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IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATION AMERICA BECOMES A MELTING POT IN THE LATE 19 TH EARLY 20 TH CENTURY

Jan 18, 2018

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New Immigrants Millions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries Some came to escape difficult conditions, others known as “birds of passage” intended to stay only temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homeland

IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATION AMERICA BECOMES A MELTING POT IN THE LATE 19 TH & EARLY 20 TH CENTURY Immigration & Urbanization Focus Question: Why did immigrants come to the United States and what impact did they have on society? New Immigrants Millions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries Some came to escape difficult conditions, others known as birds of passage intended to stay only temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homeland I vs. E * E migrant is someone leaving their home country * E = exit I mmigrant is someone entering a new country * I= Incoming Emigrant Immigrant Old Immigrants vs. New Immigrants 20 million between 1870 to 1920 Old Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe New Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe Europeans Why did they come? -All were looking for opportunity -Religious Persecution -Overpopulation in Europe -In search of jobs -Escape famine Chinese Between 1851 and 1882, about 300,000 Chinese arrived on the West Coast Some were attracted by the Gold Rush, others went to work for the railroads, farmed or worked as domestic servants An anti-Chinese immigration act by Congress curtailed immigration after 1882 Many Chinese men worked for the railroads JAPANESE In 1884, the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workers The U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898 increased Japanese immigration to the west coast By 1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the west coast THE WEST INDIES AND MEXICO Between 1880 and 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern United States form the West Indies They came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands Mexicans, too, immigrated to the U.S. to find work and flee political turmoil 700,000 Mexicans arrived in the early 20 th century The Journey Most immigrants took a ship to America Journey took about 1 month from Europe Journey took 3 weeks from Japan Slept in very unsanitary conditions on boat and disease spread fast Many died along the way Ellis Island Was the entry point for European immigrants Had to pass a physical exam and literacy and obedience test Had to read 40 words of English or refused entry into the country Government Inspector Questions -Were they a criminal -Had to have money $25 -Process took hours the sick sent home ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR Angel Island, San Francisco Entry point for immigrants coming from Asia Processing much harsher than Ellis Island Immigrants withstood tougher questions and physical examinations Longer waits and filthy conditions ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLAND Think. About. It. Directions: The following are problems that have faced immigrants to the United States. Rank them on a continuum from the one you feel would be easiest to overcome (1) to the one you would find most difficult (5). 1.Learning a new language 2.Leaving family and friends in the homeland 3.Being taunted and mocked for being different 4.Having to leave school for months at a time to go back to the homeland. 5.Not knowing how to act in school, how to dress, how to fit in. 6.Perilous journey, storms, sickness, fears. 7.Worrying about illegal immigration status 8.Living and waiting in a refugee camp 9.Children turning away from traditional customs and values 10.Knowing that youre smart but not being able to show it due to language limitations. COPY THIS DOWN!!! Scanning the moving line for signs of illness, Public Health doctors looked to see if anyone wheezed, coughed, shuffled, or limped as they climbed the steep stairs. Children were asked their name to make sure they weren't deaf or dumb, and those that looked over two-years-old were taken from their mothers' arms and made to walk. As the line moved forward, doctors had only a few seconds to examine each immigrant, checking for sixty symptoms, from anemia to varicose veins, which might indicate a wide variety of diseases, disabilities and physical conditions. Of primary concern were cholera, scalp and nail fungus, insanity, and mental impairments. In 1907, legislation further barred immigrants suffering from tuberculosis, epilepsy, and the physically disabled. The disease which resulted in the most exclusions was trachoma, a highly contagious eye infection that could cause blindness and death. At that time, the disease was common in Southern and Eastern Europe, but almost unknown in the U.S. Doctors checked for trachoma by turning the eyelid inside out with their fingers, a hairpin, or a button-hook to look for inflammation on the inner eyelid - an extremely painful experience. The "button-hook men" were the most dreaded officials on Ellis Island. Questions that Opened the Door to America 1.What are the colors of the flag? 2.How many stars are there in our flag? 3.What color are the stars on the flag? 4.What do the stars on the flag mean? 5.How many stripes are there in the flag? 6.What color are the stripes? 7.What do the stripes on the flag mean? 8.How many states are in the Union? 9.What is the 4 th of July? 10.What is the date of Independence Day? 11.Independence from whom? 12.What country did we fight during the Revolutionary War? 13.Who was the first president of the United States? 14.Who is the president of the United States today? 15.Who is the vice president of the U.S? 16.Who elects the president of the U.S.? 17.Who becomes president of the United States if the president should die? 18.For how long we elect the president? 19.What is the Constitution? 20.Cant he Constitution be changed? 21.What do we call a change to the constitution? 22.How many changes are there to the Constitution? Friction Develops Many Americans thought the country was a Melting Pot -Mixture of all types of people -Is America a melting pot or Salad Bowl? Nativism rises again -Targeted new immigrants Culture Shock Many immigrants needed a home and a job in a brand new culture Many did not want to abandon their heritage Depended on each other and lived near each other Ethnic Neighborhoods/Ghettos developed in big cities to help immigrants out Little Italy, Chinatown Usually based culture and practices on native lands Assimilation Committed to their own culture, but also trying hard to become Americans, many came to think of themselves as Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, Chinese-Americans, etc. Assimilation the merging of cultural traits from pr eviously distinct cultural groups Americanization attempts Schools teach English Employers insists employees speak English Churches encourage assimilation Stores force immigrants to adopt some American food/clothing Immigrant Restrictions As immigration increased, so did anti-immigrant feelings among natives Nativism (favoritism toward native-born Americans) led to anti-immigrant organizations and governmental restrictions against immigration Feared immigrants would take their jobs Immigrant Restrictions American Protection Agency Committed to ending immigration 500,000 members by 1894 Immigration Restriction League Calls for screening of immigrants Desirables and Undesirables Government Sets some restrictions on poor, criminals, and those with mental impairments Ultimately realize importance of Immigrants in the workplace Anti-Asian Sentiment Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) -Limited Chinese immigration until Banned all Chinese except students, teachers, tourists Gentlemens Agreement (1908) (Roosevelt) -Japan to limit immigration to US and San Francisco will stop segregating schools * Nativism= Extreme fear or hatred of foreigners The Challenges of Urbanization Rapid urbanization occurred in the late 19 th century in the Northeast & Midwest Most immigrants settled in cities because of the available jobs & affordable housing By 1910, immigrants made up more than half the population of 18 major American cities Migration from Rural to Urban Rapid improvements in farm technology (tractors, reapers, steel plows) made farming more efficient in the late 19 th century It also meant less labor was needed to do the job Many rural people left for cities to find work- including almost million African Americans Why Migration to the Cities Lure of Opportunity Chance to Work Technology = more jobs Job cuts in agriculture Cheaper to live in cities Beginning of the Great Migration -Segregation in work place and homes for African Americans Urban Environment Building out too expensive Building up is the solution Louis Sullivan designs skyscrapers using steel Mass Transit created- cable cars, subways, elevated rail cars Central Park- Frederick Law Olmstead -Designed the park as a public place to give residents an healthy escape from the urban environment Urban Problem-Housing Problem: Lack of space for rapidly growing population- Overcrowding Solution: Upper classes - exclusive neighborhoods Middle class railroad suburbs Lower class Dumbbell Tenements Urban Problems: Housing -Row Houses -Dumbbell tenements -Most working class families lived in multi-family dwellings -Were created in order to let every room have a window and allow more air flow -Thought they would stop spread of disease Urban Problems: FIRE! * Problem: * Most buildings close together and constructed from wood * Use of candles * Lack of effective fire departments * Chicago and Boston Fires 1871 * Solution: * Cities rebuilt using steel and improved fire preventing materials * Slow development and growth of fire Dept Urban Problems- Sanitation Garbage was not often collected, air was polluted Few apartments had indoor plumbing- had to go in the streets No safe drinking water, cholera and typhoid fever common Dead animals, manure, trash and sewage in the streets Sanitation Solutions Gradual introduction of toilet flush systems and sewer system Colonel George Waring help to create 1 st sewer system for NYC Public Health Services were created Chlorination and filtration systems added for fresh water Urban Problems-Crime Between crime rate inc

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