Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Encryption, Watermarking and Steganography in Application ... · PDF fileEncryption, Watermarking and Steganography in ... Watermarking and Steganography in Application to Biometrics

Jul 19, 2018

ReportDownload

Documents

hatuong

  • Encryption, Watermarking and Steganography in

    Application to Biometrics

    Hitha Meka

    Problem Report submitted to the College of Engineering and Mineral Resources

    at West Virginia University in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the degree of

    Master of Science

    in

    Electrical Engineering

    Natalia A. Schmid, Ph.D., Chair Bojan Cukic, Ph.D.

    Donald A. Adjeroh, Ph.D. Xin Li, Ph.D.

    Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

    Morgantown, West Virginia 2007

    Keywords: Security, Encryption, Watermarking, Steganography, Iris

    Copyright 2007 Hitha Meka

  • ABSTRACT

    Encryption, Watermarking and Steganography in Application

    to Biometrics

    Hitha Meka

    With the rapid growth of networked systems, digital data is subject to illegal copying, forgery and unauthorized distribution. To provide protection and privacy to the biometric data, when transmitted through an unsecured communication channel, techniques such as encryption, watermarking and steganography have been studied which can be used to achieve security. Encryption makes the sensitive data meaningless to an interceptor while any changes to the sensitive data can be detected by using watermarking techniques. Steganography is used to hide sensitive data in an unsuspicious image. Least significant bit method, which is a spatial domain method, and comparison of mid-band DCT coefficients, which is a frequency domain method, have been implemented. The techniques were evaluated for their robustness against signal processing attacks such as Gaussian noise, rotation and compression and results have been presented. Two steganographic methods which belong to spatial domain, one method which hides text in an image and another method which hides image in an image have been implemented and their robustness against signal processing attacks have been examined and results have been presented. Finally, the security achieved by combining two of the above techniques (encryption and watermarking or steganography) has been studied.

  • iii

    This thesis is dedicated to my family,

    Rajendra Prasad Meka, Usha Rani Meka, Siva Naga Chaitanya Meka

    and

    In the loving memory of my grandfather, Mikkilineni Basavaiah

    who have made this possible.

  • iv

    Acknowledgments

    I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Natalia A. Schmid, for her guidance

    throughout my research. I appreciate her help, time and support in guiding me towards

    completing my work.

    I am grateful to Dr.Bojan Cukic, Dr. Donald A. Adjeroh and Dr. Xin Li for being on my

    committee and guiding me.

    I thank my roommates and friends who have supported me and helped me to get through

    difficult times.

    Finally, I thank my parents and brother for their immense support and love. All this

    wouldnt have been possible without their support.

  • v

    Table of Contents

    Abstract ............................................................................................................................... i

    Acknowledgments............................................................................................................. iv

    Table of Contents .............................................................................................................. v

    List of Tables................................................................................................................... viii

    List of Figures ................................................................................................................... ix

    Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................ 1

    Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 What is biometrics? ............................................................................................... 1 1.2 Commonly used biometrics ................................................................................... 2 1.3 Attacks on biometric systems ................................................................................ 4 1.4 Motivation ............................................................................................................ 6 1.5 Contributions ......................................................................................................... 7 1.6 Organization of the report .................................................................................... 7

    Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................ 9 Encryption...................................................................................................................... 9

    2.1 What is encryption? ............................................................................................... 9 2.2 Purpose of encryption (or) Why encryption? ...................................................... 10 2.3 Applications ........................................................................................................ 10 2.4 Types of ciphers ................................................................................................. 10

    2.4.1 Classical cipher ........................................................................................... 10 2.4.1.1 Substitution cipher ................................................................................ 11 2.4.1.2 Transposition cipher .............................................................................. 12

    2.4.2 Rotor machines ............................................................................................. 12 2.4.3 Modern cipher .............................................................................................. 12

    2.4.3.1 Symmetric key....................................................................................... 13 2.4.3.2 Asymmetric key .................................................................................... 17

    2.5 Evaluation............................................................................................................ 20 2.5.1 Securing Data and Financial Transaction .................................................... 20 2.5.2 Biometric Authentication for E-Commerce Transaction ............................ 23 2.5.3 Cancelable Biometric Filter for Face Recognition ...................................... 24

    Chapter 3 .......................................................................................................................... 27 Digital Watermarking ................................................................................................. 27

    3.1 What is digital watermarking? ............................................................................ 27 3.2 Purpose of watermarking (or) Why watermarking? ............................................ 28 3.3 Applications ....................................................................................................... 29 3.4 Types of watermarks .......................................................................................... 29

    3.4.1 Division Based on human perception .......................................................... 30 3.4.1.1 Visible watermarks ................................................................................ 30 3.4.1.2 Invisible watermarks ............................................................................. 31

    3.4.2 Division Based on applications .................................................................... 31 3.4.2.1 Fragile watermarks ................................................................................ 32 3.4.2.2 Semi-fragile watermarks ...................................................................... 33

  • vi

    3.4.2.3 Robust watermarks ................................................................................ 33 3.4.3 Division Based on domains .......................................................................... 33

    3.4.3.1 Spatial domain watermarks .................................................................. 34 3.4.3.2 Transform domain watermarks ............................................................ 34

    3.4.4 Division Based on level of information required to detect embedded data . 34 3.4.4.1 Blind watermarks ................................................................................. 35 3.4.4.2 Semi-blind watermarks ........................................................................ 35 3.4.4.2 Non-blind watermarks .......................................................................... 35

    3.4.5 Based on users authorization to detect the watermark ............................... 35 3.4.5.1 Public watermarks ................................................................................. 35 3.4.5.2 Private watermarks ................................................................................ 36

    3.4.6 Based on the keys used for watermarking ................................................... 36 3.4.6.1 Symmetric watermarking ..................................................................... 36 3.4.6.2 Asymmetric watermarking .................................................................... 36

    3.4.7 Division Based on knowledge of the user on the presence of watermark ... 37 3.4.7.1 Steganographic watermarking ............................................................... 37 3.4.7.2 Non-steganographic watermarking ................................................