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Feline scabies

Apr 16, 2017

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Feline scabies

Feline scabiesGuided by- dr. sandhyabhavani b.v.sc ,m.v.scPresented by-aditya kumar bvm-12002 , final year b.v.scSource-madras veterinary college teaching hospital ,small animal dermatology colour atlas by linda medleau , articles and journals

SIGNALMENT

ANIMAL FELINEBREED NDSEX FEMALEAGE owner dont knowCOLOUR BLACK AND WHITEBWT -1.5 KG

AMANENSISSEVERE ITCHING ALOPECIACRUST OR SCALESIN APPETANCE

Physical examinationG/A EMACIATEDB/H DULLF / H INAPPETANCEEXAMINATION OF SKIN GREYISH CRUST , PRURITIS , ALOPECIA , THICKNING OF SKIN OF EAR SKIN SCRAPPING - POSITIVECOMB BRUSHING NO ETIOLOGICAL AGENT SEENEAR SWAB- NEGATIVETAPE IMPRESSION - NEGATIVEWOODS LAMP- NEGATIVE

DIAGNOSED BY-SKIN SCRAPING FROM EAR- MITES NOTICED (Notoedrus cati)

Treatment givenInj ivermectin 0.02ml S/CLotion benzyl benzoateOwner was advised to come again after one week..

CASE DISCUSSION

ETIOLOGYFeline scabies is caused by a tiny mite called Notoedres cati.

This mite affects cats very much like the sarcoptic mange mite affects dogs; in fact, their life cycles and treatments are very similar.Feline scabies is very rareDISTRIBUTION Europe ,india,(1994), japan ,Indonesia , Australia , north and south America.

LIFE CYCLEThe mites spend their entire life on a cat. The female mite burrows into the skin and lays eggs several times as she continues burrowing. These tunnels can actually reach the length of several centimeters. After she deposits the eggs, the female mite dies. In 3-8 days, the eggs hatch into larvae which have 6 legs. The larvae mature into nymphs which have 8 legs.The nymph then molts into an adult while it is still in the burrow. The adults mate, and the process continues. The entire life cycle requires 2-3 weeks

Who get feline scabiesNotoedres can infect cats of all ages, breeds, and colors. It infects both males and females and often will infect an entire litter of kittens. Because this mite is transmitted directly from cat to cat, it is more common in outdoor cats that come in contact with strays. The mite only lives a few days off of the cat, but transmission through grooming, boarding, and sharing bedding is possible. N. cati can also infest foxes, dogs rabbits and humans.

CLINICAL SIGNSThe symptoms usually start with hair loss and itching on the ears and then spreads rapidly to the face, eyelids, and neck. The mites can also spread to the feet and lower abdomen. As the disease progresses, the skin will become thickened, wrinkled, and covered with grayish/yellow crusts. Because of the intense itching, the infected cat will often scratch and irritate the skin causing secondary infections to develop. The surrounding lymph nodes may also become enlarged as the problem worsens.

DIAGNOSISCLINICAL SIGNS thickening of skin , alopecia , itching, yellow greyish crusts, wrinkled skin

SKIN SCRAPPING-

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSISear mites,(otodectus) dermatophytosis,demodicosis, hypersensitivity (flea bite, food, atopy),and autoimmune skin disorders

Canine vs feline scabiesCanine scabiesInitially, less-hairy skin is involved, such as on the hocks, elbows, pinnal margins, and ventral abdomen and chest. With chronicity, lesions may spread over the body, but the dorsum of the back is usua lly spared.terminal anus, dorsal pegs and spines seen onSarcoptesspeciesFeline scabieswith hair loss and itching on the ears and then spreads rapidly to the face, eyelids, and neck.Notoedresmites are smaller thanSarcopteshave thumb print-like dorsal striations, shorter limb stalks and a dorsal anus

TREATMENTWhile the Notoedres mite can be killed with many of the same products used to treat dogs with scabies, most of them are NOT safe to use in a cat. Cats are much more sensitive to some of the insecticides that are safe to use in the dog. The current recommended treatment for cats is to clip all long hair and then bathe the cat with a gentle cleansing shampoo. After the shampoo,a 2 to 3% lime sulfur dip (Lymdip) is applied to the entire surface of the cat. . This is repeated every seven days until the condition resolves and may require 6 to 8 weeks of treatment.

TREATMENT CONTAlternative therapies include the following: Ivermectin 0.2-0.3 mg/kg S/C once in a weekDo not go beyond 0.3mg/kgBenzyl benzoate lotion 0.015% amitraz solution applied to entire body q 7 days for 21 daysTreatment with ivermectin lasts for 2-3 week in severe cases upto 4 weeks..Prognosis is good.

97.8%12.5 %3-4ml/l

PREVENTIONPrevention is best accomplished by preventing your cat from coming in contact with stray or infected cats. Indoor cats are much less likely to contract this disease. Avoid boarding or grooming your cats at locations that do not provide good sanitation and insist that all grooming tools be disinfected between use. At the first signs of infection, seek prompt treatment and isolate the infected cat from other cats in the householdAdvice was given to the owners to wash all inanimate objects like feeding and watering bowls, cloths, bedding and towels those were in contact with the cats and owners with hot waterIt was also advised to spray the floor and walls with cypermethrin at 4ml/l of water monthly twice.

CAN YOU GET Notoederes from cat?Yes Notoedres can infect humans. The disease, though, is generally self-limiting, causing only temporary itching.Severe problems in immunocompromised individuals

Ivermectin

Ivermectin is known to act on GABA neurotransmission (agonist) at 2 or more sites blocking interneuronal stimulation of excitatory motor neurons, leading to flaccid paralysis by hyperpolarisation.Ivermectin was sold commercially on the international market in 1981 and was licensed for sale in the United States in 1983. The drug was approved as a feline heartworm preventative in 1996.Ivermectin is approved by the FDA for use as a heartworm preventative in cats.The recommended minimum dose in cats is 24 g/kg of body weightLater it was used as a ectoparaticides.

Ivermectin toxicity in catsIvermectin having fairly high margin of safety in cats.Use it cautiously in below 6week of age .Cats: Ataxia, vocalization, disorientation, dementia, whole body tremors, dilated pupils, apparent blindness, circling, head pressing, slowed heart rate,hypothermia, coma, and death.Owners and veterinarians should monitor these signs and treatment should be given according to the condition.General treatment: For oral exposures, the induction of vomiting may be continued, gastric lavage is performed,iv fluids (5% dextrose) and activated charcoal is administered.Specific treatment physostigmine and neostigmine

Amitraz toxicity in catsGeneral Information Amitraz kills mites and ticks by interfering with their nervous system. It will also affect the nervous system of cats if overdosed. use Amitraz cautiously on cats. Amitraz is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).Severe toxicity may occur if amitraz-containing collars( anti tick collars) are ingested.Clinical signs - Serious side effects include low blood pressure, decreased body temperature, elevation of blood glucose, dilated pupils, slow heart rate, slowed intestinal rate, ataxia, prolonged sedation, vasoconstriction, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures. Death may occur.Antidote yohimbine - is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist. It competitively blocks and antagonizes central nervous system depression or sedation and the bradycardia and respiratory depression caused by xylazine.

For amitraz toxicity, yohimbine is dosed at 0.05 mg per pound (0.1 mg/kg) intravenous.Yohimbine is available in an injectable form in a 2 mg/mL or 5 mg/mL concentrationYohimbine can also be given to reverse the effect of xylazine.