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History of computers

May 12, 2015

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Technology

Computer architecture overview and history of computers

  • 1.Introduction to Computer Architecture Van Hoang Nguyen Mail: [email protected] Department of Computer Science

2. Agenda What is a computer? Classes of computers What is computer architecture? History of computersIntroduction to Computer Architecture 1 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 3. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture2VAN HOANG NGUYEN 4. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture3VAN HOANG NGUYEN 5. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture4VAN HOANG NGUYEN 6. What is a computer ?Introduction to Computer Architecture5VAN HOANG NGUYEN 7. What is a computer ?Is a device which processes informationIntroduction to Computer Architecture 6 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 8. Classes of computers Have many ways to clasify Essential of Material Machanics Electronics Biology How is used Desktop computer Server computer Embedded computerIntroduction to Computer Architecture7VAN HOANG NGUYEN 9. What s computer architecture? How to make a computer?Step 1 Sep 02Step 03Step 04DetermineSpecify Design Implementationrequirementsrequirements Instruction Set Architecture(ISA) OrganizationHardwareIntroduction to Computer Architecture 8 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 10. Whats computer architecture? Programerview: ISA Amdahl,1964 Design of Computer system from itsinstruction set and structure down to functionunits Harold S. Stone, 1987 System concept integrating hardware,softwarem algorithm and languages Hwangand Briggs, 1984 Instruction Set Design, Organization, andHardware Hennessy and Patterson, 1990Introduction to Computer Architecture 9 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 11. Whats computer architecture? Computer systems Abstraction Levels Coordination of many levelsApplication of abstraction OS Under a rapidly changing Compiler set of forcesISAInstr. Set ProcI/O System Design, Measurement, andData Path and Control Evaluation Digital DesignCircuit DesignLayoutIntroduction to Computer Architecture10 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 12. History of computers Abacus considered first mechanical computing device Used beads and rods to count numbers.AbacusIntroduction to Computer Architecture11 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 13. History of computers 1612, John Napier used floating point arithmetic and invented the logarithm 1622, William Oughtred created the slide rule based on Napiers logarithms.William Oughtred(15751660)Introduction to Computer Architecture12 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 14. History of computers 1642, Blaise Pascal created a machine whichcouldadd and substract, automatically carrying numbers. Blaise Pascal (16231662) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaise_PascalIntroduction to Computer Architecture13 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 15. History of computers 1673, Gottfried Leibnitz built a calculator which could mutiply as well. Gottfried Leibniz(16461716)http://history-computer.com/MechanicalCalculators/Pioneers/Lebniz.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture14 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 16. History of computers He invented an automatic loom usingpunched cards to control patterns in thefabrics. Starting the industrial ageJoseph-Marie Jacquard (17521834) http://www.thocp.net/timeline/1773.htm http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/technology/manufactures/textile/jacquard.htmIntroduction to Computer Architecture 15 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 17. History of computers 1822, He designed the Difference Enginewhich can compute navigational tables. 1833, He designed the Analytical Engine 1991, it is built by the Science Museum inLondon Charles Babbage (17521834)http://www.computermuseum.li/Testpage/DifferenceEngineBabbage.htmhttp://www.electronicsweekly.com/Articles/2008/04/01/43442/babbages-difference-engine-heads-for-california.htmIntroduction to Computer Architecture16 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 18. History of computers He developed a mechanical tabulator based on puched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data Founded Hollerith Tabulating CompanyWhich became IBM in 1924Herman Hollerith(18601929)http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/accession/102630712 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_Hollerith http://s960.photobucket.com/albums/ae87/writeaprogram/Nov2010/?action=view&current=herman-hollerith-tabulating-machine.gif&newest=1Introduction to Computer Architecture17 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 19. History of computers 0th Generation( - 1900): MechanicsIntroduction to Computer Architecture 18VAN HOANG NGUYEN 20. History of computers 1935 38, He developed Z1 and Z2 mechanical computersusing binary arithmetic.Konrad Zuse(1910-1995)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konrad_Zuse http://mytechnologyworld9.blogspot.com/2009/01/most-powerful-supercomputers-brains-and.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture19 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 21. History of computers 1936 39, They built Atanasoff-BerryComputer(ABC) for solving linear systemsin physics. Introduced ALU and rewritingmemory John Vincent Atanasoff (1903-1995) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Vincent_Atanasoff Clifford Berry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Berry(1918-1963)Introduction to Computer Architecture20 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 22. History of computers 1943, Alan Turing built Colossus which is used to break German codes(is encrypted by ENIGMA machine).Alan Turing (1912-1954)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing http://www.umass.edu/wsp/methodology/outline/turing.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture 21VAN HOANG NGUYEN 23. History of computers 1944, Harvard Mark 1 is built, which is used to compute artillery and navigation tables Howard Hathaway Aiken(1900-1973) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Aiken http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1944Introduction to Computer Architecture 22VAN HOANG NGUYEN 24. History of computers ENIAC The first Electronic Computer 1943, work started on ENIAC at University of Pennsylvania under John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert with Herman GoldsteinIntroduction to Computer Architecture23 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 25. History of computers Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer Used 18000 vacuum tubes U shaped, 25m long, 2.5mhigh, 1.5m wide Programmed by pluggingcables and setting switches From 1 hour to 1 day toprogrammIntroduction to Computer Architecture24 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 26. History of computers 1944, He joined to ENIAC team Credited with the idea of storingprograms as numbers 1945, He proposed a stored programcomputer called EDVAC John von Neumann(1900-1973)Introduction to Computer Architecture 25VAN HOANG NGUYEN 27. History of computersJohn von Neumanns Architecture Stored program Instructions in a linear memory array Instructions in memory can be modified just like data Sequential instruction processing Program counter identifies the current instruction Instruction is fetched from memory and excuted Program counter is advanced(according to instruction) repeatIntroduction to Computer Architecture26 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 28. History of computers 1947, William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain invent the transistor 1949, Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge developed EDSAC, the first large scale, fully operational stored program computer 1951, Remington-Rand sold UNIVAC 1 to US government for $1 000 000Introduction to Computer Architecture27 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 29. History of computers 1947, William Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain invent the transistor 1949, Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge developed EDSAC, the first large scale, fully operational stored program computer 1951, Remington-Rand sold UNIVAC 1 to US government for $1 000 000 1950s, IBM produces series of computers(IBM 701,702) 1957, Fortran - the first programming language is instroducedIntroduction to Computer Architecture28 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 30. History of computers 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tubeIntroduction to Computer Architecture29 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 31. History of computers 1958, Integrated Circuit invented 1960, DEC PDP-1, Precursor to the Minicomputer 1965, IBM/360 Mainframe is introduced usingintegrated circuits 1965, DEC introduced PDP-8, first minicomputer http://www.galeon.com/colposfesz/hiacomp/tercerag.htm http://www.cedmagic.com/history/dec-pdp-8.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture30 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 32. History of computers 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tube 2th Generation(1957-1965): TransitorIntroduction to Computer Architecture31 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 33. History of computers Integrated Circuit(IC): Small Scale Integration(SSI), Medium Scale Integration(MSI), Large Scale Integration(LSI). 1971, Intel 4004 the first microprocessor 1973, Xerox invents Ethernet 1975, First PC, MITS Altair 8800, Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote a BASIC compiler for the Altair.http://chandrakantha.com/articles/indian_music/filmi_sangeet/film_song_1971.html http://oldcomputers.net/altair.htmlIntroduction to Computer Architecture32 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 34. History of computers 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak develop Apple I in their parents garage. 1976, Cray-1: The first supercomputer announced 1977, TRS-80 released by Tandy CorporationIntroduction to Computer Architecture 33VAN HOANG NGUYEN 35. History of computers 0th Generation( - 1900): Mechanics 1th Generation(1900-1957): Vancuum tube 2th Generation(1957-1965): Transitor 3th Generation(1966-1980): SSI, MSI, LSIIntroduction to Computer Architecture 34VAN HOANG NGUYEN 36. History of Computers Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and Super Large Scale Integration(SLSI) IBM PC 1981, Intel 8088 and DOS OS 1981, First Portable ComputerIntroduction to Computer Architecture 35VAN HOANG NGUYEN 37. History of Computers 1982, Commodore 64 released Sold in Retail Stores 10 000 commerical software titles Best-selling single personal computer model of all timeIntroduction to Computer Architecture36 VAN HOANG NGUYEN 38. History of Computers 1983, First PDA released Had 8K of RAM Cost $199,95 (US) 1984, Apple Macintosh introducedIntroduction to Computer Architecture 37VAN HOANG NGUYEN 39. History of Computers 1991 First 64bit Microprocessor produced by