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USES OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT 1. The simple present is used to talk
about things that happen regularly (usually, always,
every day, etc)
I wake up at 10:00 a.m. on Sundays.
2. The simple present is used with adverbs of frequency to express
something that often happens.
• In Spain, people always go to the Running of the Bulls.
• In France, people often kiss on both cheeks.
SIMPLE PRESENT, AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE
These things happen all the time (every Tuesday and on
Frequency adverbs indicate how frequently something happens. These
IMPORTANT: Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb,
but they go after the verb “to be”
• They never come late. (main verb)
• They are never late. (to be)
Non-action verbs usually describe states or situations (not
actions). They are used to:
• Express emotions
• I believe in God. (mental states)
• Dina seems tired. (perceptions)
• The food smells good. (non-action)
• She's smelling the food to see of she wants some. (action)
ATTENTION!!! Some verbs that describe senses and perceptions such
as taste, smell, feel and look, can have both, a non-action
and an action meaning.
DAILY ROUTINES There are certain things you do every day regardless
of the date. These are called daily routines. These can happen at
your house, at your work or everywhere you go on a daily
FIGURE 1: DAILY ROUTINES
I get up I take a shower I get dressed I have breakfast
I go to work I start work at 9 I have lunch I finish work
I arrive home I have dinner I watch T.V. I go to bed
• I always have lunch at noon.
Since daily routines are things that happen regularly, they are
always written by using the simple present.
Frequency adverbs are also very useful when talking about daily
routines, as they help us define the frequency of the routine we
are talking about.
To create a simple present sentence in English, we follow this
Subject is the person, thing or animal we are referring to.
Verb is the action the subject Is doing.
Complement is the rest of the Information that completes what you
need to say.
Luis runs every morning.
Now, it is important to notice that verbs have different
conjugations according to the person they are accompanying.
Subject + verb + complement
For third person singular, we add an "s" to the end of the verb.
• Mary plays the guitar at a club on Fridays.
• The dog eats his food at the table.
For plural persons and I, we leave the verb as it is. These
• you, we
• you, they
• You dance very well.
• They smell the flowers.
NEGATIVE SENTENCES The sentence structure for the negative form
will change depending on the verb:
• Regular verbs without an auxiliary
• Auxiliary verbs
The negative form is created by adding "not" to an auxiliary verb.
When there is not an auxiliary verb, we use "do" as an
A. PRESENT TENSE – REGULAR VERBS (WITHOUT AN AUXILIARY)
The sentence structure for the negative form with regular verbs is
In present tense, we will need to add "do" or "does" depending on
he, she, it Does
I, you, we, they Do
Remember that when using “does”, the verb loses the “s” we had in
the present time.
Loves = love
She loves to cook. She does not love to cook.
B. PRESENT TENSE – AUXILIARY VERBS
The sentence structure for the negative form with auxiliary verbs
is the following:
You can tell if the verb is acting as an auxiliary when it is
followed by another verb.
Subject + aux verb + not + complement
She is a doctor. She is not a doctor.
He is at the grocery store. He is not at the grocery store.
They have bought a sweater for Christmas.
They have not bought a sweater for Christmas.
I will go to the mountains next month.
I will not go to the mountains next month.
C. PAST TENSE – REGULAR VERBS (WITHOUT AN AUXILIARY)
The past tense is different for the negative form. When there is
not an auxiliary in the sentence, we use "Did" as an auxiliary. The
structure for the negative form with regular verbs in the past
tense is the following:
He did not play the guitar all night long.
They looked very anxious when they arrived.
They did not look very anxious when they arrived.
D. PAST TENSE – AUXILIARY VERBS The structure for the negative form
with auxiliary verbs is the following:
Some auxiliaries change when used in the past form:
• Will (only indicates future)
• Could (used as the past tense of “can”)
Susan was very tired after the flight. Susan was not very tired
after the flight.
We were too happy to see him. We were not too happy to see
She had had a heart attack when she was younger.
She had not had a heart attack when she was younger.
You could lose your way in the dark. You could not lose your way in
NEGATIVE QUESTIONS There are no negative questions, all questions
made from a sentence in negative form are asked in affirmative
form. The negative is done in the answer.
Not isn’t the only word that can make a clause negative. There are
some other negative words too. Examples: never, hardly, seldom,
I am not a teacher. Are you a teacher? No, I am not.
She does not play the piano very well. Does she play the pianovery
well? No, she does not.
YES/NO QUESTIONS When you want to ask a question from an
affirmative sentence, there are two ways of doing It.
1. Sentences with the verb "to be"
If a sentence includes the verb "to be", you need to move the verb
to the beginning of the sentence and add the question mark.
2. Sentences with the rest of the verbs
If a sentence Includes any verb different than the verb "to be",
you need to use the auxiliary "Do/Does" In order to turn it into a
question. There are two possible scenarios here:
The auxiliary will alwayss be placed at the beginning of the
THIRD PERSON SINGULAR
PLURAL AND I
She is a student. Is she a student?
Marco works very late. Does Marco work very late? (the verb does
not have an "s" anymore.)
Susan and Carol want a cake. Do Susan and Carol want a cake? (the
verb remains the same)
SHORT ANSWERS There are some simple questions for which we can
provide a short answer. There are two possible ways of providing
1. Sentences with the verb "to be" follow this structure:
2. Sentences with the rest of the verbs follow this
Yes/No + subject + verb
Yes/No + subject + auxiliary
Is Mary a doctor? Yes, she is. No, she is not / isn't.
Is the cat outside? Yes, it is. No, It is not / isn't.
Are you a teacher? Yes, I am. No, I am not.
Are they studying? Yes, they are. No, they are not / aren't.
Remember that auxiliaries change based on the person of the
Do you like pizza? Yes, I do. No, I do not / don’t.
Does she play the guitar? Yes, she does. No, she does not /
English Grammar. (n.d.). Negative verb forms. (2016, January 3rd)
Retrieved from: http://
Fuchs, M. Bonner, M. Westheimer, M. (2006). Focus on Grammar. An
integrated skills approach (3 rd E). New York: Pearson