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Wine appreciation

Feb 08, 2017



  • Wine Appreciation



  • Assignment

    What are the different types of wine?

    What are sparkling wines?

    How are wines named?

    Briefly discuss how wines are made.



    Vintage (wine terminology)

  • Wines

  • Wine History

    Making wine is as ancient as history itself:

    Referred to in the Bible

    In hieroglyphics

    In Greek and Roman literature

  • History

    When Europeans first came to the New

    World, they did their best to grow grapes

    from cuttings they brought with them.

    The grapevines did not flourish in the cold

    northeastern climate, however, so most

    alcoholic fruit concoctions were made from

    berries and apples.

  • History

    1n 1769, a priest named Padre Junipero

    Serra traveled to California from Mexico,

    bringing with him some European

    grapevine cuttings.

    By the late 1800s, some California wines

    were winning medals in international

    winemaking competitions.

  • History

    Prohibition slowed things down

    significantly. Grape growers could only

    make small quatities of home-produced

    wines, sell table grapes, or make

    sacramental wines for churches.

  • Winemaking

    Is the process of fermenting the juices of

    ripe grapes.

    The chemical reactions in this process are

    as follows:

    Yeast converts sugar found naturally in the

    fruit into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

    The carbon dioxide escapes into the air (in

    certain instances, is trapped in bottles to

    produce sparkling wines and Champagne)

    leaving the juice and alcohol behind.

  • Terms

    Producer the winery, or many different

    small vineyards.

    Vintage the year in which the grapes

    were picked and the winemaking process


    Varietal type of grape used

  • 3 Types of Table Wines




  • Red Wines

  • Red Wines

    Tend to be hearty, full-bodied and nearly

    always dry.

    Color can range from deep crimson to purple

    to reddish-orange or rust depending on the

    type of grape used and the age of the wine.

    Dry lack of sweetness

    Dryness is one of the qualities that makes red

    wines suitable for steak, game and lasagna

  • White Wines

  • White Wines

    White wines range in color from pale straw

    to bright yellow to gold.

    Generally more delicate in flavor than

    reds, they range in flavor from very dry to

    very sweet.

    Complement fish, veal, and pasta dishes

    in light (butter or cream) based sauces.

  • Rose Wines

  • Rose Wines

    Comes in attractive shades of pale red,

    pink or salmon, and they are sometimes

    referred to as blush wines.

    Made from red grapes, but the juice is

    removed from the grape skins earlier,

    leaving less color in the liquid.

    Usually not fermented as long, leaving

    some residual sugar.

  • Sparkling Wines

  • Sparkling Wines

    Still wines wines that do not contain


    Sparkling wines come in red, white and


    Sparkling wines can also be called

    champagne but the French say that only

    wines made in Champagne can truly be

    called Champagne.

  • Champagne

    Is the classic wine of celebration.

    Served chilled

    Complement almost any food and are

    good to drink by themselves

  • Fortified Wines

    Wine that has extra alcohol or brandy

    added to it.

    This process is known as fortifying.

    Two categories:


    Dessert Wines

  • Fortified Wines

  • Aperitif

    Aromatized meaning that they are flavored

    with aromatic herbs and spices.

    Traditionally sipped before dinner to

    stimulate the appetite or aid digestion of

    the upcoming meal.

  • Dessert Wines

    Designed to end the meal.

    They are rich, sweet and heavy, and

    imbibed in small quantities like liqueurs.

    They are also late harvest wines, usually

    white, made from grapes that have been

    allowed to over-ripen on the vines, almost

    to spoilage, for maximum sugar content.

  • Sake and Shochu

    These are Asian products known as


    Sake from Japan (SAH-kay) is a beverage

    made from rice.

    Referred to as Drink of gods

  • Sake and Shochu

    Shochu (Japan) Soju (Korea) Shaojiu

    (China) means burned liquor.

    Can be made from rice, barley, soba, or

    buckwheat and even from sweet potatoes,

    tapioca or chestnuts.

  • Sake

  • Soju

  • The Grapes

    From the grapes skin comes the color of

    the wine.

    Different types of grapes exhibit different

    characteristics and therefore, become

    different tasting wines.

    There are red grapes and white grapes.

  • The Grapes

    Red grapes can be actually red or blackish

    or purple.

    Red wines are made when red grapes are

    crushed and fermented along with the

    skins and stems.

    During the fermentation process, the red

    wine gets its tannin.

    Tannin comes from the skins and stems of

    grapes and acts as preservative.

  • The Grapes

    Tannins impart some of this bitterness to

    the wine and can taste unpleasant when

    the wine is young.

    White grapes are fermented without their

    skins. White wines can also be made from

    red grapes since the juice is separated

    from the skin.

    Because tannins are missing, white wines

    generally do not last as long as reds.

  • Wine Making Process

  • Wine Making

  • Corks

    One of the on-going issues in the wine

    world is how to seal the bottles.

    Over the years, bottles have been sealed

    with pitch, gypsum, or plugs (called

    stoppels) made of ground up glass.

    Bottles have been stuffed with leather or

    cloth and coated with wax.

  • Corks

    Sealing bottles was an inexact process

    because the bottles, and therefore, their

    openings were not uniformly made until

    the last 100 years or so.

  • Corks

    Cork is a successful closure because it

    can fit snugly into the neck of almost any

    type of bottle.

    Corks flexibility enables it to be


    It is light, moisture resistant and doesnt

    deteriorate, even under extreme


  • Corks

    In todays wine bottling process, a

    capsule, a cap of foil or plastic is placed

    over the cork for additional protection.

  • Cork

    Are pieces of bark of the suberin oak tree

    that grows primarily in Portugal and Spain.

  • Issues

    Each tree requires almost a decade of

    growth to replace its stripped outer bark.

    Oak forests are regenerating at a rate of

    4% yearly.

    In the mid 1900s the wine world began

    searching for synthetic alternatives

    because of climate and environmental


  • Issues

    There were also complains about the

    overall quality of wine corks had


    Studies suggest that 1 to 12 percent of

    wines were contaminated with 6-

    Trichloroanisole (TCA) a harmless but

    smelly combination of mold, chlorine and

    moisture permeating inside the wine and

    tainting it with an off-putting musty odor.

  • Issues

    In response to the problem, some

    supermarket chains decided to boycott

    wines with corks.

    NZ was the first to adopt a policy

    promoting the use of screwtops or


  • Pro-Cork

    Question the safety and longevity of

    plastic stoppers.

    Corks are recyclable and biodegradable.

    Synthetic stoppers are harder to get out of


  • Pro-Alternative Closure

    Wine stoppers dont have to be stored on

    their sides.

    They dont break or crumble.

    Can be removed without adding any

    flavors or odors to wine.

    Cost less than what corks costs

  • How Wines are Named

    Predominant variety of grapes used


    Broad Generic Type (Generic)

    Brand Name

    Place of Origin

  • Varietal

    One of which single grape variety


    The name of the grape is the name of the


    Ex. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay,


  • Generic Names

    A generic wine is a US wine of a broad

    general style or type such as Burgundy or


    Their names are borrowed from European

    wines that come from well-known districts,

    but their resemblance is slight to


    Today terms like Red Table Wine or White

    Table Wine are used.

  • Brand Names

    A brand name wine may be anything from

    an inexpensive blend to a very fine wine

    with a prestigious pedigree.

    A brand name also called a proprietary

    name is one that belongs exclusively to a

    vineyard or shipper who produces and/or

    bottles the wine.

  • Place-of-Origin Name

    Many imported wines use their place of

    origin as the name on their label.