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  • 1. Music Videos

2. Andrew Goodwins TheoryAndrew Goodwins theory of narrative is that visuals illustrate, enhance or could possibly contradict the lyricsand music. Genres will have their own music style, such as in rock and indie videos, the band are usually seenplaying instruments and performing to an audience and in R&B videos, they usually include things that showtheir wealth and women. Goodwin also argues that the female performer is frequently objectified principally fordisplay purposes, often through a combination of camerawork and editing, focused on parts of their bodies,sexualizing the artist.He has also said that music video is not primarily a commodity form, but a promotional one and promotionalmusic videos often promote several things such as the artist/band, the song, other products by the artist/band(album, tour, merchandise), location where the music video has been shot and if the song has been put in partof a movie then it will promote the movie and the soundtrack. 3. Before Miley Cyrus released her music video to We Cant Stop she released what would appear to be adverts oralbum artwork on her social media and created the hash tag #wecantstop where fans of her music were free to discussthe song, their excitement and when the video was eventually released, the video. By doing this Miley has almostadvertised social media such as Twitter and Instagram where she has posted these images several times for all of herfans to see. 4. Throughout this video there is use of wireless speakers, knownas the beats pill and is used at the beginning where she turnson the music of her song by playing the play button on thespeakers which automatically focuses attention on to thespeaker and what she is doing with it and then the song fades inas if it were being played on the speakers. By doing this at thebeginning it is the first thing that you really see and take inmeaning its quite fresh in your memory due to it being the firstthing you have seen. By using a colour such as red it means thatit contrasts against the background and catches the audienceseyes.There is also product placement of an eos lip balm, which alsoappears to be red, allowing it so stand out from the background.After the music video there was a craze worldwide of the eos lipbalms from her music video of We Cant Stop as she was now apopular pop music artist and influential to many teenagers dueto her new rebellious side.Since Miley has come back into the spotlight with her song WeCant Stop and her new appearance, she has caused a lot ofcontroversy over her music videos and clothing that she hasbeen wearing, meaning that Miley has been in a lot of the pressat the minute so she is constantly being debated whether thenew Miley is better than the old Miley. Whether she is beingshown as negative or positive there is still an element toadvertising to her and her videos through magazines discussingher therefore, she is gaining more and more attention 5. Like Miley Cyrus, Katy has promoted several things, for example in an interview with director Marc Klasfeld and co-directorDanny Lockwood they said the videos storyline was inspired by Sixteen Candles as well as all those great 80shigh school movies and at the end of the video the series of outtakes was influenced by The Cannonball Run. By thedirectors mentioning this it means it brings a nostalgic feel to the video and could also promote these films to theaudience and if the individual really liked the music video then they may search up the films and watch them. The samething goes with the Katy Perry saying that the costume was inspired by Betty Suarez in Ugly Betty which people may alsogo research and watch. She also went on to create Facebook and Twitter profiles for her alter-ego, Kathy Beth Terry, whostars in the music video and other various skits that she has previously done, therefore, this promotes the use of socialmedia and almost an idea that no matter who you are you can have a social media account. 6. The characters within the music video begin to play JustDance which is a rhythm game developed and published byUbisoft and is only available for the Wii therefore, it doesntonly promote the game it promotes the console which is aWii to the audience. By using someone like Katy Perry topromote their product it allows a variety of people to seethe product as she is known from quite a range of peopletherefore, it means that she has a broad market for peopleto purchase the product which allows Wii and Katy Perry togain more money.Throughout the music video there are several special guestssuch as Rebecca Black, Darren Criss, Kevin McHale, Hanson,Kenny G, Debbie Gibson and Corey Feldman which alsogives a promotion to these people and possibly to thetelevision show Glee as Darren Criss and Kevin McHale starin the music video and are known for being in Glee.There is also subtle product placement at the beginningwhere she is on her bed and opens her laptop whichappears to be Apple and obviously is a well known brandand known for its iconic range of products. By Katy Perryusing this in her music video those who idolise her will thinkthey need this laptop to be like Katy Perry along with herappearance and other things so by Apple doing this itmeans it will boost their sales of their laptops as those thatidolise her might purchase one so theyre like Katy Perry 7. Beyonc Pretty Hurts is seen as an art form opposed to a promotional one as the music video explores the idea ofperfection and pageants therefore, it displays the ideas of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. As Beyoncis such as well known female role model it means that this message is displayed to many people across the worldtherefore, it may help those in need or it could even help raise awareness of the seriousness of eating disorders andhow you dont need to fit in to society to necessarily be pretty. It also shows how people deem perfection and in thevideo Beyonc herself doesnt fit in with the idea of pageants beauty as in a shot we see her on a set of scales wherethe man in front of her looking at her weight gives her a negative look and then also we see when she is getting herwaist measured she gets another disapproving look. The lyrics also run alongside the idea of the music video as thehook of the song is pretty hurts, we shine the light on whatever's worst, perfection is a disease of a nation, prettyhurts which shows that people are often viewed by their physical appearance opposed to personality and Beyoncthen gets across to the audience that individuals negatives always tend to out rule their positives 8. Just like Beyoncs music video Thriller is also seen as an art form opposed to being a promotional. It appears as if it werea short film which was Jacksons very intentions, in an interview with MTV he said I like having a beginning and a middleand an ending, which would follow a story. I'm very much involved in complete making and creating of the piece. It has tobe, you know, my soul. Usually, you know, it's an interpretation of the music. The music video itself is 13 minutes long andwas released on December 2nd, 1983 where it was video was MTVs first world premier video and in 2009 it was the firstmusic video to ever receive an honour for being culturally, historically or aesthetically significant in pop culture. The musicvideo was directed by John Landis who has achieved a watershed moment for the music industry for its unique joining offilmmaking and music and was listed in the Guinness World Records most successfully music videos list as it sold overnine million copies. It follows the narrative of Michael and his unnamed girlfriend and the strange happenings of the forestwhere Michael turns into a werewolf and his girlfriend then runs away. The next shot shows us that theyre in cinemawhere it was the scene but his girlfriend leaves terrified and Michael teases her about it then they walk past a graveyardwhere bodies rise out of the graves and then Michael also turns into a zombie and his unnamed girlfriend runs off.