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Instructional Strategies - Autism State Conference

Nov 16, 2014

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Instructional Strategies to Increase Academic Achievement in Learners with Autism Spectrum DisordersJennifer Alward, M.Ed Trube Miller, M.Ed Tawana Stallworth, M.Ed

DSM IV-TR Criteria for Autism A total of 6 or more from each of these 3 areas, with 2 from the social area and 1 each from communication and behavior: Qualitative impairment in social interaction Qualitative impairments in communication Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped

American Psychiatric Association. (2000).

Dividing LineTo

be diagnosed with Autism, the child

For

Aspergers Disorder to be diagnosed, of a clinically significant delay inAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2000).

Absence

Defining Characteristics of ASI

have trouble being smells,

I

sometimes have

Sometimes I I

dont always know may have a large

I

have trouble

Rationale for providing learning supports Students

with AS frequently experience

What does impaired social interaction look like?Marked

impairment

Failure

to establish

Eye-to-eye gaze, Facial expressions, Lack of Body posture, Gestures to regulate social interactions, (i.e. waving hi and bye)Lack

of social or

What does qualitative impairments in communication look like?Delay

in, or total

Stereotyped

and

In

individuals with

Lack

of varied,

What does restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviors look like? Encompassing Stereotypic

and

Persistent Apparently

Defining Characteristics of Aspergers Syndrome (AS)I I I I I I

find social situations find it hard to make say what is on my find it hard to figure take things literally. have difficulty

I I I I I

follow the rules and have very specific sometimes have am good at picking do not enjoy

Academic CharacteristicsWhen

I am

I

need to understand

I

may need some

I

can get over-

Learning Characteristics of Students with ASDA tendency to be easily confused by ambiguous assignments that may have multiple components (Jackal, 1996) Present content in a controlled fashion by structuring the lesson around key ideas to minimize ambiguity Highlight the most important concepts Establish alternate modes for completing assignments If task is complex with multiple components, break the assignment down into clear and manageable pieces Clearly specify your expectations for the assignment

We Know All This Now.... What Can We Do?

Instructional StrategyOrganization

of an alphabetizing activity:

Present content in a controlled fashion by structuring the lesson around key ideas to minimize ambiguity

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Instructional StrategyOrganization

of a math worksheet: limited

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay

Present content in a controlled fashion by structuring the lesson around key ideas to minimize ambiguity Highlight the most important on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9. concepts

Instructional StrategyOrganization

of an art activity: steps areEstablish alternate modes for completing assignments If task is complex with multiple components, break the assignment down into clear and manageable pieces

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Instructional StrategyClarifying

the sequence of steps: numbers

If task is complex with multiple components, break the assignment down into clear and manageable pieces

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-

Alternate Strategies for Older StudentsHaving

the student make a list of adjectives or

Giving

the option of audio-or videotaping the students to use the computer to take

Allowing

Learning Characteristics of Students with ASD

Students

with ASD may have difficulty

It may be necessary to emphasize the most important aspects of the task or activity in an effort to make the meaning more salient. This may require the use of color coding, numbering, highlighting, or adding additional visual cues.

Instructional StrategyClarifying

the item to recycle: both pictures

Emphasize the most important aspects of the task or activity, while using multiple examples for each skill is essential if generalization is to occur (Horner, Dunlap, & Koegel, 1988)Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Instructional StrategyOrganization

of desk area: all materials are

Presenting materials by color coding, numbering, highlighting, or adding additional visual cues

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9

Alternate Strategies for Older StudentsProvide

the student with visual material that

When reading a book aloud to the class, give the student a copy of the book so he or she can read and follow along. Write everything the student needs to know on a flash card. This can also be used later to study for tests. Send home a summary sheet which emphasizes the most important information contained in the next days (or weeks) lesson. Write out a step-by-step list of instructions that are sequential for the student. Show a completed model so the student knows what the completed assignment

Learning Characteristics of Students with ASDDifficulty

with processing high amounts of

There

is substantial evidence that students

Instructional StrategyThe

materials define the task in this activity

Decreases amount of auditory stimulation while proving instruction through visuals

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Instructional Strategy

Graphic and Visual Organizers Students with ASD benefit more from having one already developed for them. http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/sp This also helps with maximizing comprehension and content retention.

Graphic Organizers cont.Hierarchical-

can also provide a concise

Unit

Organizer-can be used to tie

Additional Strategies for Older StudentsSend

home outlines of upcoming curriculum

Suggest

background (reference) material, such

Have

the students read up on a future content

Provide

the student with extra set of texts for

Instructional StrategyGuided

Notes

Learning Characteristics of Students with ASDStudents

with ASD may find it challenging

Incorporating the unique interests of students with ASD into the content and/or layout of instructional activities may increase both engagement and meaning.

Instructional StrategyReading

comprehension activity using

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Instructional StrategyFine

motor lacing activity incorporating

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Instructional StrategyPackaging

activity featuring McDonalds

Hume, K. (2006). Get engaged! Designing instructional activities to help students stay on-task. Reporter 11(2), 6-9.

Alternate Strategies for Older StudentsEmbed additional activities within the lesson to increase the students interest and motivation for listening to the class lecture.

Develop a list of words that might be said during a lecture. Give the student a marker and a list of those words. Every time a word is spoken, the student should highlight the word they hear.

Relate the material to the students preoccupations (interests). For a student excited by dates, have him or her answer questions about what date a given event occurred.

Importance of Time on TaskThe

amount of time a student with an

Increasing Time on TaskMinimize

adult interactions during the

Set

up alternative cueing systems for signal.

Secret Use

white boards to write down

Nonverbal

prompting.

Learning Characteristics of Students with ASDStudents on the spectrum may demonstrate rigidity or inflexible behavior if classroom scheduling is inconsistent or absent.

Providing a predictable environment and routine is an important component of classroom programming for students on the autism spectrum (Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber, & Kincaid, 2003). Provide concrete and specific information and expectations. Provide specific concrete beginning and ending points, even with activities that may continue over several days or class periods. Prepare the student ahead of time.

Instructional StrategyVideo

priming for field trip to zoo.Additional visuals to support comprehension

Instructional StrategyA

product sample.Provide specific concrete beginning and ending points, even with activities that may continue over several days or class periods

Instructional Strategies

Antecedent Management Strategies.

Antecedent intervention approaches focus on structuring the environment to prevent problems and enhance motivation (Kerns, & Clemens, 200