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Feb 22, 2016
Nile River basin
Nile River basin By: Mandy Jenkins, Erica Mulford, and Justin Taylor Regional setting of the BasinThe Nile is the worlds longest riverFlows from Burundi in the South to Egypt in the NorthThree main tributaries Blue Nile White Nile River Atbara
Average annual rainfallRainfall levelsEgypt: 200mmSudan: 250mmEthiopia: 850mmCausesBiome typeClimate changeHeightened rates of evaporation
The problem The central problem in Sudan is water scarcity leading to increased death rates and other negative heal implications due to waterborne illnesses
Factors influencing the problemClimatePopulationGrowth of 2.3% a year"About 40% of Africa's population lives in the Nile Basin, and is projected to at least double by 2025"Weak governmental infrastructureCivil war due to power struggles and management of scarce resources Water management is not a priority
Factors influencing the problem (Contd)Outdated treatiesIncreased difficulty of creating water infrastructure projects due to non-retention policies Increased poverty Poverty139th among 177 countries in the Human Development Index (HDI)40% of population beneath poverty line Unsustainable agricultural practices Types of crops grown Creation of dams and canals Water pollution Salinity, acidity, and excess nutrientsLeading to lower crop yields
Resulting outcomePoor health in SudanStagnant water results in waterborne illnessesDiseases: cholera, amebiasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and salmonellosis Symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, headaches, nausea, fever, and flu-like effectsCan often result in death
History of the sudanNile River has always been very importantNo method of irrigation until around time of great pyramids Basin IrrigationConstruction of the Aswan Dam and the 1929 Nile Waters AgreementEgypt: 48 billion cubic meters of water per yearSudan: 4 billion cubic meters of water per year1959 "Full Utilization of the Nile Waters" agreementSudan's yearly water allotment rises to 18.5 billion cubic meters per yearResentment among Nile Basin countries due to treaties
stakeholdersStakeholderInfluence over the problemSudanese GovernmentSecond largest amount of power and influence over problemEgyptian GovernmentLargest amount of power and influence over problemIndustryLot of power, but less than governmentsCitizensMinimal influence or power due to lack of organization
Goals and objectivesGoalsImprove the overall health of the populationReduce pollution levelsCombat water scarcity in SudanObjectivesDecrease salinity levelsImprove water infrastructure and increase sustainable water management practicesCreate government-funded education programsImprove sanitationRenegotiate existing treaties
Short term solutions Educational ProgramsSolution: increase number of volunteers in Peace Corps in Sudan, and create a volunteer program in Egypt Time frame: 1-5 yearsCrop RotationSolution: Implement legislation requiring large-scale farmers to use crop rotation, and to push small-scale and subsistence farmers to implement crop rotation as wellTime Frame: 1-5 yearsSmall Scale Water Purification TechnologiesSolution: Implement technologies decrease water pollution and improve drinking water quality.Time Frame: 1-5 years
Long term solutions Renegotiate TreatiesSolution: Revise current treaties regarding water allocation for Sudan and Egypt Time Frame:5-15 yearsReduce Pollution LevelsSolution: In situ bioremediation, legislation to combat waste dumping, and legislation to prevent the creation of new dams Time Frame:10-15 years Improve Water InfrastructureSolution: Create small scale wastewater treatment facilities, and implement rainwater capturing devicesTime Frame: 10-15 years
Solutions integrationTier 1: implement within 5 yearsSolutions that can be immediately implemented and allow for the success of the following components of the solutionEducational programs and renegotiated treatiesTier 2: implement within 10 yearsSolutions that require legislative changes and cultural acceptance:Change in agricultural practices, and technology adoption and implementation Tier 3: implement within 15 yearsSolutions that require legislative changes and major developmental adjustments :Improved water infrastructureTier 4: achieve within 15 yearsThe outcome of implementing tiers 1 - 3Reduced pollution levels and improved healthUnintended consequences of solutionsFall further into debt.
War breaking out between the Nile countries.
Increase water pollution do to industrial growth.
Amplify civil unrest.
Create a more uneven distribution of wealth in the Sudan. Questions???