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Renaissance 1300-1600. Italy – Birthplace of the Renaissance Rebirth of art and learning Began in Italy around 1300 and later spread North.

Jan 15, 2016

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Renaissance and Reformation

Renaissance1300-1600Italy Birthplace of the RenaissanceRebirth of art and learningBegan in Italy around 1300 and later spread North2The years 1300 to 1600 saw an explosion of creativity in Europe.Historians call this period the Renaissance (REHNihSAHNS). Theterm means rebirthin this case a rebirth of art and learning. TheRenaissance began in northern Italy around 1300 and later spreadnorth. One reason northern Europe lagged behind is that France andEngland were locked in the Hundred Years War. Italy also had threeadvantages that fostered the Renaissance: thriving cities, a wealthy merchantclass, and the classical heritage of Greece and Rome. CitiesCrusades lead to trade and the growth of Italian City-StatesRest of Europe still rural (people live in country)

The Black Death Fewer workers mean higher wages (pay) Fewer opportunities for business led wealthy merchants to pursue other interests such as art

3Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, had ledto the growth of large city-states in northern Italy. The region alsohad many sizable towns. Thus, northern Italy was urban while therest of Europe was still mostly rural. Since cities are often placeswhere people exchange new ideas, they were an ideal breedingground for an intellectual revolution.The bubonic plague struck these cities hard, killing up to 60 percentof the population. This brought economic changes. Because therewere fewer laborers, survivors could demand higher wages. In addition,the reduced population shrank opportunities for business expansion.Wealthy merchants began to pursue other interests, such as art.MediciRich merchant (business) familyControlled FlorenceCosimo deMediciLorenzo deMedici (Lorenzo the magnificent)Big supporters of the arts4Milan, Florence, and other Italiancity-states ran their own affairs. Each collected taxes and had its own army. Becausecity-states were relatively small, a high percentage of citizens could be intenselyinvolved in political life. Merchants were the wealthiest, most powerful class, and theydominated politics. Unlike nobles, merchants did not inherit social rank. Success inbusiness depended mostly on their own wits. As a result, many successful merchantsbelieved they deserved power and wealth because of their individual merit. Individualachievement was to become an important Renaissance theme.Florence came under the rule of one powerful family, the Medici (MEHDihchee).They had made a fortune in trade and banking. Cosimo de Medici was the wealthiestEuropean of his time. In 1434, he won control of Florences government. He did notseek political office for himself, but instead influenced members of the ruling council bygiving them loans. For 30 years, he was virtually dictator of Florence. Cosimo de Medici died in 1464, but his family retained control ofFlorence. His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came into power in 1469.He became known as Lorenzo the Magnificent. Like his grandfather,Lorenzo ruled as a dictator yet kept up the appearance of having anelected government. Although the Medici did not foster true republicangovernment, they aided the Renaissance by supporting the arts.In addition to seeking pleasure, Renaissance popes beautifiedRome by spending huge amounts of money for art. They became patrons of the artsby financially supporting artists. Renaissance merchants also were patrons of the arts.Wealthy families such as the Medici generously supported artists. By having theirportraits painted or by donating public art to the city, the wealthy demonstrated theirown importance.Classical HeritageRenaissance artists looked down on the art and literature of the Middle AgesClassical (ancient Greek and Rome)Humanism focus on humans and their potential and feelingsMerchant Class

5The study of classical texts led tohumanism, which focused on human potential and achievements.Instead of trying to make classical texts agree with Christian teachingas medieval scholars had, humanists studied them to understandancient Greek values. Humanists influenced artists and architects tocarry on classical traditions. In addition, humanists popularized thestudy of subjects common to classical education, such as history, literature,and philosophy. These subjects are called the humanities.In the Middle Ages, some religiouspeople had proved their piety by wearing rough clothing andeating the plainest foods. However, humanists suggested that a personmight enjoy life without offending God. In Renaissance Italy, thewealthy openly enjoyed material luxuries, fine music, and tasty foods.Most people remained devout Catholics. However, the basic spirit of Renaissancesociety was secularworldly and concerned with the here and now. Even church leadersbecame more worldly. They lived in beautiful mansions, threw lavish banquets, andwore expensive clothes.Leonardo Da VinciExample Renaissance ManPainterSculptorInventorScientist

6Leonardo da Vinci (LAYuhNAHRdoh duhVIHNchee) was apainter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist.A true Renaissance man, he was deeply interested in howthings worked. He studied how a muscle moves or how veins arearranged in a leaf. He filled his notebooks with observations andsketches of new inventions, and he incorporated his findings in his art.Among his many masterpieces, Leonardo painted one of the best knownportraits in the world, the Mona Lisa. The woman in the portrait seems so real that many writers have tried to explain the thoughtsbehind her slight smile. Leonardo also produced a famous religiouspainting, The Last Supper. It shows the personalities of Jesus disciplesthrough facial expressions. RaphaelMadonna and childSchool of Athens

7Raphael (RAFeeuhl) was younger than Michelangelo and Leonardo.He learned from studying their works. One of Raphaels favoritesubjects was the Madonna and child. Raphael often portrayed theirexpressions as gentle and calm. In his greatest achievement,Raphael filled the walls of Pope Julius IIs library with several paintings.One of these, School of Athens (page 414), conveys the classical influence of theRenaissance. It shows classical and Renaissance figures together. Listening to Greekphilosophers are Raphael and Michelangelo, among others.Renaissance WritersVernacular- the language regular people (English,Spanish, German, etc.)not just rich, educatedpeople

8Renaissance writers produced works that not only reflected their time, but also usedtechniques that writers rely on today. Some followed the example of the medievalwriter Dante. He wrote in the vernacular, his native language, instead of classicalLatin. Dantes native language was Italian. In addition, Renaissance writers wroteeither for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects. In theseways, writers of the Renaissance began trends that modern writers still follow.Francesco Petrarch (PEEtrahrk) was one of the earliestand most influential humanists. He was also a great poet. Petrarch wrote both inItalian and in Latin. In Italian, he wrote sonnets14-line poems. They were about amysterious woman named Laura, who was his ideal. (Little is known of Laura exceptthat she died of the plague in 1348.) In classical Latin, he wrote letters to his manyimportant friends.The Italian writer Boccaccio (bohKAHcheeoh) is best known for the Decameron,a series of realistic, sometimes off-color stories. The stories are supposedly told by agroup of worldly young people waiting in a villa to avoid the plague sweeping throughFlorence. The humor of the Decameron is cutting. Boccaccio presents the follies ofhis charactersand all humanswith some sarcasm.MachiavelliThe PrinceA book on the best way to be a rulerDo whatever it takes to get what you wantMost people are selfish and corruptMachiavelli

9The Prince (1513), by Niccol Machiavelli (MAKeeuhVEHLee), also examines the imperfect conduct of human beings. He does so inthe form of a political guidebook. In The Prince, Machiavelli examines how a rulercan gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies. In answering this question,he began with the idea that most people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt.To succeed in such a wicked world, Machiavelli said, a princemust be strong as a lion and shrewd as a fox. He might have to trickhis enemies and even his own people for the good of the state. InThe Prince, Machiavelli was not concerned with what was morallyright, but with what was politically effective.Gutenberg PressJohann GutenbergInvented the Printing Press in 1455Gutenberg BibleOther books printed in the vernacularMore books for cheaper priceSpread learning

Gutenberg Press10One thing that helped spread Renaissance ideas throughoutEurope was a new invention that adapted Chinese technology. TheChinese had invented block printing, in which a printer carved aword or letter on a wooden block, inked the block, and then used itto print on paper. Around 1045, Bi Sheng invented movable type,or a separate piece of type for each character in the language. However, since theChinese writing system contained thousands of different characters, most Chineseprinters found movable type impractical.During the 13th century, block-printed items reached Europe from China. European printers began to use block printing to create whole pages to bind into books. However, this process was too slow tosatisfy the Renaissance demand for knowledge and books. Johann Gutenberg, acraftsman from Mainz, Germany, reinvented movable type around 1440. Themethod was practical for Europeans because their languages have a very smallnumber of letters in their alphabets.Gutenberg then invented the printing press. The printing press is a machinethat presses paper against a tray full of inked movable type. Using this invention,Gutenberg printed a complete Bible, the Gutenberg Bible, in about 1455. It wasthe first full-size book printed with movable type.The Reformation1500-1600 (ish)

Causes of the ReformationPolitical and Social ProblemsRulers resent Papal controlHumanism challenges churchPrinting press spreads new ideasNorthern merchants resent church taxesProblems in the ChurchCorruption Alexander VI had several childrenPriestly obligations broken (marriage, gambling) Pope Alexander VI12By 1500, additional forces weakened the Church. The Renaissance emphasis on thesecular and the individual challenged Church authority. The printing press spreadthese secular ideas. In addition, rulers resented the popes attempts to control them.In Germanydivided into many competing statesit was difficult for the pope or theemperor to impose central authority. Finally, northern merchants resented payingchurch taxes to Rome. Spurred by political and social forces, a new movement forreligious reform began in Germany. It then swept much of Europe.Critics of the Church claimed that its leaderswere corrupt. The popes who ruled during the Renaissance patronized the arts, spentextravagantly on personal pleasure, and fought wars. Pope Pius II admitted, If the truthbe confessed, the luxury and pomp of our courts is too great. Another pope, AlexanderVI, publicly admitted that he had several children. These popes were too busy pursuingworldly affairs to have much time for spiritual duties.The lower clergy had problems as well. Many priests and monks were so poorly educatedthat they could scarcely read, let alone teach people. Others broke their priestlyvows by marrying, or by gambling or drinking to excess.Early Calls for ReformJohn Wycliffe and Jan HusPope has no right to worldly powerBible has more authority than church leadersSavonarola1497 comes to Florence and calls for reformFlorence burns worldly goods and then a year later turn on Savronarola and execute him for heresy

John Wycliffe

Friar Savonarola

13Influenced by reformers, people had cometo expect higher standards of conduct from priests and church leaders.In the late 1300s and early 1400s, John Wycliffe of England andJan Hus of Bohemia had advocated church reform. They denied thatthe pope had the right to worldly power. They also taught that theBible had more authority than Church leaders. In the 1500s,Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus and ThomasMore added their voices to the chorus of criticism.In the 1490s, an Italian friar named GirolamoSavonarola (jihRAHLuhMOH SAVuhnuhROHluh)came to Florence. He preached fiery sermons callingfor reform. In 1497, the people of Florenceresponded to Savonarola by burning their worldlypossessions, such as gambling equipment, in agiant bonfire. Only a year later, the Florentinesturned against Savonarola, and he was executedfor heresy.Martin LutherDidnt want to lead a revolution just wanted to be a good ChristianIndulgences pardon that is sold95 Theses arguments against pardon-merchantsPosted on the door of the castle church at Wittenburg on October 31, 1517Starts a ReformationMartin Luther14The son of a miner, Martin Luther became a monkin 1505. From 1512 until his death he taught scripture at theUniversity of Wittenberg in the German state of Saxony. All hewanted was to be a good Christian, not to lead a religious revolution.In 1517 Luther decided to take a public stand against the actions ofa friar named Johann Tetzel. Tetzel was raising money to rebuild St.Peters Cathedral in Rome. He did this by selling indulgences. Anindulgence was a pardon. It released a sinner from performing thepenaltysuch as saying certain prayersthat a priest imposed forsins. Indulgences were not supposed to affect Gods right to judge.Unfortunately, Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences,they could buy their way into heaven.Luther was troubled by Tetzels tactics. He wrote 95Theses, or formal statements, attacking the pardon-merchants. OnOctober 31, 1517, he posted his theses on the door of the castlechurch in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate him.Someone copied Luthers words and took them to a printer. Quickly,Luthers name became known all over Germany. His actions began theReformation, a movement for religious reform. It led to the foundingof Christian churches that did not accept the popes authority.Soon Luther went far beyond criticizing indulgences. He wanted afull reform of the Church. His teachings rested on three main ideas: People could win salvation only by faith in Gods gift of forgiveness.The Church taught that faith and good works wereneeded for salvation. All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words ofthe Bible. The pope and church traditions were false authorities. All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did notneed priests to interpret the Bible for them.Pope takes actionPope excommunicates LutherCharles V (HRE) takes Popes sideEdict of Worms Declares Luther an outlaw and a hereticNo one in the empire is allowed to give Luther food or shelterAll his books are to be burnedPope Leo X15Initially, the Church officials in Rome viewed Luther simply asa rebellious monk who needed to be punished by his superiors. However, as Luthersideas became increasingly radical, the pope realized that the monk was a seriousthreat. In one angry reply to Church criticism, Luther actually suggested thatChristians drive the pope from the Church by force.In 1520, Pope Leo X issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunicationunless he took back his statements. Luther did not take back a word. Instead, his studentsat Wittenberg gathered around a bonfire and cheered as he threw the popesdecree into the flames. Leo excommunicated Luther.A devout Catholic, the Holy Roman emperor alsoopposed Luthers teaching. Although only 20 years old, Emperor Charles V controlleda vast empire, including Germany. He summoned Luther to the town of Worms in1521 to stand trial. German princes and bishops crowded into the hall to witness thetestimony. Told to recant, or take back his statements, Luther refused.A month after Luther made that speech, Charles issued an imperial order, the Edictof Worms. It declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic. According to this edict, no onein the empire was to give Luther food or shelter. All his books were to be burned.However, the ruler of the state where Luther lived disobeyed the emperor. For almosta year after the trial, Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony sheltered Luther in one ofhis castles. While there, Luther translated the New Testament into German.Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522. There he discovered that many of his ideaswere already being put into practice. Priests dressed in ordinary clothes and called themselvesministers. They led services in German instead of in Latin. Some ministers hadmarried, because Luther taught that the clergy should be free to wed. Instead of continuingto seek reforms in the Catholic Church, Luther and his followers had become a separatereligious group, called Lutherans.Peasants Revolt -1524Peasants apply Luthers ideas to societyDemand an end to serfdomLuther writes a pamphlet urging German princes to show peasants no mercyMany peasants reject Luthers philosophy as a result but Luther remains influential16Some people began to apply Luthers revolutionary ideas tosociety. In 1524, German peasants, excited by reformers talk of Christian freedom,demanded an end to serfdom. Bands of angry peasantswent about the countryside raiding monasteries,pillaging, and burning.The revolt horrified Luther. He wrote a pamphleturging the German princes to show the peasantsno mercy. With brutal thoroughness, theprinces armies crushed the revolt. They massacredas many as 100,000 people. Feeling betrayed byLuther, many peasants rejected his religious leadership.However, through writings and lectures,Luther remained influential until the end of his life.Germany goes to WarGerman princes disagree over Luthers ideasSome princes sign an agreement to join forces against LutherOther princes protest this agreement = term ProtestantTerm Protestant now refers to any non-catholic ChristianPeace of Augsberg17In contrast to the bitter peasants, many northernGerman princes supported Lutheranism. While some princes genuinelyshared Luthers beliefs, others liked Luthers ideas for selfishreasons. They saw his teachings as a good excuse to seize Churchproperty and to assert their independence from Charles V.In 1529, German princes who remained loyal to the pope agreedto join forces against Luthers ideas. Princes who supported Luthersigned a protest against that agreement. These protesting princescame to be known as Protestants. Eventually, the term Protestantwas applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches.Still determined that his subjects remain Catholic, Holy RomanEmperor Charles V went to war against the Protestant princes ofGermany. Even though he defeated them in 1547, he failed to forcethem back into the Catholic Church.Weary of fighting, Charles ordered all German princes, bothProtestant and Catholic, to assemble in the city of Augsburg. At thatmeeting, the princes agreed that the religion of each German statewas to be decided by its ruler. This famous religious settlement,signed in 1555, was known as the Peace of Augsburg.Henry VIIIOriginally a devout CatholicWants/Needs a male heirWife Catherine of Aragon has a daughter Mary1527, Henry wants to divorce Catherine and remarry Pope says no to an annulment Catherine of Aragon18When Henry became king of England, he was a devoutCatholic. Political needs soon tested his religious loyalty. He needed a male heir.Henrys father had become king after a long civil war. Henry feared that a similar warwould start if he died without a son as his heir. He and his wife,Catherine of Aragon, had one living childa daughter, Marybutno woman had ever successfully claimed the English throne.By 1527, Henry was convinced that the 42-year-old Catherinewould have no more children. He wanted to divorce her and take ayounger queen. Church law did not allow divorce. However, thepope could annul, or set aside, Henrys marriage if he could findproof that it had never been legal in the first place. Excuses werefrequently found to annul royal marriages if they produced no heirs.In 1527, King Henry asked the pope to annul his marriage, but thepope turned him down. The pope did not want to offend Catherinespowerful nephew, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.Parliament1529 Reformation Parliament ends Papal power in England1533 Henry secretly marries Anne Boleyn1534 Parliament legalizes Henrys divorce from CatherineKing becomes head of Church

19Henry solved his marriage problemhimself. In 1529, he called Parliament into session and asked it topass a set of laws that ended the popes power in England. ThisParliament is known as the Reformation Parliament.In 1533, Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn (BULihn), who wasin her twenties. Parliament legalized Henrys divorce from Catherine.In 1534, Henrys break with the pope was made complete whenParliament voted to approve the Act of Supremacy. This act made theEnglish king, not the pope, the official head of Englands Church.Henrys wivesCatherineDivorcedAnne BoleynExecutedJane SeymourDies in childbirthAnne of ClevesDivorcedKathryn HowardExecutedKatherine ParrSurvives20Soon after making himselfsupreme head of the Church of England, Henry closed all Englishmonasteries. He seized their wealth and lands. The monasteries hadowned perhaps 20 percent of the land in England, so this act vastlyincreased royal power and enriched Henrys treasury.Henry did not get the male heir he sought immediately. AfterAnne Boleyn gave birth to a girl, she fell out of Henrys favor.Eventually, he ordered her imprisoned in the Tower of London andlater beheaded in 1536. Before his death, Henry married four moretimes. His third wife gave him a son named Edward.Anne Boleyn gives birth to daughter (Elizabeth) and Henry imprisons her in a tower (later has her executed)Jane Seymour gives birth to a son (Edward) dies as a result of childbirthAnne of Cleves disappoints him Kathryn Howard (Anne Boleyns cousin) twenty years younger and executed for infidelityKatherine Parr named after Henrys first wife (her mother was Catherines lady in waiting)

CalvinismEveryone is innately sinfulDoctrine of PredestinationProvides Protestant theologyGeneva TheocracyJohn KnoxPresbyterians HuguenotsSt. Bartholomew's Day

21In 1536, Calvin published a book calledInstitutes of the Christian Religion. This work expressed Calvinsideas about God, salvation, and human nature. It also created a systemof Protestant theology.Calvin taught that men and women are sinful by nature. TakingLuthers idea that humans cannot earn salvation, Calvin went on tosay that God chooses a very few people to save. Calvin called thesefew the elect. He believed that God has known since the beginningof time who will be saved. This doctrine is called predestination.The religion based on Calvins teachings is called Calvinism.Calvin believed that the ideal governmentwas a theocracy, a government controlled by religious leaders. In1541, Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead theircity. When Calvin arrived there in the 1540s, Geneva was a self-governingcity of about 20,000 people.Calvin and his followers ran the city according to strict rules.Everyone attended religion class. No one wore bright clothing orplayed card games. Authorities would imprison, excommunicate, orbanish those who broke such rules. Anyone who preached differentdoctrines might be burned at the stake. Yet, to many Protestants,Calvins Geneva was a model city of highly moral citizens.AnabaptistsBaptized only those old enough to decide to be ChristiansChurch and state should be separateRefused to fight in warsPersecuted by Protestants and CatholicsInfluenced Amish and Baptists who would later split from the Anglican Church22One such group baptized only those persons who were oldenough to decide to be Christian. They said that people who had been baptizedas children should be rebaptized as adults. These believers were called Anabaptistsfrom the Greek for baptize again. Anabaptists also taught that churchand state should be separate, and they refused to fight in wars. They sharedtheir possessions. Viewing Anabaptists as radicals who threatened society, bothCatholics and Protestants persecuted them. Yet, the Anabaptists survived andbecame the forerunners of the Mennonites and the Amish. Their teaching influencedthe later Quakers and Baptists, who split from the Anglican church.Catholic ReformationIgnatius of LoyolaSpiritual ExercisesJesuitsPope Paul IIICouncil of TrentThe churchs interpretation of Bible is finalChristians need faith and good worksBible and tradition are equal authoritiesIndulgences are a valid expression of faith23Ignatius grew up in his fathers castle inLoyola, Spain. The great turning point in his life came in 1521 whenhe was injured in a war. During his recovery, Ignatius thought abouthis past sins and about the life of Jesus. His daily devotions, hebelieved, cleansed his soul. In 1522, he began writing a book calledSpiritual Exercises that laid out a day-by-day plan of meditation,prayer, and study.For the next 18 years, Ignatius gathered followers. In 1540, the popemade Ignatiuss followers a religious order called the Society of Jesus.Members of the order were commonly called Jesuits (JEHZHuihts).The Jesuits concentrated on three activities. First, they foundedsuperb schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were rigorouslytrained in both classical studies and theology. The Jesuits secondmission was to convert non-Christians to Catholicism, so they sentout missionaries. Their third goal was to stop Protestantism fromspreading. The zeal of the Jesuits overcame the drift toward Protestantism inPoland and southern Germany. Two popes of the1500s took the lead in reforming the Catholic Church. Paul III, who was popefrom 1534 to 1549, took four important steps toward reform. First, he directed acouncil of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and other abuses within theChurch. Second, he approved the Jesuit order. Third, he used the Inquisitionto seek out and punish heresy in papal territory. Fourth, and most important, hedecided to call a great council of Church leaders to meet in Trent, in northern Italy.In the years between 1545 and 1563, at the Council of Trent, Catholic bishops andcardinals agreed on several doctrines: The churchs interpretation of the Bible was final. Any Christian whosubstituted his or her own interpretation was a heretic. Christians need faith and good works for salvation. They were not savedby faith alone, as Luther argued. The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities forguiding Christian life. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. (But the false selling ofindulgences was banned.)Another reforming pope, Paul IV, vigorously carried out the councils decrees. In1559, he had officials draw up a list of books considered dangerous to the Catholic faith.This list was known as the Index of Forbidden Books. Catholic bishops throughoutEurope were ordered to gather up the offensive books (including Protestant Bibles) andburn them in bonfires. In Venice alone, 10,000 books were burned in one day.

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