Feb 08, 2017
What are the different types of wine?
What are sparkling wines?
How are wines named?
Briefly discuss how wines are made.
Vintage (wine terminology)
Making wine is as ancient as history itself:
Referred to in the Bible
In Greek and Roman literature
When Europeans first came to the New
World, they did their best to grow grapes
from cuttings they brought with them.
The grapevines did not flourish in the cold
northeastern climate, however, so most
alcoholic fruit concoctions were made from
berries and apples.
1n 1769, a priest named Padre Junipero
Serra traveled to California from Mexico,
bringing with him some European
By the late 1800s, some California wines
were winning medals in international
Prohibition slowed things down
significantly. Grape growers could only
make small quatities of home-produced
wines, sell table grapes, or make
sacramental wines for churches.
Is the process of fermenting the juices of
The chemical reactions in this process are
Yeast converts sugar found naturally in the
fruit into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The carbon dioxide escapes into the air (in
certain instances, is trapped in bottles to
produce sparkling wines and Champagne)
leaving the juice and alcohol behind.
Producer the winery, or many different
Vintage the year in which the grapes
were picked and the winemaking process
Varietal type of grape used
3 Types of Table Wines
Tend to be hearty, full-bodied and nearly
Color can range from deep crimson to purple
to reddish-orange or rust depending on the
type of grape used and the age of the wine.
Dry lack of sweetness
Dryness is one of the qualities that makes red
wines suitable for steak, game and lasagna
White wines range in color from pale straw
to bright yellow to gold.
Generally more delicate in flavor than
reds, they range in flavor from very dry to
Complement fish, veal, and pasta dishes
in light (butter or cream) based sauces.
Comes in attractive shades of pale red,
pink or salmon, and they are sometimes
referred to as blush wines.
Made from red grapes, but the juice is
removed from the grape skins earlier,
leaving less color in the liquid.
Usually not fermented as long, leaving
some residual sugar.
Still wines wines that do not contain
Sparkling wines come in red, white and
Sparkling wines can also be called
champagne but the French say that only
wines made in Champagne can truly be
Is the classic wine of celebration.
Complement almost any food and are
good to drink by themselves
Wine that has extra alcohol or brandy
added to it.
This process is known as fortifying.
Aromatized meaning that they are flavored
with aromatic herbs and spices.
Traditionally sipped before dinner to
stimulate the appetite or aid digestion of
the upcoming meal.
Designed to end the meal.
They are rich, sweet and heavy, and
imbibed in small quantities like liqueurs.
They are also late harvest wines, usually
white, made from grapes that have been
allowed to over-ripen on the vines, almost
to spoilage, for maximum sugar content.
Sake and Shochu
These are Asian products known as
Sake from Japan (SAH-kay) is a beverage
made from rice.
Referred to as Drink of gods
Sake and Shochu
Shochu (Japan) Soju (Korea) Shaojiu
(China) means burned liquor.
Can be made from rice, barley, soba, or
buckwheat and even from sweet potatoes,
tapioca or chestnuts.
From the grapes skin comes the color of
Different types of grapes exhibit different
characteristics and therefore, become
different tasting wines.
There are red grapes and white grapes.
Red grapes can be actually red or blackish
Red wines are made when red grapes are
crushed and fermented along with the
skins and stems.
During the fermentation process, the red
wine gets its tannin.
Tannin comes from the skins and stems of
grapes and acts as preservative.
Tannins impart some of this bitterness to
the wine and can taste unpleasant when
the wine is young.
White grapes are fermented without their
skins. White wines can also be made from
red grapes since the juice is separated
from the skin.
Because tannins are missing, white wines
generally do not last as long as reds.
Wine Making Process
One of the on-going issues in the wine
world is how to seal the bottles.
Over the years, bottles have been sealed
with pitch, gypsum, or plugs (called
stoppels) made of ground up glass.
Bottles have been stuffed with leather or
cloth and coated with wax.
Sealing bottles was an inexact process
because the bottles, and therefore, their
openings were not uniformly made until
the last 100 years or so.
Cork is a successful closure because it
can fit snugly into the neck of almost any
type of bottle.
Corks flexibility enables it to be
It is light, moisture resistant and doesnt
deteriorate, even under extreme
In todays wine bottling process, a
capsule, a cap of foil or plastic is placed
over the cork for additional protection.
Are pieces of bark of the suberin oak tree
that grows primarily in Portugal and Spain.
Each tree requires almost a decade of
growth to replace its stripped outer bark.
Oak forests are regenerating at a rate of
In the mid 1900s the wine world began
searching for synthetic alternatives
because of climate and environmental
There were also complains about the
overall quality of wine corks had
Studies suggest that 1 to 12 percent of
wines were contaminated with 6-
Trichloroanisole (TCA) a harmless but
smelly combination of mold, chlorine and
moisture permeating inside the wine and
tainting it with an off-putting musty odor.
In response to the problem, some
supermarket chains decided to boycott
wines with corks.
NZ was the first to adopt a policy
promoting the use of screwtops or
Question the safety and longevity of
Corks are recyclable and biodegradable.
Synthetic stoppers are harder to get out of
Wine stoppers dont have to be stored on
They dont break or crumble.
Can be removed without adding any
flavors or odors to wine.
Cost less than what corks costs
How Wines are Named
Predominant variety of grapes used
Broad Generic Type (Generic)
Place of Origin
One of which single grape variety
The name of the grape is the name of the
Ex. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay,
A generic wine is a US wine of a broad
general style or type such as Burgundy or
Their names are borrowed from European
wines that come from well-known districts,
but their resemblance is slight to
Today terms like Red Table Wine or White
Table Wine are used.
A brand name wine may be anything from
an inexpensive blend to a very fine wine
with a prestigious pedigree.
A brand name also called a proprietary
name is one that belongs exclusively to a
vineyard or shipper who produces and/or
bottles the wine.
Many imported wines use their place of
origin as the name on their label.