Dec 16, 2015
Ch. 29: Predetermined Time Systems
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth broke work into therbligs (elements).
The next step is to assign time values to the elements.
Times for elements are added to obtain a total time.
Independence and additivity are assumed. PTS are based on the concept that there are
basic, universal units of work with standard amounts of time.
Methods-Time Measurements (MTM)
Developed in 1946 Simplified versions are available. A training course is required for using the
MTM-1 10 categories of movements Times in TMUs (1 TMU = .000 010 h) Times are for an experienced worker working at
a normal pave. No allowances are included in the times.
Reach to an object in a fixed location or in the other hand.
Reach to a single object whose general location is known.
Reach to an object jumbled with others in a group.
Reach to a very small object or where accurate grasp is required.
Reach to an indefinite location.
Move object to the other hand or against stop. Move object to an approximate or indefinite
location. Move object to an exact location.
A movement that rotates the hand, wrist, and forearm about the long axis of the forearm.
Time depends on degrees of turn, weight of the object, and resistance against turn.
Application of force without resultant movement.
Pickup grasp Regrasp Transfer grasp Jumbled grasp Contact, sliding, or hook grasp
Aligning, orienting, or engaging one object with another
Position times vary with: Amount of pressure needed to fit Symmetry of the object Ease of handling
Breaking contact between one object and another
Times vary with: Class of fit Ease of handling Care in handling
Relinquishing control of an object by the hand or fingers
Two types: Simple opening of the fingers Contact release
Body, leg, and foot motions Eye motions Combined motions Limited motions
Takes about 40% of the time of MTM-1 to analyze a task.
Has only 37 times in all. Key categories are GET and PUT. Provides decision trees to determine case. User estimates distance and uses time from
table. Includes 7 other motions.
Takes about 15% of the time of MTM-1 to analyze a task.
Has only 10 times. Key categories are HANDLE and TRANSPORT. Provides decision trees to determine case. User estimates distance (< 6 in. or > 6 in.) and
uses time from table. Includes 2 other motions.
MOST Work Measurement System
Based on observation that the majority of activities are associated with a limited number of motion sequences.
Significantly reduces time required to perform an analysis.
4 sequence models.
General Move Sequence Model
Based on the concept that the body member used is the key variable.
All body movements are multiples of a MOD (1 MOD = .129 s).
Comments about PTS
In theory, PTS can accurately predict task times. Evidence shows reality and theory don’t agree. One problem is that analyst judgment is required. Most managements are not concerned with a great
deal of accuracy. Managements are concerned with cost of analysis.
Purposes of PTS Studies Make a methods analysis to determine an
efficient work method Determine the amount of time necessary to do