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SIMPLE PRESENT, AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE
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SIMPLE PRESENT, AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE

Dec 02, 2021

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USES OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT 1. The simple present is used to talk about things that happen regularly (usually, always,
every day, etc)
I wake up at 10:00 a.m. on Sundays.
2. The simple present is used with adverbs of frequency to express something that often happens.
Example:
• In Spain, people always go to the Running of the Bulls.
• In France, people often kiss on both cheeks.
SIMPLE PRESENT, AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE
These things happen all the time (every Tuesday and on Sundays)
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Frequency adverbs indicate how frequently something happens. These are:
IMPORTANT: Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb, but they go after the verb “to be”
• They never come late. (main verb)
• They are never late. (to be)
Non-action verbs usually describe states or situations (not actions). They are used to:
• Express emotions
Example:
• I believe in God. (mental states)
• Dina seems tired. (perceptions)
• The food smells good. (non-action)
• She's smelling the food to see of she wants some. (action)
Always
Usually
Often
Sometimes
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ATTENTION!!! Some verbs that describe senses and perceptions such as taste, smell, feel and look, can have both, a non-action
and an action meaning.
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DAILY ROUTINES There are certain things you do every day regardless of the date. These are called daily routines. These can happen at your house, at your work or everywhere you go on a daily basis.
FIGURE 1: DAILY ROUTINES
I get up I take a shower I get dressed I have breakfast
I go to work I start work at 9 I have lunch I finish work
I arrive home I have dinner I watch T.V. I go to bed
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Examples:
• I always have lunch at noon.
DAILY ROUTINES
Since daily routines are things that happen regularly, they are always written by using the simple present.
Frequency adverbs are also very useful when talking about daily routines, as they help us define the frequency of the routine we are talking about.
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AFFIRMATIVE
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
To create a simple present sentence in English, we follow this pattern:
Subject is the person, thing or animal we are referring to.
Verb is the action the subject Is doing.
Complement is the rest of the Information that completes what you need to say.
Example:
Luis runs every morning.
Now, it is important to notice that verbs have different conjugations according to the person they are accompanying.
Subject + verb + complement
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For third person singular, we add an "s" to the end of the verb. These are:
Example:
• Mary plays the guitar at a club on Fridays.
• The dog eats his food at the table.
For plural persons and I, we leave the verb as it is. These are:
• you, we
• you, they
• You dance very well.
• They smell the flowers.
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NEGATIVE SENTENCES The sentence structure for the negative form will change depending on the verb:
• Regular verbs without an auxiliary
• Auxiliary verbs
The negative form is created by adding "not" to an auxiliary verb. When there is not an auxiliary verb, we use "do" as an auxiliary.
A. PRESENT TENSE – REGULAR VERBS (WITHOUT AN AUXILIARY)
The sentence structure for the negative form with regular verbs is the following:
In present tense, we will need to add "do" or "does" depending on the person:
Example:
Example:
he, she, it Does
I, you, we, they Do
Remember that when using “does”, the verb loses the “s” we had in the present time.
Loves = love
She loves to cook. She does not love to cook.
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B. PRESENT TENSE – AUXILIARY VERBS
The sentence structure for the negative form with auxiliary verbs is the following:
Examples:
• Have
• Can
• Will
• Be
You can tell if the verb is acting as an auxiliary when it is followed by another verb.
Subject + aux verb + not + complement
She is a doctor. She is not a doctor.
He is at the grocery store. He is not at the grocery store.
They have bought a sweater for Christmas.
They have not bought a sweater for Christmas.
I will go to the mountains next month.
I will not go to the mountains next month.
C. PAST TENSE – REGULAR VERBS (WITHOUT AN AUXILIARY)
The past tense is different for the negative form. When there is not an auxiliary in the sentence, we use "Did" as an auxiliary. The structure for the negative form with regular verbs in the past tense is the following:
Example:
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He did not play the guitar all night long.
They looked very anxious when they arrived.
They did not look very anxious when they arrived.
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D. PAST TENSE – AUXILIARY VERBS The structure for the negative form with auxiliary verbs is the following:
Examples:
Some auxiliaries change when used in the past form:
• Will (only indicates future)
• Could (used as the past tense of “can”)
Susan was very tired after the flight. Susan was not very tired after the flight.
We were too happy to see him. We were not too happy to see him.
She had had a heart attack when she was younger.
She had not had a heart attack when she was younger.
You could lose your way in the dark. You could not lose your way in the dark.
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NEGATIVE QUESTIONS There are no negative questions, all questions made from a sentence in negative form are asked in affirmative form. The negative is done in the answer.
Examples:
Not isn’t the only word that can make a clause negative. There are some other negative words too. Examples: never, hardly, seldom, rarely, etc
I am not a teacher. Are you a teacher? No, I am not.
She does not play the piano very well. Does she play the pianovery well? No, she does not.
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YES/NO QUESTIONS When you want to ask a question from an affirmative sentence, there are two ways of doing It.
1. Sentences with the verb "to be"
If a sentence includes the verb "to be", you need to move the verb to the beginning of the sentence and add the question mark.
Example:
2. Sentences with the rest of the verbs
If a sentence Includes any verb different than the verb "to be", you need to use the auxiliary "Do/Does" In order to turn it into a question. There are two possible scenarios here:
The auxiliary will alwayss be placed at the beginning of the question.
THIRD PERSON SINGULAR
PLURAL AND I
She is a student. Is she a student?
Marco works very late. Does Marco work very late? (the verb does not have an "s" anymore.)
Susan and Carol want a cake. Do Susan and Carol want a cake? (the verb remains the same)
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SHORT ANSWERS There are some simple questions for which we can provide a short answer. There are two possible ways of providing short answers:
1. Sentences with the verb "to be" follow this structure:
Examples:
2. Sentences with the rest of the verbs follow this structure:
Yes/No + subject + verb
Yes/No + subject + auxiliary
Is Mary a doctor? Yes, she is. No, she is not / isn't.
Is the cat outside? Yes, it is. No, It is not / isn't.
Are you a teacher? Yes, I am. No, I am not.
Are they studying? Yes, they are. No, they are not / aren't.
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Remember that auxiliaries change based on the person of the sentence:
Examples:
use "Do"
Do you like pizza? Yes, I do. No, I do not / don’t.
Does she play the guitar? Yes, she does. No, she does not / doesn’t.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
English Grammar. (n.d.). Negative verb forms. (2016, January 3rd) Retrieved from: http:// www.englishgrammar.org/negative-verb-forms/
Fuchs, M. Bonner, M. Westheimer, M. (2006). Focus on Grammar. An integrated skills approach (3 rd E). New York: Pearson Education.
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