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Role of Adjuvant Music Therapy

Jan 23, 2018





    Dr.T.Varun Raju

    Senior Laparoscopic & GI Surgeon

    OMNI Hospitals

    Kukatpally Hyderabad

  • Historical aspects Long before acoustics came to be understood in Europe as

    a subject of study, the ancient Arab, Greek and Indian

    civilizations were already familiar with the therapeutic

    role of sounds and vibrations and the later day concepts

    pertaining to them.

    As Plato (428 BC-348 BC), one of the world's most

    influential philosophers, stated in the Republic (written

    around 380BC): Music moulds character, when modes of

    music change, the fundamental laws of the state change

    with them." He also wrote that "Music is medicine to the

    soul and "Justice is to the soul as health is to the body.

  • Historical aspects During the time of the RENAISSANCE AND BEYOND (1580-1750

    AD), the PHYSICIAN used music to effect desired emotional and physiological changes.

    During the ROMANTIC ERA (2nd half of 18th C. early 20th C.), the PHYSICIANMUSICIAN used music listening, active music-making, and live musical performances in their work with patients of all ages and disabilities.


    Rapid urbanization resulted in large mental hospitals. One attempt to turn these mental asylums into active treatment centres was through music played by hospital and community musicians.

  • Historical aspects

    Furthermore, with the return of World War II veterans traumatized by their

    horrific war experiences, and their remarkable responses to music, there was

    a growing interest in the therapeutic and rehabilitative value of music both

    live and recorded (thanks to Edison's invention of the phonograph in 1877).

    At the same time, an increasing number of publications were presenting the

    case for music therapy and for training music therapists who were able to use

    specific music skills in the assessment and treatment of patients of all ages and

    presenting a wide range of disabilities.

  • Historical aspects

    The need for specially trained music therapists was realized

    in 1944 with the establishment of the first training program at

    Michigan State University. In 1950 the first Association for

    Music Therapy was founded in the United States, and in

    2010, the American Music Therapy Association celebrated 60

    years of development and growth.

    Music Therapy has become a recognized professional health

    care discipline.

    For information on the state of music therapy throughout the

    world, go to {World Forum for Music


  • Historical aspects

    Music Therapists draw from ancient healing traditions and

    from evidence based research on the behavioural and

    cognitive effects of music (behaviour-oriented music

    therapy), the physiological effects of music (medical model of

    music therapy) and the psychological effects (insight-oriented

    music therapy ~ psychodynamic,analytical).

    Music therapy is a systematic process of intervention

    wherein the therapist helps the client to promote health,

    using music experiences and the relationships that develop

    through them as dynamic forces of change. (1998, p.20)

    (Kenneth Bruscia, a key player and prolific writer )

  • Research,Education,Publications, Associations 1. The earliest known reference to music therapy appeared in

    1789 in an unsigned article in Columbian Magazine titled "Music Physically Considered."

    2. (1806). Atlee and Mathews were both students of Dr.Benjamin Rush, a physician and psychiatrist who was a strong proponent of using music to treat medical diseases.

    3. Interest in music therapy continued to gain support during the early 1900s leading to the formation of several short-lived associations.

    4.In 1903, Eva Augusta Vescelius founded the National Society of Musical Therapeutics. In 1926, Isa Maud Ilsen founded the National Association for Music in Hospitals.

    And in 1941, Harriet Ayer Seymour founded the National Foundation of Music Therapy.

  • Research,Education,Publications, Associations 5. In the 1940s, three persons began to emerge as innovators

    and key players in the development of music therapy as an organized clinical profession.

    6. E. Thayer Gaston, known as the "father of music therapy," was instrumental in moving the profession forward in terms of an organizational and educational standpoint.

    7. The first music therapy college training programs were also created in the 1940s. Michigan State University established the first academic program in music therapy (1944) and other universities followed suit, including the University of Kansas, Chicago Musical College, College of the Pacific, and AlvernoCollege.

  • Research,Education,Publications,


    The National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) was

    founded at a meeting in New York City on June 2, 1950.

    NAMT operated from 1950-1997 and saw the creation of a

    board-certification program (1985), a critically-acclaimed

    Senate Hearing on Aging (1991), and the growth of music

    therapy from a few dozen practitioners to thousands.

    The American Association for Music Therapy (AAMT) was

    established in 1971. Many of the purposes of AAMT were

    similar to those of NAMT, but there were differences in

    philosophy, education and approach.

  • Research,Education,Publications,

    Associations .CBMT has been fully-accredited by the National Commission

    for Certifying Agencies since 1986 and is committed to maintaining certification and recertification requirements that reflect current music therapy practice. To date, there are over 5,000 certificants who hold the credential Music Therapist-Board Certified (MT-BC). CBMT and AMTA are separate, independent organizations.

    Currently, AMTA is the intellectual home of and serves over 5,000 music therapists. It publishes two research journals as well as a line of publications, serves as an advocate for music therapy on the state and federal levels, promotes music therapy through social media streams, and provides research bibliographies, podcasts, scholarships, and newsletters to its members.

  • Music therapy as an adjuvant therapeutic tool

    in medical practice: an evidence-based


    TA Mattei*, AH Rodriguez

    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois, College of

    Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, USA

    Corresponding author Email:

    [email protected]

  • Materials and methods

    A literature search was conducted using the following

    criteria: supportive, peer-reviewed, scientific music

    therapy research on human subjects, available in the

    English language, dating from 1990 until 2012 and

    listed on the PubMed/Medline database in the form

    of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials,

    meta-analyses and systematic reviews. A multi-word,

    multi-search approach was used, utilising various

    combinations of terms such as music, therapy,

    anxiety, pain, symptoms, patient, anxiolytic,

    analgesic, vitals, heart rate and blood pressure.

  • All articles that met the criteria were then

    systematically categorised twice based on

    two separate categories: variables under

    investigation (e.g. anxiety, pain, analgesic

    use, vital signs and biochemical markers)

    and level of evidence provided by the

    research study according to its design (non-

    randomised or randomised controlled

    clinical trial, meta-analysis or systematic


  • Results

    Forty-nine studies met the proposed search criteria,

    consisting of six systematic reviews, three meta-

    analyses, 33 randomised and seven non-randomised

    clinical trials. The primary variables targeted by these

    studies included anxiety/sedative requirements (42

    studies), vital signs (30 studies), pain/analgesic use

    (22 studies), mood/depression (five studies) and

    biochemical markers related to pain, fear and anxiety

    (seven studies).

  • ResultsThe authors found that music therapy has already been

    investigated scientifically in a broad array of clinical settings

    in several medical fields including family medicine,

    paediatrics, internal medicine, nursing, gastroenterology,

    cardiology, pulmonology, haematology and oncology,

    otolaryngology, urology, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery,

    anaesthesiology, interventional radiology, neurology and


  • Conclusion

    The results of this review suggest that music therapy

    may be useful as an adjuvant therapy in medical

    practice in a broad variety of clinical settings, from

    the general clinical exam room to specific scenarios

    involving interventional procedures and surgical

    operations. This review provides a useful evidence-

    based summary for both generalists and specialists

    about the current scientific evidence of the beneficial

    effects of music therapy as an adjuvant tool in

    medical practice.

  • ConclusionMoreover, as music therapy represents a very inexpensive

    and safe therapeutic tool, which has been shown to positively

    influence several physiological variables related to anxiety,

    stress response and pain, the presented scientific evidence

    is intended to increase awarenes