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Feb 24, 2016
PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES OF PRODUCING SUPER YIELDING HYBRID BASMATI RICE IN KENYA
PROGRESS IN PRODUCTION OF SUPER YIELDING HYBRID BASMATI RICE IN KENYA
DR. Paul Njiruh NthakanioTUKDr. James I. Kanya UoNDr. John M. Kimani ...KARI MweaDr. Raphael Wanjogu MIAD
FUNDED / COLLABORATORSNATIONAL IRRIGATION BOARB , TUK, UoN, KARI
Work started in 2011 under NCST funding.In 2012, we approached NIB which agreed to support the project financially.Project is being conducted in four phases Phase one: Adaptability of breeding rice lines in Kenya at KARI Mwea (In green house and natural conditions):-Done Phase Two: Breeding. Hybridization between Basmatis (370 and 217 ) as paternal parents and PGMS and TGMS rice lines (Obtained from IRRI):- On going. Phase Three: Natural sterility induction in Mombasa; On going.
HYBRID RICE PROJECTPhase 4: Production of hybrid rice in Bunyala and Mwea.
PublicationKanya J.I., Njiru P.N., Kimani J.N., Wanjogu R.K. (2013): Evaluation of Photoperiod and Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile Lines For Hybrid Rice Seeds Production in Kenya. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (2223-7054 (Print) 2225-3610 (Online) http://www.innspub.net Vol. 3, No. 2, p. 21-39, 2013).1.1 Background : Rice production in Kenya
Over 300 tonnes of rice is consumed in Kenya. About 100 tones is locally produced. In Kenya rice is mainly grown in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, West Kano, Yala Swamp (MoA, 2011).About 98% of Mwea rice is Basmati.By year 2030 Kenya population is expected to be 60.0million. Rice yield is expected to increase 600% to feed the population.
1. INTRODUCTIONYear 2006 201320302050Kenya Population
64,840 100,00????Area (ha)
23,106 ??????1.2 Rice Situation in KenyaTable1. Source: NCPB and Department of Land, Crops Development and Management, USDA Global Concerns
High yielding varieties (HYV) dwarf rice varieties have reached breeding plateau hence global yield.
Green revolution technology now need re-innovation.
1.3 Food security ProblemLow yield per hectare of Basmati rice (4.1ha) (Ministry of Agriculture, 2010).Rice consumption is far above production. Rice diseases like blast continue to reduce yields (Wanjogu and Mugambi, 2001).
Kenya concerns 1.4 Hybrid Vigour and higher yields Hybridization has been used to increase rice yield per hectare (Zhang, 2010).
High yield is due to heterosis or hybrid vigour.
1.5 Measuring heterosis?Mid-Parent (MP) heterosis(F1 performs better than mean of two parents):F1-MP MP X100Better Parent (BP) heterosis(F1 performs better than better parent):Standard heterosis(F1 performs better than the check variety):F1-BP BP X100 X100F1-CK CKTo make a cross Male and female parents are needed.
a) Female need to have non-viable male gametes so that they can be crossed with another variety.
b) Male parent: need to have viable pollen.
1.6 Production of Hybrid CMS vs EGMS
xFemale with sterile pollen but fertile ovule. Male parent with fertile pollen Hybrid plant Hybridization Male emasculation is done to induce male sterility, a condition in which the pollen grains are not viable to fertilize normally to set seeds.
Methods of male emasculation
a) Environmental Genic Male sterility method (EGMS) PGMS photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile lines. Uses long daylight length to induce sterility
TGMS - thermosentive genic male sterile lines Uses high temperature to induce sterility 1.7 Male emasculationb) Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility (CMS)Male sterility is controlled by the interaction of a genetic factor (S) present in the cytoplasm and nuclear gene (s).
c) Chemically induced male sterilityMale sterility is induced by some chemicals (gametocides). Methods of emasculation continued . CMS Vs PGMS Based on the discovery of P(T)GMS mutant
Male sterility controlled by 1 or 2 pairs of recessive gene(s)
FertileS-lineMultiplicationCritical Fertility PointCritical Sterility PointReproductive Upper LimitReproductive Lower LimitSterileF1 SeedProductionPartial SterilityModel of Sterility / Fertility Expression for TGMS RiceTemperaturelowhighUse hybrid rice technology to raise yield
i) Introduce EGMS in Kenya and test for their adaptability. ii) Develop Basmati with EGMS gene.
iii) Produce hybrids by crossing EGMS-Basmati with conventional Basmati. 1.8 Objective2. MATERIALS EGMS included; PGMS and TGMS LINES FROM IRRI.These are:-PGMS LinesV1 - IR-73827-23-76-15-7SV3 - IR-75589-31-27-8-33STGMS Rice V2 - IR-77271-42-5-4-36S.
Basmati370 3. METHODS Test for EGMS adaptability Sowing of EGMS in KARI Mwea.
Growth at sterility conditions and spikelet fertility assessed.
Growth under fertility inducing conditions and spikelet fertility assessed. Sowing of EGMS in greenhouse
a bFig. a and b show EGMS and the greenhouse respectively
3.1.2 Complete male sterile EGMS
a b ca). EGMS under sterility inducing conditions, b). sterile panicle and c). Pollen from sterile panicle.
Reversion of EGMS to fertility (fertility inducing conditions )
a b Ca). EGMS rice plant, b). Panicles and c). Pollen from plants grown under fertility inducing conditions respectively with grains.
Anthocyanin Morphological Marker
V1 xb370 cross
Marker aided breeding Lane 1: Rader, V1xB217, V1 xB370, V2xB217, V2xB370, V3xB217, VxB370) Marker aided breeding continued
Ladder V1,V1xB217, B217
STARING MOMBASA WORK
Contact person at KARI MutwapaSabaki river Planning for Malindi sowing
S/NoNew line being tested Remarks1V1B217P001Long awns2V13B217P002Long awns3V1B217P003awnless 4V1B217P004Short awns5V1B217P005Long awns 5V1B217P006Short awns 6V1B217P007Short awns F4 Lines Under TestLine Identity Number of lines under trial V1XB217 52V2X21723V3X21735V1X37038V2X 37055V3X 37055 F4 Lines under trial
F3 plants in the field F3 Plants in the field
MIADNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
M2U00022.MPG Acknowledgement THANK YOU