Top Banner
Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce, Third edition, Instructor’s Manual Ebusiness and Ecommerce Management 4 th edition Self assessment questions for students at the end of each chapter. Note, that answers to in-chapter activities and other questions are only available to lecturers who register via the Pearson site at . Chapter 1 Self-assessment questions 1. Distinguish between e-commerce and e-business. This can best be explained by referring to different elements shown in Figure 1.1 i.e. sell-side e-commerce buy-side e-commerce internal use of electronic communications to support business processes. E-business is generally understood to include all three elements. E-commerce is commonly used to refer to either the first one or first two of these elements, but less commonly the third. E-business is broader in scope than e-commerce. 2. Explain what is meant by buy-side and sell-side e-commerce. Again refer to Figure 1.1. Buy-side e-commerce is using communications technology to support the upstream supply chain from procurement to inbound logistics. Sell-side refers to selling and distributing products and services from an organization to its customers. 3. Describe the different services that can be offered to customers via a web presence. This is covered in more detail in Chapter 5 where stage models are referred to (p214):
Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.

Chaffey, E-Business and E-Commerce, Third edition, Instructors ManualEbusiness and Ecommerce Management 4th edition

Self assessment questions for students at the end of each chapter.

Note, that answers to in-chapter activities and other questions are only available to lecturers who register via the Pearson site at Chapter 1Self-assessment questions1. Distinguish between e-commerce and e-business.This can best be explained by referring to different elements shown in Figure 1.1 i.e.sell-side e-commercebuy-side e-commerceinternal use of electronic communications to support business processes.

E-business is generally understood to include all three elements. E-commerce is commonly used to refer to either the first one or first two of these elements, but less commonly the third. E-business is broader in scope than e-commerce.

2. Explain what is meant by buy-side and sell-side e-commerce.Again refer to Figure 1.1. Buy-side e-commerce is using communications technology to support the upstream supply chain from procurement to inbound logistics. Sell-side refers to selling and distributing products and services from an organization to its customers.

3. Describe the different services that can be offered to customers via a web presence.This is covered in more detail in Chapter 5 where stage models are referred to (p214):outline information services on company and productsdetailed information services on products, e.g. technical infosheetstransactional e-commerce purchases can be made onlinetransactional customer service questions can be asked and answers supplied online

4. Summarize the consumer and business adoption levels in your country. What seem to be the main barriers to adoptionClickz ( is a good source of country information. For business, the main barriers are highlighted by the DTI (2000) survey:lack of imperative;security risks.

For consumers, the Which report highlights fears about security and privacy as well as the lack of a perceived need.

5. Outline the reasons why a business may wish to adopt e-commerce. The 6Cs are a good framework here:Cost reduction less use of physical resources and staff.New Capability e.g. to sell into an overseas market.Improved communication internal and external.Control better visibility/information for managers of trading relationships.Customer service more detailed information, faster response can be provided 24 hours, and 7 days a week.Competitive advantage any of the above factors may provide this, but it is likely to be short lived.

6. What are the main differences between business-to-business and business-to-consumer e-commerce?

Refer also to the section in Chapter 2 (p43). In terms of volume of transactions B2B dwarfs B2C. B2C transactions will typically be smaller and less frequent for a trading relationship, but this is a generalization.

7. Summarize the impact of the introduction of e-business on different aspects of an organization.The McKinsey 7S model is a useful framework for looking at the different aspects of a business that may be affected by the move to e-business.Strategy new strategic responses are requiredStructure new structures and responsibilities may be requiredSystems new information systems and new processes will be requiredStyle less likely to change, but some organizational styles are more responsive to changeStaff new responsibilitiesSkills new skillsSuperordinate goals higher level aims may be updated depending on the business.8. What is the relevance of intermediary sites such as Kelkoo ( to the B2C company?

Companies must think about whether they are represented on such intermediaries. If they are not, they may lose potential business. They also need to consider the positioning of their products relative to competitors who also use the intermediary.

Note that Mondus wound down operations in 2002. Another example is Clearly Business, a joint venture between Barclays and Freeserve. Chapter 2

1.Outline the main options for trading between businesses and consumers.These are:B2C retail to consumersB2B interorganizationalC2C consumer interactions e.g. auctionsC2B customer make offers to businesses, e.g. Priceline2.Explain the concept of disintermediation and reintermediation with reference to a particular industry; what are the implications for a company operating in this industry?Example air travel. A carrier has the option of:distintermediation selling direct from its web sitereintermediation selling via new online intermediaries with new pricing models such as Priceline, Lastminute or Expedia3.Describe the three main alternative locations for trading within the electronic marketplace.From companys own web siteFrom an intermediary web site or marketplaceBy making bids after reviewing customers web sites4.What are the main types of commercial transactions that can occur through the Internet or in traditional commerce?See Table 2.5:Commercial (trading) mechanism1. Negotiated deal2. Brokered deal3. Auction4. Fixed-price sale5. Pure markets6. Barter5.E-business involves re-evaluating value-chain activities. What types of changes can be introduced to the value chain through e-business?Improve speed of information flow between primary activities of value chainIncrease depth of information shared between activitiesReduce costs of information processing6.List the different business models identified by Timmers (1999).Timmers (1999) identifies no less than 11 different types of business model that can be facilitated by the web as follows:1. E-shop marketing of a company or shop via web.2. E-procurement electronic tendering and procurement of goods and services.3. E-malls a collection of e-shops such as Barclays Square ( 4. E-auctions these can be both for B2C and B2B as is the case with eBay.5. Virtual communities these can be B2C communities such as Xoom ( or B2B communities such as Vertical Net (; these are important for their potential in e-marketing and are described in the Focus on Online Communities section in Chapter 9.6. Collaboration platforms these enable collaboration between businesses or individuals e.g. E-groups (, now part of Yahoo! ( services.7. Third-party marketplaces Marketplaces are described in the Focus On section of Chapter 7.8. Value-chain integrators offer a range of services across the value chain.9. Value-chain service providers specialize in providing functions for a specific part of the value chain such as the logistics company UPS ( Information brokerage providing information for consumers and businesses, often to assist in making the buying decision or for business operations or leisure.11. Trust and other services examples of trust services include Which Web Trader ( or TRUSTE ( that authenticate the quality of service provided by companies trading on the web.Timmers, P. (1999) Electronic commerce strategies and models for business-to-business trading John Wiley series in information systems. Chichester, England.These can grouped as shown in Figure 2.11.7.Describe some alternative revenue models for a web site from a magazine publisher.See Figure 2.11.Subscription: per-month paymentPay per view: pay for each article, or articles up to a valueAdvertising revenue for advertising space on siteAffiliate revenue for referral to other sites leading to sale8.Draw a diagram summarizing the different types of online marketplaceRefer to Figure 2.9.

Chapter 3

1.What is the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web?Use TV analogy: Internet is the network for transmitting data globally, web is the method of delivering the content (channels).The InternetThe Internet refers to the physical network that links computers across the globe. It consists of the infrastructure of network servers and communication links between them that are used to hold and transport information between the client PCs and web servers. 2.Describe the two main functions of an Internet Service Provider (ISP). How do they differ from Applications Service Providers?Internet Service Provider (ISP)A provider enabling home or business users a connection to access the Internet (1). They can also host web-based applications.ASPs can host specific business applications.Application serverAn application server provides a business application on a server remote from the user.3.Distinguish between intranets, extranets and the Internet.Internet is public, intranet restricted to organizations employees, extranet has restricted access beyond company.IntranetA private network within a single company using Internet standards to enable employees to share information using e-mail and web publishing.

ExtranetFormed by extending the intranet beyond a company to customers, suppliers and collaborators. 4.Describe the standards involved when a web page is served from a web server to a users web browser.Request page and deliver page (HTTP), transfer request and information (TCP/IP), render page in browser (HTML).TCP/IPThe Transmission Control Protocol is a transport layer protocol that moves data between applications. The Internet protocol is a network layer protocol that moves data between host computers.

HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol)HTTP or Hypertext transfer protocol is a standard which defines the way information is transmitted across the Internet between web browsers and web servers.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)HTML is a standard format used to define the text and layout of web pages. HTML files usually have the extension .HTML or .HTM.5.What are the management issues involved with enabling staff access to a web site.Cost of access.Time spent in access lost from main activities.Access to illegal material.6.Explain the following terms:HTMLHTTPXMLFTPHTML (Hypertext Markup Language)HTML is a standard format used to define the text and layout of web pages. HTML files usually have the extension .HTML or .HTM.

HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol)HTTP or Hypertext transfer protocol is a standard which defines the way information is transmitted across the Internet between web browsers and web servers.

XML or eXtensible Markup LanguageA standard for transferring structured data, unlike HTML which is purely presentational.File Transfer Protocol (FTP)Standard used for uploading and downloading files to and from web servers7.What is the difference between static web content written in HTML and dynamic content developed using a scripting language such as JavaScript?Static content appears the same to all users. Dynamic content can be updated to reflect the environment, e.g. time or personal preferences.8.What software and hardware are required to access the Internet from home?Software: web browser, operating system, TCP/IP stack. Hardware: PC plus modemChapter 4

1.Why is environmental scanning necessary?It is necessary at a macro-level to understand new constraints on conducting business such as legal and technical constraints. These may also present opportunities. On a micro-level it is important to be responsive to customers needs and competitors actions.2.Give an example how each of the macro-environment factors may directly drive the content and services provided by a web site. social localized content for different cultures legal privacy statement economic funding and awards may be possible from governmental sources political same as above technological the incorporation of personalization3.Summarize the social factors that govern consumer access to the Internet. How can companies overcome these influences once people venture online? Cost of access technology Cost of online access per minute Peer pressure Security fears Perception of need for online accessCompanies should clearly communicate the benefits of online trading and make reassurances about the threats.4.What actions can e-commerce managers take to safeguard consumer privacy and security?Privacy statements should explain the actions taken to the customers. Firewalls should be maintained to minimize the risk of unauthorized access to customer data. The relevant data protection act should be followed.5.What are the general legal constraints that a company acts under in any country?See Table 4.2. Includes Consumer data protection and privacy laws Copy promoting goods Sales of goods/returns Trademark law Intellectual property law Disability and discrimination6.How do governments attempt to control the use of the Internet?They control through policies to promote its use and through monitoring messages through ISPs.7.Summarize adoption patterns across the continents.Refer to a source such as the International Telecommunications Union ( for the latest statistics.

8.How should innovation be managed?It should be managed by frequent review of new opportunities, achieving balance between adopting all new technologies and conservative non-adoption and careful selection of technologies that will achieve competitive advantage.

Chapter 5

1.What are the key characteristics of an e-business strategy model?All strategy models should: Be based on assessment of internal and external environment Have clearly defined SMART objectives backed up by vision Have strategies, tactics and implementation that select the best techniques to achieve these strategies Have monitoring and control that assess whether the objectives are being achieved and a feedback loop to ensure corrective action occurs.For e-business in particular, the strategy objectives should define the balance of online and offline trading with customers, suppliers and distributors. The tactics should look at how investment in information systems and revising business processes should occur to hit these targets.2.Select a retailer or manufacturer of your choice and describe what the main elements of its situation analysis should comprise.Situation analysis is summarized in Figure 5.6, p213. It includes evaluation of the external environment as described in Chapter 4 (SLEPT or PEST) and internal resources using techniques such as SWOT, application portfolio analysis and also demand and competitor analysis.3.For the same retailer or manufacturer suggest different methods and metrics for defining e-business objectives.Objectives should be SMART (Chapter 12). Examples of metrics are in Table 5.4, p227, e.g. Revenue amount Revenue source (which geographical markets, segments and products) Acquisition and retention of particular segments New product development Cost and lead-times that are part of the supply chain4.For the same retailer or manufacturer assess different strategic options to adopt for e-business.This refers to the types of decisions outlined in the strategy section of this chapter. i.e. Decision 1 E-business channel priorities Decision 2 Organizational restructuring and capabilities Decision 3 Business, service and revenue models Decision 4 Marketplace restructuring Decision 5 Market and product development strategies Decision 6 Positioning and differentiation strategiesChapter 6

1.Define supply chain management, how does it relate to: logistics; the value chain concept; value networks?Supply chain management (SCM)The coordination of all supply activities of an organization from its suppliers and partners to its customers.Logistics large overlap according to definition from Institute of Logistics and Transport:Logistics is the time-related positioning of resource, or the strategic management of the total supply chain. The supply chain is a sequence of events intended to satisfy a customer. It can include procurement, manufacture, distribution and waste disposal, together with associated transport, storage and information technology.Value chain concept has similar components such as inbound and outbound logistics, production and sales and marketing. Different orientation which is how to deliver customer value. Plus separate identification of secondary activities such as HR and IS.Value networks interactions between different value chains of a range of organizations.2.What is the difference between a push orientation to the value chain and pull orientation.A change in supply chain thinking, and also in marketing communications thinking is the move from push models of selling to pull models or combined push-pull approaches. The push model is illustrated by a manufacture who perhaps develops an innovative product and then identifies a suitable target market. A distribution channel is then created to push the product to the market. This situation is shown in Figure 6.3 (a) where it can be characterized by the statement This is a great product, now who shall we sell it to? or the quip about the original model T Ford you can have any colour, so long as it is black. The typical motivation for a push approach is to optimize the production process for cost and efficiency.3.How can information systems support the supply chain?Information systems are used to increase the efficiency of information flow by:delivering more information (e.g. sales data in Tesco TIE system)analysing information (e.g. alerting a large order)delivering it more rapidly (e.g. reduced lead times in e-procurement)4.What are the key strategic options in supply chain management?How to restructure supply chain (vertical integration/disintegration/virtual integration)How to restructure (disintermediation, reintermediation, countermediation)How to restructure relationships in a value networkNew procurement models e.g. auctions and B2B exchanges

Chapter 7

1Outline the two main methods how companies purchase supplies and the two broad divisions of supplies needed.There are two broad categories of procurement; those that relate to manufacturing of products (production-related procurement) and operating or non-production-related procurement that supports the operations of the whole business and includes office supplies, furniture, information systems, MRO goods and a range of services from catering, buying travel or professional services such as consulting and training. Raw materials for the production of goods and MRO goods are particularly important since they are critical to the operation of a business.2Taking your answer from one, give examples of B2B exchanges that have been created to meet these purchasing needs.Production-related procurement examples include Vertical Net (, sites such as, Industry-to-Industry ( which trades petrochemicals, and in pharmaceuticals ( type sites include the Staples example from Schlumberger.3Draw a sketch that shows the main stages and people involved in traditional procurement and e-procurement. This is Figure 7.1 on p289.4Outline the main reasons for e-procurement.Cost reductionReduced lead time Better quality See also the five rights of procurement on p289.5What is maverick purchasing? What safeguards need to be introduced into e-procurement to avoid this?This is where purchasing is poorly controlled and users within departments may order products that are not from a favoured supplier, do not meet company standards (e.g. of software) or are unnecessary. E-procurement enables checks such as limits on purchasing or from preferred sources.6Explain the differences between the buy-side, sell-side and marketplace options for e-procurement.Buy-side Buyer invites bids through tender placed on its own site.Sell-side Buyer goes to supplier web site to purchase.Marketplace Buyer goes to a neutral marketplace to purchase.7Outline the benefits and disadvantages of each of the options in 6.Buy-side Only suits really large buyers, but displaces work to suppliers. Key suppliers may be missed if unaware of tender. Can specify integration with IT systems.Sell-side Effort placed on buyer to find sources. Integration with IT systems potentially more difficult.Marketplace Theoretically gives widest range of suppliers and if integrated with a standard exchange which gives a standard method of data exchange and flexibility to move suppliers. Difficulty in choosing exchange with critical mass.8What are the organizational implications of introducing e-procurement?Less staff time involved with procurement requires making staff redundant or re skilling.Education and training needed to sell system to the staff using it.Better control of purchasing (reduce maverick purchasing).Chapter 8

1Explain the link between e-marketing and e-business and why they may be considered separately.E-marketing is a subset of e-business focusing on sell-side e-commerce and delivering value to customers. Adding value does also need to consider the upstream supply chain since this influences cycle time and product quality.2Outline the stages in a strategic e-marketing planning processes, for each stage noting two aspects that are of particular importance for e-marketing.Situation where are we now? 1. External (customers, competitors, PEST), 2. Internal resourcesObjectives where do we want to be? Online revenue contribution, complementary vs. replacementStrategy how do we get there? Market and product positioningTactics how exactly do we get there? 6Ps, in particular, promotion and placeAction what is our plan? Project planning and resourcingControl did we get there? Marketing research3What is the Internet contribution and what is its relevance to e-marketing strategy?Can consider a direct and indirect form:Direct Online revenue contributionAn assessment of the direct contribution of the Internet or other digital media to sales, usually expressed as a percentage of overall sales revenue.Indirect Online promotion contributionAn assessment of the proportion of customers (new or retained) who use the online information sources and are influenced as a resultThis is useful for objective setting, highlighting the importance of the new channel.4What factors will govern the Internet contribution that is set for a given organization?Deciding on the objective can use a form of Kumar or de Kare-Silver test i.e.Kumar: high if:1customer access to the Internet is high;2the Internet can offer a better value proposition than other media (i.e. propensity to purchase online is high);3the product can be delivered over the Internet (it can be argued that this is not essential for replacement, so it is not shown in the figure);4the product can be standardized (user does not usually need to view to purchase).De Kare-Silver: high if:1Product characteristics 2Familiarity and confidence 3Consumer attributes5Why and how should a company approach benchmarking of online competitors?Why rapidly evolving marketplace new entrants and new services give competitive advantage.Approaches companies should review: well known local competitors (e.g. UK/European competitors for British companies); well known international competitors; new Internet companies local and worldwide (within sector and out of sector).Can use three-criteria test:1Business effectiveness (online revenue, profitability). 2Marketing effectiveness. Outcomes such as leads and sales. 3Internet effectiveness. Effectiveness of web site as a communications tool.

6Describe what is meant by a complementary and replacement Internet channel strategy and give examples of products for which companies follow a particular approach. Complementary Internet is additional channel, but less significant than others high value products and services with complex buying decision or strong channel. Replacement Internet becomes main channel to market for sales and support typically lower value product, or straightforward buying decision (commodities).7Summarize new opportunities to vary the marketing mix that arise through deploying the Internet.Use 6Ps as frameworkProduct (New digital products and value-adds)Price (Price reduction, new pricing models)Place (New representation on intermediaries, direct-selling)Promotion (Integration of online and off-line techniques)People, Processes and Physical evidence (New forms of service delivery)8How can online and off-line techniques be used in the control stage of strategy?This question is about marketing research aspect of control. Refer to Chapter 12.Online techniques server log file analysis, pop-up surveys, e-mail auditsOff-line techniques traditional surveys of customer service.Chapter 9

1.What are the goals of acquisition and retention in an online context?Customer acquisitionTechniques used to gain new customersObtain leads via e-mail, qualify via profiling and convert to salesCustomer retentionMaintain relationships with existing customers through maintaining a dialogue via e-mail and web-site2.Outline the differences between permission marketing and interruption marketing including reference to the terms opt-in and opt-out.Permission marketingCustomers agree (opt-in) to be involved in an organizations marketing activities usually as a result of an incentiveInterruption marketingMarketing communications that disrupt customers activities, for example, telesales call, and is not explicitly opt-in.3.Summarize the main types of online marketing communications for traffic building.Search engine registrationLink buildingBanner advertising and sponsorshipPRE-mailAffiliate marketing4.Explain why mixed-mode buying needs to be understood by those managing an e-commerce site.Many buying decisions are complex they are not only made online, but using a combination of online and offline. To influence the decision companies need to be active both online and offline in influencing a range of mixed-mode buying scenarios.5.Explain a range of techniques for attracting repeat visits to a web site.Direct e-mail with incentive/offerPersonalizationCommunity/newsCompetitions and promotions6.What is the difference between personalization and mass customization?Personalization is generally considered to be one-to-one marketing where the customer selects their choices. Mass customization also involves tailoring, but from a limited number of options. There is overlap between the two concepts.7.How can an e-commerce site be used to achieve extension in CRM?Customer extensionTechniques to encourage customers to increase their involvement with an organizationSee Question 5.8.What are the management issues in managing data and applications integration in CRM?Cost of integrationDisruption to service during integrationData transfer from legacy to new systemsSingle vendor or multi-vendor sourcingChapter 10

1.Summarize the main types of change that need to be managed during introduction of e-business.Business level change new business processesTechnological change new systemsOrganizational structure changeOrganizational culture changeOrganizational strategy changePeople change new roles and working practices2.What approaches must managers take to successfully achieve change management?Support from senior managementEducation explain why the system is required by the business and its impact on staffInvolvement involve employees in specification and testingTraining explain new procedures and operation of softwareRisk management assessing problems and putting solutions in place3.Outline the main stages of a sell-side e-commerce implementation.InitiationAnalysis/market researchSpecification of business objectives and application requirementsDesign of solution including selecting implementation platformIntegrate different applications and build interfaceMigrate data about customers and products to the systemTestSystem liveMaintenance4.Explain the role of prototyping in developing a sell-side e-commerce solution.PrototypingPrototyping is an iterative process where web site users suggest modifications before further prototypes and the live version of the site is developed.The main benefits are as follows:It prevents major design or functional errors being made during the construction of the web site that may be costly and time consuming to fix once the site becomes live and may also damage the brand. Such errors will hopefully be identified early on and then corrected.It involves the team responsible for the web site and ideally the potential audience of the web site in proactively shaping the web site. This should result in a site that more closely meets the needs of the users.The iterative approach is intended to be rapid and a site can be produced in a period of months or weeks.5.Describe four different approaches to retaining staff.Various elements of a benefits packageIncrease remunerationTraining and reskillingShare optionsPensions, etc.6.What alternative approaches are there to structuring e-commerce within an organization?1.A separate operating company. Example Prudential and Egg ( separate business unit with independent budgets. Example RS Components Internet Trading Company ( 3.A separate committee or department manages and coordinates e-commerce. Example, Derbyshire Building Society ( 4.No formal structure for e-commerce. Examples: Many small businesses and the Retail and Engineering Company.7.Which type of organizational culture is most amenable to e-business related change?The four types of culture described in the text are as follows:1.Survival (outward-looking, flexible) the external environment plays a significant role (an open system) in governing company strategy. The company will likely be driven by customer demands and will be an innovator. It may have a relatively flat structure.2.Productivity (outward-looking, ordered) interfaces with the external environment are well structured and the company is typically sales-driven and is likely to have a hierarchical structure.3.Human relations (inward-looking, flexible) this is the organization as family, with interpersonal relations more important than reporting channels, a flatter structure and staff development and empowerment are thought of important by managers.4.Stability (inward-looking, ordered) the environment is essentially ignored with managers concentrating on internal efficiency and again managed through a hierarchical structure.Of these, 1 and 3 are the preferred approaches7. What are some of the risks of e-business change, and how can they be managed.8. See table (above in Activity 10.5 answer) for a suggested solutionChapter 11

1What are the risks if analysis and design are not completed adequately?For an e-commerce servicePoor user interfaceWrong type of customer services (content and data)Slow performanceBusiness processes inefficientPoor security2Distinguish between process analysis and data analysis.Process analysis reviews the sequence and speed of events in a business transaction such as ordering or customer service. Data analysis reviews the data requirements and structure needed to support this process.3What are workflow analysis and workflow management systems?Workflow ManagementWorkflow Management (WFM) is the automation of information flows and provides tools for processing the information according to a set of procedural rules.4What is legacy data and what are the options for incorporation into an e-commerce system.Legacy data is typically from ageing financial, order entry and accounting systems. This old data is often not integrated and it is difficult to get a single view of customer or financial data. It is incorporated into e-commerce systems using middleware or enterprise application integration.5What are the four requirements of a secure e-commerce site?1. Authentication (customer needs to avoid fraud from customer, alternatively customer needs to check reputable company)2. Privacy and confidentiality (main aspect is to protect customer privacy)3. Integrity (applies equally to both)4. Non-repudiability (required by company)6Explain the concepts of digital keys and digital signatures and how they relate.Digital certificates (keys)Consist of keys made up of large numbers that are used to uniquely identify individuals.

Digital signaturesA method of identifying individuals or companies using public key encryption.Digital certificates are used to encrypt digital signatures to achieve identification of individuals.7Explain the notation used for use-case analysis.Figure 11.8 shows the notation for actors (people) and use-cases (activities in a sequence).8Summarize the characteristics of a usable web site according to Jakob Nielsen ( orientationSite navigation and structurePage designContent designChapter 121Summarize how the activities involved with implementation and maintenance relate to analysis and design activities in previous chapters.Figure 12.1 on p514 explains this. For a prototyping approach, analysis precedes design which precedes implementation and maintenance. However, these are repeated consecutively in the iterative approach of prototyping.2What are the risks of launching a new e-commerce site if implementation is not conducted effectively?Low conversion rate to outcomes, high attrition rate (due to inadequate testing of design)Low repeat visits (due to inadequate testing of design)Data errorsErrors and site downtimeSecurity breaches3Distinguish between static and dynamic content and methods of achieving them.Static web contentIt is a web page view that is identical every time it is loaded. This is typically achieved through static HTML.Dynamic web contentIt is a web page view that varies according to user preferences or environment constraints. This is typically achieved through dynamic access of databases according to user requirements.4What are the objectives of testing? How do these relate to an e-commerce site?Identify errors in requirements analysis, e.g. poor interface design, wrong information or services availableIdentify technical errors (bugs), e.g. financial transactions5Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the different changeover methods.Table Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of implementationMethodMain advantagesMain disadvantages

1 Immediate cutoverStraight from old system to new system on a single dateRapid, lowest costHigh risk. Major disruption if serious errors with system

2 Parallel runningOld system and new system run side-by-side for a periodLower risk than immediate cutoverSlower and higher cost than immediate cutover

3 Phased implementationDifferent modules of the system are introduced sequentiallyGood compromise between methods 1 and 2Difficult to achieve technically due to interdependencies between modules

4 Pilot system Trial implementation occurs before widespread deploymentEssential for multinational or national rolloutsHas to be used in combination with the other methods

6What are the issues for managers of content management?Frequency of update or event that prompts updateChecking quality of update (review process)Tools used for update7What are the main elements of an e-commerce site measurement plan?The framework described in the text is:Channel promotionChannel behaviourChannel satisfactionChannel outcomesChannel profitability8What are the elements of a budget for an e-commerce site enhancement?Tangible business benefits:1Reduced costs2Increased revenueIntangible business benefits:3Faster time to market4Improved customer satisfaction/brand equityTangible costs:1Physical costs2Planning costs3Implementation costs including staff, hardware and software4Operational costs including staff, hardware and software