5% or 0.05

Critical value or table value Xe2 at 0.95

Level of confidence = 14. 78

Interpretation: the table value of chi square X2 is 14.78 at if whilst the computed is 15.9 therefore the null hypothesis H0 is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted. This is because the decision rule states that when the computed value of X2 is higher than the table value X2, the null hypothesis should be rejected.


Ho: Lack of feasibility studies on existing infrastructures does not inhibit the growth and development of MTO in Nigeria.

Table 5A: Have you come across any feasibility study in MTO?

ResponseNo of Respondents Percentage

Yes 762

No 1918

Total 95100

Source: question 18 of the questionnaire.

Table 5b: Computation of X2 value

F0F0F0 F0(F0 f0)2(F0 F0)2/F0



95 95.0-755.2577.9

Source: Author field Survey 1999.

Calculated chi-square xo2 = 77.9

Degree of freedom d f

= 1(2 1)

Level of significance (x) = 0.005

Critical value (1 - x)

= 0.0951 d f

:. xe2


Decision Rule: in this case, the computed chi-square (xo2) 7.7.9 is greater than the table value of 17.1. therefore, the null hypothesis has to be rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted

H1: Lack of feasibility studies on existing infrastructure inhibits growth and development of MTO in Nigeria.


Ho: Insufficient multimodal transport handbook for official and practitioners does not act in formulation strategy for development of multimodal transport in Nigeria.

Table 6a: Have you come across any handbook or reference material about MTO?

ResponseNo of Respondents Percentage

Yes 6365

No 3235

Total 95100

Source: Question 20 of the Questionnaire

Table 6b:

F0F0F0 F0(F0 f0)2(F0 F0)2/F0



95 95.0-223.24.7

Source: Author field Survey, 1999

The computed X2 value is 4.7

Degree of freedom n 1 = 1

Level of significance (x) = 0.05

Table value of X02

= 4.7

Decision Rule: if computed chi-square X02 is greater than table chi-square Xe2, reject the null hypothesis Ho. Since X02 = ??? higher than the table value Xe2, therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.


H1: Insufficient multimodal transport handbook for officials and practitioners aid in formulating strategy for developing MTO in Nigeria.

Ho: shippers and operators do not study and understand trading patterns and trend to identify and develop new opportunities for multi-modalism.

H1: shippers and operators study and understand trading patterns and trends to identify and develop new opportunities from multi-modalism.

Table 7a: Do you understand trading pattern and trends in MTO?

ResponseNo of Respondents Percentage

Yes 1728

No 7882

Total 95100

Source: Question 22 in the questionnaire

Table 7b:

F0F0F0 F0(F0 f0)2(F0 F0)2/F0



95 95.0-869.2520.9

Source: Author field Survey, 1999.

The computer Xo2 value is 20.9

Degree of freedom n 1 = 1

Level of significance (x) =0.96%

Critical value (1 -x) = 0.95%

Table value Xo2 = 20.9

Decision Rule: if computed chi-square Xo2 is greater than table chi-square Xe2, reject the null hypothesis Ho. Since Xo2 = 4.48 is higher than the table value Xe2, therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.


H1: Shippers and operators must study and understand trading pattern and trends to identify and develop new qualities for multimodalism.

Table 8a: Analysis of the state of MTO in Nigeria

Variables Respondents Percentage

Developing 2024

Developed 1518

Under developed 5588

Total 95100

Source: Question 11 of the Questionnaire.

Table 8b: Lack of awareness is one of the courses.

Variables Respondents Percentage


Experts 1518

transporters 2020

User 1010

Total 95100

Source: Author filed Survey, 1999.

From table 8a it is evident that only 20 of the respondents representing 25% attest to the state of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria. And 15 out the respondents representing 18%, stated that the state is developed, while 55% of 68% out of the respondents clearly state that the state is underdeveloped, respondents representing 55%, confirmed that government of Nigeria have a major role to play, while experts in the field has 15 of the respondents to their side, which is 18:. Transporters and users share 20 and 10.

Thus, from the above analysis, the interpretation and evaluation of table 8a and 8b, it is clear that the state of Nigerian multimodal transport is poor, not sufficiently coordinated and implemented. Therefore it confirms the needs and importance of this research study to the Nigerian Government.

However, the above outcome from the analysis and interpretation of data go a long way to prove the awareness plan, feasibility study on MTO have a great impact in formulating strategy for development.


In this chapter the researcher summarizes the facts finding missions on how to formulate broad guidelines of action for successful take-of and implementation of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria, useful suggestions were advanced, and appropriate conclusion was drawn for smooth and efficient development of MTO.


The study has been able to examine, investigate and carefully present the modality for the development of multimodal transport operation in Nigerian states consequently, transport as a pivot or structure in which the work resolve has been carefully discussed.

Transport facilitates the formation of a wider variety of spatial pattern of human activities, while politically, transportation along with communication helps in the governance of a larger area by single government and tends to promote uniformity in the application of law and justice.


It is a general consensus that those people who are in position to educate, enlighten and create awareness on the benefits and opportunities of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria have not lived up to their duties.

The researcher has also in this work indentified some of the problems militating against its effective operation, and also through this project discovered little faults with the policy formulation. It seems that the bulk of the blame is on the implementation of these policies, this research work is of the opinion that because of the defective way of our policy implementation to the level of a leading maritime nation, we in Nigeria must place adequate emphasis on creating awareness on strategies, planning and policy development for the successful take off of M.T.O, the strategies which are determined to remove all the self imposed barrier and implantation bottle necks.

However, this paper has so far revealed several legal administrative and structural deficiencies for the development of multimodal transport operation in West Africa. An important function which can help the effective development of multimodal function which can help the effective development of multimodal transport organization in West Africa is the introduction of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) services, chain of transport covering steamship lines, consignees and consignors, forwarders, haulers, customs, port and liner agenda.


Multimodal transport, as it is believed is technologically complex and capital intensive, a technical sector requiring careful management in order to prevent loss of capital and material both in foreign and local currency terms.

Owing to the above assertion and in order that transport sector may be improved in performance, the following recipe are recommended for adoption by Nigerian government, policy makers and users organization transport chain as ways to not only get out of the predicament of dwindling state of multimodal transport operation, but to enhance effectiveness, efficiency all year growth of the multi-modalism. Thus the recommendations are as discussed below.

1. A meeting of all interested parties in the aspect of multimodal transport operation to be convened. The objective of this meeting should be to expose ills of the emerging concepts and worldwide trends in multimodal transport operations, the benefits that may be derived therefore and how MTO will successfully take-off in Nigeria.2. The elaboration of legal and administrative requirements for its registration of multimodal transport operations be effected. 3. The elaboration of legislation which should take into account the necessary international instruments dealing with multimodal transport operation. All the interested government organization should take active part in the primary drafting of the legislation. By doing so, to consider the need to become party to the relevant international conventions.4. In addition, an efficient customs and clearing procedure has to be established at the ports.5. For Nigerian states to handle a considerable volume of containerized cargo by multimodal transport, the present cargo handling facilities have to be upgraded.6. For the resuscitation of development of inland container deports so that consignees in the hinterland do not need to come to the ports to take delivery. However, this should be complemented by the development of the rail system so that operators who may wish to introduce door to door service can have the infrastructure to fall back on.7. Nigerian government should expand her major high way (road) to make room for truck lanes. Strong enough to contain heavy truck loaded with containers as in the united kingdom. 8. Government should dredge the inland water ways to provide opportunity for smaller vessels such as coaster vessels, barges, lighters and tug boats to sail through Nigerian rivers and oceans. Most especially with the signing of the cabotage bill into law by the Federal government, effort should be made to encourage Nigerians to take advantage of the cabotage law which gives them a monopoly power to trade in the coastal region. 9. Our communication system should be well developed like telex, E-mails, fax facsimile through the entire states. REFERENCECoghlin T. Wilford, M and Healy N. Time Charters, 2nd edition (1982) Llogds of London Press, Landon.

Colinvaux R. Carvers Carriage by Sea, 13th edition 91982 Volume 1-2 Stevens and Sons, London.

Douglas, R.O.A, Harbour Law, 2nd edition (1982) Lloyds of London Press, Landon.

Northrop H. and Rowan R. The International Transport Workers Federation and Flag of Convenience Shipping (19983) University of Pennsylvania Industrial research unit.

Tiberg, H. The law of Dumurage, 3rd edition (1979) Stevens and Sons, London.

Wood P., Law and Practice of International Finance, (1980) Sweet and Maxwell, London.

John F. Wilson, Carriage of Goods by Sea, 5th edition (2004) Logman Publishers London. Treitle, Sir Guenter, The Law of Contract, 11th edition (2003) Sweet and Maxwell, London.

QUESTIONNAIREIn the quest to evaluate the problems and strategies for the development of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria, hence the need for this questionnaire.

Please, carefully study the questionnaire and give accurate and precise answer.


1. Name of your company, if any

2. Gender: Male


3. Marital status: Single


4. Age of the respondent:





5. Status of respondent: Manager Trainee

Line Manager

Other (please specify)

6. Educational level attained

a. Professional education (CILT,ICAN,NIM etc)

b. Secondary school education

c. Higher education (NSC, HND, BSC, MSC, PHD)

d. Other (Please specify)

7. How long have you been employed in the transport industry?

a. 1-3 years

b. 3-6 yearsc. 6-10 yearsd. Other 10 years 8. Are you aware of multimodal transport operation? Yes No

9. Is MTO, of value to West African sub-regional transport system?



10. Could you please enumerate some of these values?

11. How would you describe the state of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria? Developing Developed


I do not know or can not access it

12. What do you think is /are the courses of your answers in question 11.

13. If you are not a transporter, how often do you use any of the means of transportation in a month?

1-10 times


21-30 times

30 above

14. As a user, how is the organization of our multimodal transport operation in Nigeria. Excellent


Fairly Good


15. If bad, what do you think may be the cause?

16. Suggest what should be done to improve multimodal transport operation in Nigeria.

17. Suggest also how the system should be explained to the illiterates that engage in this venture since most transporters in Nigeria are illiterates.

18. Would the availability of such study positively affect the growth/Development of multimodal transport operation in Nigeria? Yes


19. Have you come across any hand book or reference material about multimodal transport operation? Yes


20. Would availability of materials aid in formulating strategy for development of MTO. yes


21. Do you understand trading patterns and trade in multimodal transport operation? Yes


22. Would such study identify trends and opportunity for development and multi-modalism? Yes


23. If yes, how would it enhance the economic status of Nigeria? Bad

Good V. Good do not know

24. What further suggestion would you offer to help in the development of multimodal transport