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Ancient History Ancient History of Latin of Latin America America Ch. 9 Sec. 2

Ancient History of Latin America Ch. 9 Sec. 2. Ancient Empires Olmecs: 1400 BC-500 BC –Mxn Gulf Coast –Ruled by priests & royals/elite No mention of.

Jan 17, 2016



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  • Ancient History of Latin AmericaCh. 9 Sec. 2

  • Ancient EmpiresOlmecs: 1400 BC-500 BCMxn Gulf CoastRuled by priests & royals/eliteNo mention of military?Known for giant stone heads (40 tons)Mastered crafts- rubber, jade, stone carving

  • Ancient EmpiresMayan: 250-900Southern MX/ Northern CA (Guatemala/ Yucatan Pen.) Tikal & Chichen Itza major citiesRuled by priests & noblesPriests performed sacrifices for good harvests, war success

  • Ancient EmpiresMayan contdExtensive farming techniques/terracingLots of maize pop. grew quicklyDev. glyphs for recording hist. & honoring gods (Spanish burned most books many left untranslated)365 day solar calendar

  • Tikal (Guatemala)Chichen Itza

  • Ancient EmpiresAztecs: 1300s-1520sFounded Tenochtitln in C. MX Island in Lake TexcocoChinampas- floating islandsFoods shared with worldmaize (corn)chocolate (xocoatl)- only for elite though- Food of the godstomatoes

  • Ancient EmpiresAztecs contdRuled by emperor military, then majority (farmers), last were criminals & slavesPriests had own classHuman sacrifices to sun god to rise ea. dayTens of thousands: mostly P.O.W.s and some noble family members

  • Ancient EmpiresInca: 1430s-1530sAndes Mtns, Ecuador ChileRuled by emperor (Sapa Inca)Then military (very oppressive)Extensive road network thru mtns (rivals Romans)Runners to warn of rebellion, invadersAll roads went thru Cuzco

  • Original Incan roadMachu Picchu

  • Ancient EmpiresInca contdUsed quipu for record keeping (for traders)Spoke Quechua (dev. into ethnic grp.)No written lang.Masters of terracing & irrigation from Pac. Ocn.Domesticated alpacas & llamas

  • QuipuTerracing

  • Decline of EmpiresOlmecs: ?? (volcano, absorbed)Mayan: ?? (frequent war??, overpop. over farm??, plagues??)Aztecs: Span. conquistador Hernn Corts (1521)Inca: Span. conquistador Francisco Pizarro (1535)

  • European ConquestsFrom 1500s-1700sColonizing for power and resources for home countryColumbian ExchangeAs disease killed many Natives, they began enslaving Africans to meet labor shortages

  • Latin American Revolutions

  • Sources of Discontent- Late 1700sViceroys- Spanish governorsPeninsulares- Spaniards living in LACreoles- straight Euro. descentMestizos- Native + Euro. Mulattoes- Afn. + Euro. Zambos- Native + Afn. Amerindians- NativesALL distrusted one another

  • Sources of DiscontentPeninsulares/Viceroys wanted self-ruleCreoles read works of Enlightenment thinkers; All looked to Amn & Fr. Rev wanted more rightsNat. & Afns wanted freedom from slavery

    Finally acted when Napoleon defeated Spain (made weaker)

  • Haitis StruggleFrench-ruledSugar & coffee plantations = 1/2 million slaves lots of $ for France25,000 free (but not equal) mulattoes

  • Haitis StruggleRevolted in 1791Led by Toussaint LOuvertureFormer slave, but educatedNapoleon went in to regain, but Pres. TJ aided rebels1804: Complete independence

  • Haiti is first non-slave nation in Western Hemisphere

  • Mexicos FightFather Hidalgo: El Grito de Dolores1810: cry for independenceencouraged lower class (mestizos) to fight for indep. and more rightsHidalgo was executed Fr. Jose Morales led fight (later executed)

    Creoles (pure Span. descent) against rebels at 1st

  • Mexicos Fight1820: new govnt in Spain scared Creoles fought with rebels won in 1821 Set up monarchy 1st, later a republic never stable

  • Simn Bolvar1810: Bolivar led revolt in Venezuela form republic (did not last)Went on to Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia republicsJoined Jose de San MartinLeader in Argentina & Chile

  • Simn BolvarWars ended in 1824Tried to unite lands into Gran Colombia Biggest problem: Power struggles caused huge civil wars turn to military

  • BrazilNapoleon beat Portugal Royals fled to Brazil King made reforms Left son Dom Pedro to rule But new powers in Portugal were against Dom Pedro

  • BrazilHe made Brazil independent constitutional monarchy Freedom of press & religion; elected legislature1889: became republic w/o any violence

  • DictatorshipsAs the countries fought for indep., power went to new peopleEuropean & indigenous hist. stressed rank & privilegeSo ppl of power and strength were natural fitEnter the era of CAUDILLOS (dictators)

  • DictatorshipsHaiti: Instability staysBlacks vs. mulattoes- assassination of each others leadersMany military coups (even of democratically elected pres!), US occupancy, military dictatorshipsUN peacekeepers present since 2004

  • DictatorshipsMexico:Series of military dictatorships beginning with Santa Anna1920s: Had ify multi-party elections (PRI ruled for 70+ yrs)Charged with fraud, unfair electionsVenezuelaFrom Bolivar on, dictatorships gave into military regimes

  • DictatorshipsBrazil:Dom Pedros son helped econ. and ended slavery landowners revolted to oust emperorSet up fed. RepublicLack of democratic tradition brought about decades of dictatorships, Nazi, & Communist uprisings1985 marked 1st civilian president

  • DictatorshipsPeople are unhappy REVOLTOption A: the military puts out revolt and resumes power to keep orderOption B: rebels win & put in someone military/wealthy dont like military coup

  • Caribbean Independence1898: Cuba from Spain1900s: Jamaica & Barbados from Britain

    Some still under foreign control

  • Panama CanalIsthmus perfect place to connect oceansFerdinand de Lesseps (Suez Canal) tried but failedDisease, geography, $Bunau-Varilla asked US pres TR (1901) to aid building

  • Panama CanalPanama was part of Colombia at timeCol. refused to give up landPanamanians revolted, US helped themPanama gained independence (1903)Canal began in 1904, until 1914US owned until 1999

  • CubaLike others, ppl were discontent with govntCuba- gap b/w rich and poorRevolution led by Fidel Castro set up Communist State with military dictator (1959)Ruled until 06-08 left Raul (brother) in power

  • ChangeMexico:Mid-90s gave rise to Zapatista rebelsFight for indigenous rights spreads2000 marked PAN take over (Vicente Fox, Felipe Calderon)Venezuela:Coups lasted into 90s, one even by current leftist Pres. ChavezElectorate voted him in b/c he was a strong ruler in a time a of crisis