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Roberto García Universitat de Lleida, Spain MediaMixer Webinar - // February 3rd, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Jan 04, 2016

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  • Roberto Garca Universitat de Lleida, SpainMediaMixer Webinar - http://mediamixer.eu/liveFebruary 3rd, 2014, Ljubljana, SloveniaSemantic Management of your Media Fragments Rights

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    MotivationIntroductionApproachConceptualisationImplementationConclusionsContents*

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    MotivationWhy copyright management on the Web is more important than ever? And why Digital Rights Management isnt enough?Why semantic technologies seem a good choice for Web-scale copyright management?

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    Motivation - Use CaseWeb media business models go beyond digital version of copy/distribute vinyls, cassettes, CDs, DVDs,Growing: streaming (Spotify, Pandora, Netflix, Hulu)Promising: big scale remixing (make money if others reuse your content), User Generated Content (UGC)

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    Motivation - Use CaseUGC remixing copyrighted media

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    Motivation - Use Case

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    Motivation - Use CaseGangnam Style, +33,000 videos using it, more than $870,000 ad revenue - New York Times, Dec 7th 2012

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    Motivation - Use CaseWhat if more than one ownership claim?

    If disputed, no one can monetizematchmatch

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    Motivation - Use CaseAre we sure we can claim?Do we own that particular copy?In that territory?Also streaming on YouTube?Does the artist authorise YouTube?DRM Copyright Management

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    Motivation - Use Case1000s of pieces of registered content1000s of videos on YouTube

    Decision Support System (DSS):Disputes wotj Media.com on A and B, can we claim?

    Trade A for B with Media.com (both win, start to get revenue)

    AB

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    Motivation - Use CaseRights DSS requirements:Fine grainedScalable (largely automatized)Takes into account:Contractsall rights on the live version but studio version just in the US.Policiesartist does not want his music together with violent images.Rights Expression LanguagesDDEX metadata:OnDemandStream Worldwide

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    ContentsMotivationIntroductionApproachConceptualisationImplementationConclusionsEnabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto Garca 2007*DRM

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    IntroductionDigital media: easy production and copyDigital Rights Management (DRM)

    Windows Media DRM, iTunes FairPlay, RealNetworks Helix, Sony MagicGateDRMcopyplay

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    IntroductionInternet: easy distributionDRM interoperabilityREL

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    IntroductionNeed for a standard REL (Rights Expression Language)Some efforts:XML-based RELsFormal syntax XML Schema for standard grammarInformal semantics Rights Data Dictionaries

    Creative Commons simple predefined licenses but copyright management

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    IntroductionXML-based RELs:Limited expressivityNo interoperability mechanismsInformal semantics, re-implement for each tool

    Creative Commons:Predefined set of licensesExtension mechanism CC+ but unstructuredNon-commercial purposesbut semantic metadata

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    IntroductionDRM Watch: 2005 Year in Review: DRM Standards1consumer complaints have moved beyond overly restrictive DRMs to lack of interoperability among themwe see no production implementationsElectronic Frontier Foundation2fail to accommodate copyright regimes.

    Some years after1 http://www.drmwatch.com 2 http://www.eff.org

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    IntroductionDRM Officially Dead: Last Major Label Sony BMG Plans to Finally Drop DRM Gizmodo.com, January 2008http://gizmodo.com/340598/drm-officially-dead-last-major-label-sony-bmg-plans-to-finally-drop-drm DRM Was a Bad Move: Sales Found to Increase 10% After Dropping the Chains (Study) Billboard.com, December 2013http://www.billboard.com/biz/articles/news/digital-and-mobile/5812288/drm-was-a-bad-move-sales-found-to-increase-10-after

    And industry moving to copyright management initiatives:PLUS Coalition, Linked Content Coalition, CopyrightHub,and even considering semantic data and ontologies

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    IntroductionPost-DRM standardisation difficulties Web open and heterogeneousBusiness models beyond copy and distributeCopyright a complex domain High level of abstraction (not bits or pixels)Concentrate on the roots, formalise SEMANTICS

    ODRL DuplicateReproduction RightCopyMPEG-21 AdaptCC ReproductionCopyright

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    From Controlled Vocabulariesto OntologiesINCREASE EXPRESSIVENESS

    FeaturesControlled VocabulariesSynonymsTaxonomiesThesaurusOntologiesControl AmbiguityXXXXControl SynonymXXXXHierarchical RelationsXXXAssociative RelationsXXCustom RelationsX

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    ContentsMotivationIntroductionApproachConceptualisationImplementationConclusionsEnabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto Garca 2007*

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    ApproachSemantic Web approach to DRM:Knowledge Representation toolsWeb Wide applicabilityBuild Copyright Ontology

    Potential benefits:Formalise semanticsFacilitate interoperability and implementationInclude copyrightSupport full value chain and remix-based business models

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    ContentsMotivationIntroductionApproachConceptualisationImplementationConclusionsEnabling interoperable and rights-aware DRM using the Semantic Web Roberto Garca 2007*

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    ConceptualisationCopyright domain analysisGeneric OntologyBased on WIPO1 worldwide harmonisationLiterary, artistic and scientific works (not ideas)Maybe derived, but always original1 World Intellectual Property Organisation Copyright Treaty, 1996

    Intellectual Property Rights

    Author Rights or WIPO Copyright

    Industrial Property

    Economic Rights or Exploitation Rights or Copyright

    Moral Rights

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    Conceptualisation

    Exploitation Right (Copyright)Reproduction RightFixation RightSound Recording RightMotion Picture RightCommunication RightBroadcast RightPublic Performance RightDistribution RightRental RightTransformation RightAdaptation RightTranslation Right

    MoralRightDissemination RightPaternity RightRespect RightWithdrawal RightNeighbouring RightsPerformers, Producers, Broadcasters RightsSui Generis RightRights ExceptionsPrivate CopyQuotationEducation...

    Intellectual Property Rights

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    ConceptualisationHow rights apply to to thePeer-to-Peer asset sharing scenario Peer APeer BassetassetassetassetMake Available RightassetReproduction RightScenario

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    ConceptualisationComplex domain, build model in three steps:

    Creation Model

    Rights Model

    Action Model

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    ConceptualisationCreation ModelVictor Hugos Les Misrables

    Fixation

    Instance

    Manifestation

    Work

    Objects

    Processes

    Performance

    Communication

    Abstractions

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    ConceptualisationCreation ModelWork Mozart's The Magic Flute. ISWCManifestation The printed scores. ISBNPerformance A scenic play.Fixation A sound recording. ISRCCommunication An Internet stream.InstanceA CD. UPChasDerivation

    hasManifestation

    hasPerformance

    hasFixation

    hasCommunication

    hasInstance

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    ConceptualisationRights Model

    Copyright

    EconomicRights

    RelatedRights

    MoralRights

    DistributionRight

    ReproductionRight

    PublicPerformanceRight

    FixationRight

    CommunicationRight

    AttributionRight

    TransformationRight

    IntegrityRight

    DisclosureRight

    WithdrawalRight

    PermorfersRights

    ProducersRights

    BroadcastersRights

    RentalRight

    ImportationRight

    SoundRecordRight

    MotionPictureRight

    BroadcastingRight

    MakingAvailableRight

    AdaptationRight

    TranslationRight

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    ConceptualisationRights ModelEnd-users do not hold rightsGet licenses to use (play, view)Special permissions:QuotationEducationInformationOfficial ActPrivate CopyParodyTemporary Reproduction

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    ConceptualisationAction ModelActions, the building blocks

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    ConceptualisationAction ModelActions governed by Economic Rights:Reproduction Right: copyDistribution Right: distribute; sell, rent, lendPublic Performance Right: performFixation Right: recordCommunication Right: communicate;retransmit, broadcast, make available Transformation Right: derive; adapt, translate

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    ConceptualisationAction Model

    End-user actions, to use amanifestation: buy instance: buyperformance: attendcommunication: accessbroadcast: tune something made available: access

    picture, sculpturebook, CD, DVDprojection, recital, exhibition

    TV channel, radio stationweb page, stream

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    ConceptualisationAction Model

    Altogether: model copyright value chains E.g. serials adapted from literary works

    Motion Picture

    Creator

    Script

    Adaptation

    manifest

    Actor

    Producer

    Performance

    Broadcaster

    tune

    User

    perform

    record

    Communication

    broadcast

    adapt

    Literary Work

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    ConceptualisationAction ModelCase roles (linguistics): relate actions to involved entities

    FacetMain roleOther rolesWho? agentparticipant (indirect co-agent), recipientWhen? pointInTime start, completion, durationWhere? locationorigin, destination, pathWhat? object patient (changed), theme (unchanged), result (new)With? instrumentmediumWhy? aimreasonHow? mannerIf? conditionThen? consequence

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    ConceptualisationAction ModelLicense building primitives:Action Patterns: to state what is obliged, permitted or prohibitedBuilt from actions and cas

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