Nov 18, 2014
PROJECT REPORT ON AUTOMATIC PLANT IRRIGATORA MINOR PROJECT UNDER MR. D.K.RAHEJA (LECTURER,DEPTT OF ECE,AIT)DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
AMBEDKAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,DELHI
SUBMITTED BY :RITESH BATRA (0571012806)DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 1
RAMESHWAR SHARMA (0471012806) VINOD CHATURVEDI
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CONTENTS OF REPORTCERTIFICATE 2. INTRODUCTION 3. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 4. OVERALL BLOCK DIAGRAM 5. MICROCONTROLLER BLOCK 6. DTMF BLOCK 7. OP AMP BLOCK(SENSOR) 8. RELAY AND OPTOCOUPLER BLOCK 9. OTHER REQUIREMENTS 10.SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 11.FLOW CHART 12.ASM FILE 13.HEX CODE 14.REFERENCES1. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 3
CERTIFICATETHIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT RITESH BATRA (0571012806),RAMESHWAR SHARMA(0471012806),VINOD CHATURVEDI(0751012806) STUDENTS OF 7TH SEMESTER,ECE HAS COMPLETED AUTOMATIC PLANT CONTROLLER PROJECT UNDER MY GUIDANCE.I WISH THEM SUCCESS THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES.(D.K.RAHEJA,LECTURER,DEPTT. OF ECE,AIT)
ACKNOWLEDGEM ENTDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 4
WE EXPRESS OUR GRATITUDE TOWARDS D.K. RAHEJA SIR FOR HIS OVERWHELMING SUPPORT AND VISIONARY GUIDANCE.THANK YOU SIR FOR MOTIVATING US AT EVERY POINT OF TIME TO ACHIEVE THE BEST STANDARDS. WITH REGARDS, (TEAM MEMBERS)
INTRODUCTIO NIN THIS FAST PACED WORLD,HUMAN BEINGS REQUIRE EVERYTHING TO BE AUTOMATED.OUR LIFESTYLE DEMANDS EVERYTHING TO BE REMOTE CONTROLLED.APART FROM FEW THINGS MAN HAS MADE HIS LIFE AUTOMATED.AND WHY NOT? IN THIS WORLD OF ADVANCE ELECTRONICS,LIFE OF HUMAN BEINGS SHOULD BE SIMPLER. HENCE,TO MAKE LIFE MORE SIMPLER AND CONVINIENT,WE HAVE MADE AUTOMATIC PLANT IRRIGATOR,A MODEL OF CONTROLLING IRRIGATION FACILITIES TO HELP MILLIONS OF PEOPLE. THIS MODEL USES ADVANCED DTMF TECHNIQUES,SENSOR TECHNOLOGY WITH MICROCONTROLLER TO MAKE A SMART SWITCHING DEVICE.DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 5
THE MODEL SHOWS THE BASIC SWITCHING MECHANISM OF BULBS BY USING MOBILE PHONES,FROM ANY PART OF WORLD AND BY SENSING THE MOISTURE PRESENT IN THE SOIL. OUR BASIC MODEL CAN BE EXTENDED TO ANY LEVEL OF SWITCHING & CONTROLLING BY USING DTMF,SENSOR TECHNOLOGY. APPLICATIONS:1.IRRIGATION IN FIELDS. 2.IRRIGATION IN GARDENS,PARKS. 3.VERY EFFICIENT FOR PADDY(RICE) FIELDS. 4.PICSICULTURE. THIS REPORT CONTAINS THE DETAILED INVESTIGATION OF AFORESTATED PROJECT. THE FOLLOWING PAGES WOULD GIVE YOU AN IDEA HOW SIMPLE LIFE COULD BE..
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1.The project implementation begins with brain storming.After a good session of brainstorming,We got an idea for hardware design(involves R&D). 2.After the hardware design,the overall hardware was divided into 5 sections,and work on every section was done separately. 3.Then came the phase of programming and debugging.Thanks to Raheja sir for helping us in turning every stone into a milestone.Programming and debugging was a cakewalk for us as we had visionary support of Raheja sir. 4.Then came transferring on board and Raheja sirs knowledge and experience came handy that really helped us by providing handy circuits for our project. 5.Finally the overall prototype was tested by us.The overall project was successful,except small errors that were rectified in due time.
BLOCK DIAGRAM MCUDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 7
RELAY AND OPTOCOU PLOR
IF WE PRESS THE FOLLOWING KEYS OF CELL PHONE THEN FOLLOWING BULBS WOULD BE ON/OFF. CELL PHON E 2-MOTOR1 -ON 4- MOTOR2-ON 6- MOTOR3-ON 123 456 789 8- MOTOR4-ON 5-ALL OFF 1- MOTOR1-OFF 3- MOTOR2-OFF 7- MOTOR3-OFF 9- MOTOR4-OFF
THE PROJECT CONSISTS OF 4 BLOCKS. 1.MICROCONTROLLER BLOCK (AT89S52).DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 8
2.DTMF BLOCK(CM8870). 3.OP-AMP BLOCK. 4.RELAY AND OPTOCOUPLER UNIT. 5.LOAD BLOCK(BULBS).
RELAY AND OP AMP DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage OPOPTOCOUP BLOCK(SENSOR) LER
MICROCONTROLLER BLOCKTHIS BLOCK CONSISTS OF FOLLOWING AT89S52:PIN DESCRIPTION:VCC Supply voltage-5V GND Ground.
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Port 0 Pin 32-39 is port 0 of 8052.Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. Port 0 receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verifICation. External pullups are required during program verifICation.Here we are using port 0 as output port to give control signals to relay block.when the pins on port 0 becomes low ie.logICal zero,it gives o/p to relay block for switching on/off the load. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups.Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming andDEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 11
verifICation.Here we are using port 1 as sensing port that detects dtmf signal,and gives control signal to port zero. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this applICation, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s.During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verifICation. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups.we have used port 3 for interrupt as our sensor will continuosly sense the moisture present and it will give control signal to p3.3 whICh is an external interrupt enable pin,i.e. INT1. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verifICation Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C52 as listed below:
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RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the devICe. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the mICrocontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twICe each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the devICe to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 14
CrystalThe crystal we are using here is to provide clock frequency to the mICrocontroller.Its no is-624-21 11.0592 kdsi ok.It gives 11.0592mhz of frequency whICh is divided by 12.
Other capacitances n resistances are used to filter spikes and to provide appropriate loads.also there is a port for adapter that provides 12 v.Output pins are also embedded on the board. Hence we can see that how small components joined together forms the most important part of our project i.e. mcu block.
POWER SUPPLY UNITThe power supply unit consists of bridge rectifier,voltage regulator IC-7805,capacitor-1000uf 25 v,0.1 uf.we have made power supply unit from bridge rectifier whICh converts 12 volt to 5 volt constant current.There is a single 5v o/p pin & one ground-5-12v pin for relay and optocoupler block.hence power supply is ready with ground,5v,12v. Do remember that all ICs work on 5v.so ICs should be connected to 5v supply,else they will get damaged. Next is an easy diagram to make power supply.DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION,AITPage 15
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DTMF BLOCKDtmf:-it means dual tone multi frequency.It is a technique through whICh the keys of the telephonIC key pad is decoded.In this technique we have two frequencies,one high and one low.Based on these frequencies the inputted or pressed key is detected as 1 or 2 and so on.. Dtmf is used in present days mobile phones,and we have used this technique to detect the keys pressed on the phone. Keypad The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 43 matrix, with each row representing a low frequency, and each column representing a high frequency. Pressing a single key such as '1' will send a sinusoidal tone of the two frequencies 697 and 1209 hertz (Hz). The origina