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Page 1: AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - Internal migration


Page 2: AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - Internal migration


Rural–urban migration is the movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities.Step migration is the process that occurs when the rural migrant initially heads for a familiar small town and then after a period of time moves on to a larger urban settlement. Over many years the migrant may take a number of steps up the urban hierarchy.

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Page 4: AS GEOGRAPHY REVISION - MIGRATION - Internal migration

INTRAINTERURBANMIGRATIONCOUNTERURBANISATIONIntra-urban migration is migration within a single urban area.Inter-urban migration is migration between different urban areas.Counterurbanisation is the process of population decentralisation as people move from large urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas.

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MACROMESOMICROLEVELCOREPERIPHERYREMITTANCESMacro-level means large scale.Core is a region of concentrated economic development with advanced systems of infrastructure, resulting in high average income and relatively low unemployment.Periphery is a region of low or declining economic development characterised by low incomes, high unemployment, selective outmigration and poor infrastructure.Meso-level means intermediate scale.Intervening obstacles are the barriers to migration between the points of origin and destination.Micro-level means small scale.Remittances are money sent home to families by migrants working elsewhere.

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DEPOPULATIONFAMILYLIFECYCLEPOPULATIONSTRUCTUREDepopulation is the absolute decline in the population of an area, frequently caused by out-migration.Family life cycle refers to the various stages families with children pass through over time (pre-child stage, family building, dispersal, post-child stage), with corresponding changes in housing needs.Population structure is the composition of a population, the most important elements of which are age and sex.

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In terms of direction, the most prevalent forms of migration are from rural to urban environments and from peripheral regions to economic core regions.Although of a lesser magnitude, rural-to-rural migration is common in the developing world for a variety of reasons, including employment, family reunion and marriage.Movements between urban areas consist in part of step migration up the urban hierarchy as migrants improve their knowledge base and financial position, adding to a range of other urban–urban migrations for reasons such as employment and education.

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The reasons that people change their place of permanent residence can be viewed at three dimensions of scale: macro-level, meso-level and micro-level.The macro-level highlights socio-economic differences at the national scale, focusing particularly on the core–periphery concept.The meso-level dimension includes more detailed consideration of the factors in the origin and destination that influence people’s migration decisions.The micro-level focuses on the specific circumstances of individual families and communities in terms of urban contact. Such circumstances are of crucial importance in the decision to move, particularly when long distances are involved.

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Remittances are an important factor in the decision to migrate from rural to urban areas. However, it is important to note that the flow of money and support in general is not always one-way. Some studies have highlighted village-to-town remittances to support education or the search for employment.The relationship between migration and development is complex and still the subject of much debate.An important issue is the impact of out-migration on local agriculture. In some countries governments have been accused of deliberately using internal migration to change the ethnic balance of a region.

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The age-selective (and often gender-selective) nature of migration can have a very significant impact on both areas of origin and destination.Demographic analysis shows that movements of population within cities are closely related to stages in the family life cycle.The general consensus is that counterurbanisation first became clearly evident in the USA in the 1970s and that since then most countries of western Europe as well as Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Japan have followed suit.