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Dow Resins Guidlines

Oct 26, 2014

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DOWEXIon Exchange ResinsWATER CONDITIONING MANUAL

WATER CONDITIONING MANUAL

A Practical Handbook for Engineers and Chemists Products Applications Operation Design Equipment Engineering Information

What this handbook is aboutThis is a handbook for people responsible for water supplies, but who are not necessarily water chemists. Here are basic data on ways of conditioning water with DOWEX ion exchange resins and straightforward explanations of how you can determine costs and results using the various methods on your own water.

Better Water = Better OperationBecause water is one of the most important raw materials brought into any plant, it follows that better water will cut overall costs and improve plant operating efficiency. These improvements can range from elimination of scale and corrosion in water- and steam-carrying equipment through reduced maintenance and outage time to better finished products.

Ion Exchange VersatilityDOWEX cation and anion exchange resins, used separately or in combination, with or without other water-treating materials, do an amazing variety of water-conditioning jobs; from simple softening of hard water supplies to removal of dissolved solids down to a part per billion!

The following trademarks are used in this handbook: DOWEX ion exchange resins DOWEX MAC-3 ion exchange resin DOWEX MARATHON ion exchange resins DOWEX MONOSPHERE ion exchange resins DOWEX UPCORE Mono ion exchange resins FILMTEC reverse osmosis membranes UPCORE system

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction to Ion Exchange ................................................................................................................. 7 1.1 1.2 2 3 What is Ion Exchange? .................................................................................................................. 7 Selecting DOWEX Resins .......................................................................................................... 8

Terms, Acronyms, And Abbreviations ................................................................................................... 9 Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) .................................................................... 19 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Ion Exchange Resins Specified ................................................................................................... 19 Typical Reaction and Chemicals Used ........................................................................................ 19 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 20 Softener Design for Co-current and Counter-current Operation .................................................. 20 Precautions .................................................................................................................................. 25 Ion Exchange Resin Specified ..................................................................................................... 26 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 26 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 27 Ion Exchange Resin Specified ..................................................................................................... 30 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 30 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 30 General Advantages .................................................................................................................... 32 Precautions .................................................................................................................................. 32 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 32 Ion Exchange Resin Specified ..................................................................................................... 33 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 33 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 33 General Advantages .................................................................................................................... 34 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 35 Ion Exchange Resins Specified ................................................................................................... 36 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 36 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 37 Product Water Quality .................................................................................................................. 39 Product Water Quantity ................................................................................................................ 39 Other Demineralization Techniques............................................................................................. 39 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 40 Process Description ..................................................................................................................... 41 Self-Cleaning Ability ..................................................................................................................... 42 Regeneration Cycle ..................................................................................................................... 42 UPCORE and the Layered Bed Anion Option ............................................................................. 43 Comparison with other Regeneration Systems ........................................................................... 43 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 45 3 Water Conditioning Manual

4

Brackish Water Softening .................................................................................................................... 26 4.1 4.2 4.3

5

Dealkalization: Salt Splitting Process .................................................................................................. 30 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

6

Dealkalization: Weak Acid Cation Resin Process ............................................................................... 33 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

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Demineralization (Deionization) Process ............................................................................................ 36 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

8

The UPCORE Counter-Current Regeneration System ................................................................... 41 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins

9

Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information ...................................................................................... 46 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 10.2 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 Storage and Handling of Ion Exchange Resins ........................................................................... 46 Loading/Unloading Resins ........................................................................................................... 47 Resin Sampling ............................................................................................................................ 48 Analytical Testing of Ion Exchange Resins .................................................................................. 50 Backwash of an Ion Exchange Resin Bed ................................................................................... 50 Resin Stability and Factors .......................................................................................................... 52 Useful Life Remaining on Ion Exchange Resin ........................................................................... 55 Ion Exchange Troubleshooting .................................................................................................... 61 Product Water Requirements ....................................................................................................... 64 Feed Water Composition and Contaminants ............................................................................... 64 Selection of Layout and Resin Types (Configuration) ................................................................. 64 Chemical Efficiencies for Different Resin Configurations ............................................................ 65 Atmospheric Degasifier ................................................................................................................ 66 Resin Operating Capacities and Regenerant Levels ................................................................... 66 Vessel Sizing ................................................................................................................................ 67 Number of Lines ........................................................................................................................... 69 Mixed Bed Design Considerations ......................