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Edward Snowden - Wikipedia

Jun 03, 2018



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    Edward Snowden

    Screen capture from the interview with Glenn

    Greenwald and Laura Poitras on June 6, 2013

    Born Edward Joseph Snowden

    June 21, 1!3

    Eli"a#eth $it%, &orth $arolina, '(S(

    Residence )ussia *temporar% as%lum+

    Nationality merican

    Occupation S%stem administrator

    Employer -oo" llen .amilton/1

    unia, .awaii, '(S(

    *until June 10, 2013+

    Known for )evealin details of classified 'nited

    States overnment surveillanceprorams

    Home town ilminton, &orth $arolina



    4heft of overnment propert%,

    unauthori"ed communication of

    national defense information, and

    willful communication of classified

    intellience to an unauthori"ed person

    *June 2013+(

    Edward Snowden5rom iipedia, the free enc%clopedia

    Further information: 2013 mass surveillance disclosures

    Edward Joseph Snowden*#orn June 21, 1!3+ is an merican computerspecialist who wored for the $7 and the &S and leaed details ofseveral top8secret 'nited States and -ritish overnment mass surveillance

    prorams to the press(/2/3

    -ased on information Snowden leaed to The Guardian/9in :a% 2013while emplo%ed at &S contractor -oo" llen .amilton, the -ritishnewspaper pu#lished a series of e;pos

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    @(A Bther countries @(! histle#lowers

    6 See also A &otes ! )eferences 5urther readin 10 E;ternal lins


    Childhood family and education

    Edward Joseph Snowden was #orn on June 21, 1!3/2@in Eli"a#eth $it%, &orth $arolina,/26and rew up in ilminton,&orth $arolina(/ father, Lonnie Snowden, a resident of Penns%lvania, was an officer in the 'nited States $oast Guard,/2!and his mother, a resident of -altimore, :ar%land, is a cler at a federal court in :ar%land(/2A/ parents are divorced,and his father su#seHuentl% remarried(/30

    -% 1, Snowden had moved with his famil% to Ellicott $it%, :ar%land(/2A.e studied at nne rundel $ommunit% $ollee/2A

    to ain the credits necessar% to o#tain a hih8school diploma #ut he did not complete the coursewor(/31/32

    Snowden>sfather e;plained that his son had missed several months of school owin to illness and, rather than return, too and passed thetests for his GE? at a local communit% collee(/22/33/39

    Snowden wored online toward a :aster>s ?eree at the 'niversit% of Liverpool in 2011(/3@.avin wored at a 'S militar%#ase in Japan, Snowden was reportedl% interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese lanuae,/36and alsowored for an anime compan% domiciled in the 'nited States(/3A/3!.e also said he had a #asic understandin of :andarin$hinese and was deepl% interested in martial arts and, at ae 1 or 20, listed -uddhism as his reliion on a militar%recruitment form, notin that the choice of anostic was stranel% a#sent(/3

    !olitical "iews

    Snowden has said that in the 200! presidential election he voted for a third8part% candidate( .e has stated he had #een

    plannin to mae disclosures a#out &S surveillance prorams at the time, #ut he decided to wait #ecause he #elieved inB#ama>s promises( .e was later disappointed that B#ama continued with the policies of his predecessor(/905or the 2012election, political donation records indicate that he contri#uted to the primar% campain of )on Paul(/91/92

    Several sources have alleed that Snowden, under the pseudon%m 4he4rue.BB., authored hundreds of posts ontechnolo% news provider rs 4echnica>s chat rooms(/93/99/9@4he poster discussed a variet% of political topics( 7n a Januar%200 entr%, 4he4rue.BB. e;hi#ited stron support for the 'nited States> securit% state apparatus and said he #elievedleaers of classified information should #e shot in the #alls(/96.owever, in 5e#ruar% 2010 4he4rue.BB. wrote, 7wonder, how well would envelopes that #ecame transparent under maical federal candleliht have sold in 1A@0I 1!00I1!@0I 100I 1@0I/9A

    Bn June 1A, 2013, Snowden>s father spoe in an interview on 5o; 4, e;pressin concern a#out misinformation in the mediareardin his son( .e descri#ed his son as a sensitive, carin %oun man((( .e Cust is a deep thiner(/337n accountspu#lished in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden>s laptop displa%ed sticers supportin internet freedom orani"ationsincludin the Electronic 5rontier 5oundation *E55+ and the 4or ProCect(/22Snowden considers himself neither traitor norhero( 7>m an merican(/9!


    Bn :a% A, 2009, Snowden enlisted in the 'nited States rm% )eserve as a Special 5orces recruit #ut did not complete an%trainin(/2@/9.e said he wanted to fiht in the 7raH ar #ecause he felt lie /he had an o#liation as a human #ein to helpfree people from oppression(/22.e was dischared four months later, statin this was the result of #reain #oth of his lesin a trainin accident(/@0

    .is ne;t emplo%ment was as a &ational Securit% enc% *&S+ securit% uard for the $enter for dvanced Stud% of

    Lanuae at the 'niversit% of :ar%land,/@1

    #efore, he said, Coinin the $entral 7ntellience enc% *$7+ to wor on 74securit%(/@27n :a% 2006 Snowden wrote in rs 4echnica that he had no trou#le ettin wor #ecause he was a computerwi"ard( 7n uust he wrote a#out a possi#le path in overnment service, perhaps involvin $hina, #ut said it Cust doesn>tseem lie as much >fun> as some of the other places(/9

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    Snowden said that in 200A the $7 stationed him with diplomatic cover in Geneva, Swit"erland, where he was responsi#le formaintainin computer networ securit%(/@3Snowden descri#ed his $7 e;perience in Geneva as formative, statin that the$7 deli#eratel% ot a Swiss #aner drun and encouraed him to drive home( Snowden said that when the latter was arrested,a $7 operative offered to intervene and later recruited the #aner(/@9Swiss President 'eli :aurer said it did not seem liel%that this incident pla%ed out as it has #een descri#ed #% Snowden and #% the media(/@@4he revelations were said to #esensitive as the Swiss overnment was passin leislation for more #anin transparenc%(/@6

    Snowden left the $7 in 200 and #ean wor for a private contractor inside an &S facilit% on a 'S militar% #ase in Japan/22later identified as ?ell(/@ASnowden remained on the ?ell pa%roll until earl% 2013(/@APersons familiar with the 2013overnment investiation into Snowden>s histor% said that Snowden had downloaded sensitive &S material in pril 2012(/@!

    &S ?irector eith le;ander has said that Snowden held a position at the &S for the twelve months prior to his ne;t Co# asa consultant,/@with top secret Sensitive $ompartmented 7nformation clearances(/60ccordin to The New York Times,Snowden too a $ertified Ethical .acer trainin course in 2010(/61'S7S completed a #acround chec on Snowden in2011(/62

    Snowden descri#ed his life as ver% comforta#le, earnin a salar% of rouhl% 'SK200,000(/63t the time of his departurefrom the 'S in :a% 2013, he had #een emplo%ed #% consultin firm -oo" llen .amilton for less than three months insidethe &S at the unia )eional S7G7&4 Bperations $enter in .awaii,/69/6@/66earnin K122,000(/6Ahile intellienceofficials have descri#ed his position there as a s%stem administrator, Snowden has said he was an infrastructure anal%st,which meant that his Co# was to loo for new wa%s to #rea into 7nternet and telephone traffic around the world(/6!.e said he

    had taen a pa% cut to wor at -oo" llen,/6and that he souht emplo%ment in order to ather data on &S surveillancearound the world so he could lea it(/A04he firm said Snowden>s emplo%ment was terminated on June 10, 2013 for violationsof the firm>s code of ethics and firm polic%(/6A/A1

    ccordin to )euters, a source with detailed nowlede on the matter stated that -oo" llen>s hirin screeners found somedetails of his education did not chec out precisel%, #ut decided to hire him an%wa% )euters stated that the element whichtriered these concerns, or the manner in which Snowden satisfied the concerns, were not nown(/A24he rs resume stated that he estimated that he would receive a 'niversit% of Liverpoolcomputer securit% master>s deree in 2013( 4he universit% said that Snowden reistered for an online master>s deree proram

    in computer securit% in 2011 #ut that he is not active in his studies and has not completed the proram(/A2

    -efore leavin for .on on, Snowden resided in aipahu, .awaii, with his irlfriend(/A3ccordin to local real estateaents, the% moved out of their home on :a% 1, 2013, leavin nothin #ehind(/32

    #edia disclosures

    See also: 2013 mass surveillance disclosures

    Snowden first made contact with Glenn Greenwald of 4he Guardian in late 2012(/A9Greenwald found the measures that theanon%mous source ased him to tae to secure their communications, such as encr%ptin email, too anno%in to emplo%(Snowden then moved on to contact documentar% filmmaer Laura Poitras in Januar% 2013(/A@ccordin to Poitras, Snowden

    chose to contact her after seein her report on illiam -inne%, an &S whistle#lower, in The New York Times( Greenwald#ean worin with Snowden in either 5e#ruar%/A6or in pril after Poitras ased Greenwald to meet her in &ew Mor $it%(/A9-arton Gellman, writin for The Washinton !ost, sa%s his first direct contact was on :a% 16, 2013(/AAccordin toGellman, Snowden approached Greenwald after the!ostdeclined to uarantee pu#lication of all 91 of the P)7S: Powerpointslides within A2 hours and pu#lish online an encr%pted code that would allow Snowden to later #e a#le to prove to a foreinem#ass% that he was the source(/AA

    Snowden communicated usin encr%pted email,/A@usin the codename era;( .e ased not to #e Huoted at lenth for fearof identification #% semantic anal%sis(/AA

    ccordin to Gellman, prior to their first meetin in person, Snowden wrote, 7 understand that 7 will #e made to suffer for m%actions, and that the return of this information to the pu#lic mars m% end(/AASnowden also told Gellman that until thearticles were pu#lished, the Cournalists worin with him would also #e at mortal ris from the 'nited States 7ntellience

    $ommunit% if the% thin %ou are the sinle point of failure that could stop this disclosure and mae them the sole owner ofthis information(/AA

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    7n :a% 2013, Snowden was permitted temporar% leave from his position at the &S in .awaii, on the prete;t of receivintreatment for his epileps%(/227n mid8:a% Snowden ave an electronic interview to Poitras and Jaco# ppel#aum which waspu#lished wees later #% ?er Spieel(/A!Bn :a% 20, 2013, Snowden flew to .on on,/A/!0where he was sta%in whenthe initial articles a#out the &S that he had leaed were pu#lished(/A/!1mon other specifics, Snowden divuled thee;istence and functions of several classified 'S surveillance prorams and their scope, includin nota#l% P)7S:, &S calldata#ase, -oundless 7nformant( .e also revealed details of 4empora, a -ritish #lac8ops surveillance proram run #% the&S>s -ritish partner, G$.N( 7n Jul% 2013, Greenwald stated that Snowden had additional sensitive information a#out the&S that he has chosen not to mae pu#lic, includin ver% sensitive, detailed #lueprints of how the &S does what the% do(/!2


    Snowden>s identit% was made pu#lic #% The Guardianat his reHuest/A6on June , 2013( .e e;plainedD 7 have no intention ofhidin who 7 am #ecause 7 now 7 have done nothin wron(/22.e added that #% revealin his identit% he hoped to protecthis colleaues from #ein su#Cected to a hunt to determine who had #een responsi#le for the leas(/!3Snowden e;plained hisactions sa%inD 7 don>t want to live in a societ% that does these sort of thins /surveillance on its citi"ens((( 7 do not want tolive in a world where ever%thin 7 do and sa% is recorded((( :% sole motive is to inform the pu#lic as to that which is done intheir name and that which is done aainst them(/!9hen Snowden met with representatives of human rihts orani"ationson Jul% 12, he saidD

    4he 9th and @th mendments to the $onstitution of m% countr%, rticle 12 of the 'niversal ?eclaration of.uman )ihts, and numerous statutes and treaties for#id such s%stems of massive, pervasive surveillance( hilethe 'S $onstitution mars these prorams as illeal, m% overnment arues that secret court rulins, which theworld is not permitted to see, somehow leitimi"e an illeal affair((((

    7 #elieve in the principle declared at &urem#er in 19@D 7ndividuals have international duties which transcendthe national o#liations of o#edience( 4herefore individual citi"ens have the dut% to violate domestic laws toprevent crimes aainst peace and humanit% from occurrin(/!@

    Snowden further e;plained his motivations in an email sent to the Washinton !ost, sa%in that >whistle#lowers #eforehim(((had #een destro%ed #% the e;perience>, and that he wanted Oto em#olden others to step forward #% demonstratin thatOthe% can win(/!6

    $light from the %&S&

    Snowden left .awaii for .on on alone on :a% 20, 2013( .e traveled on to :oscow on Sunda%, June 23, 2013, as .onon authorities were deli#eratin the 'S overnment>s reHuest for his e;tradition(/!A

    Hong Kong

    Snowden e;plained his choice of .on on thusD

    &S emplo%ees must declare their forein travel 30 da%s in advance and are monitored( 4here was a distinctpossi#ilit% 7 would #e interdicted en route, so 7 had to travel with no advance #ooin to a countr% with thecultural and leal framewor to allow me to wor without #ein immediatel% detained( .on on provided that(7celand could #e pushed harder, Huicer, #efore the pu#lic could have a chance to mae their feelins nown, and

    7 would not put that past the current 'S administration(/6

    Snowden said that he was predisposed to see as%lum in a countr% with shared values, and that his ideal choice would #e7celand(/3/224he 7nternational :odern :edia 7nstitute, an 7celandic freedom of speech advocac% orani"ation, issued astatement offerin Snowden leal advice and assistance in ainin as%lum(/!!7celand>s am#assador to $hina, ristin (rnadottir, pointed out that as%lum could not #e ranted to Snowden, #ecause 7celandic law reHuires that such applications #emade from within the countr%(/!

    Snowden vowed to challene an% e;tradition attempt #% the 'S overnment, and had reportedl% approached .on onhuman rihts law%ers(/0Snowden told the South "hina #ornin !ostthat he planned to remain in .on on until ased toleave,/1addin that his intention was to let the courts and people of .on on decide his fate(/2ccordin to GlennGreenwald, information a#out '(S( intellience operations in $hina that Snowden ave to the South "hina #ornin !ost

    while in .on on were motivated #% a need to inratiate himself to the people of .on on and $hina(


    7n lateuust the )ussian newspaper ommersant reported that Snowden spent several da%s livin at the )ussian consulate #eforehis departure from .on on to :oscow(/9

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    Ecuador em#ass% car in front ofSheremet%evo irport in :oscow on

    June 23, 2013(

    )ed mared nations *Spain, 5rance

    and 7tal%+ denied permission to cross

    their airspace( Plane landed in ustria


    s speculation mounted that Snowden>s departure from .on on was imminent, media reports emered that the -ritishovernment warned airlines that Snowden was not welcome in the 'nited indom(/@/6Bn June 20 and 21, a representativeof iiLeas said that a chartered Cet had #een prepared to transport Snowden to 7celand,/Aand iiLeas founder Julianssane announced that he was #roerin a discussion #etween Snowden and the 7celandic overnment for possi#le as%lum(/!

    Bn June 23, 'S officials said that Snowden>s 'S passport had #een revoed(/Bn the same da%, Snowden #oarded thecommercial eroflot fliht S'213 to :oscow, accompanied #% Sarah .arrison of iiLeas(/100/101.on on authoritiessaid that Snowden had not #een detained as reHuested #% the 'nited States, #ecause the 'nited States> e;tradition reHuest hadnot full% complied with .on on law,/102/103/109and there was no leal #asis to prevent Snowden from leavin(/10@/106/&otes 1Bn June 29, Julian ssane said that iiLeas had paid for Snowden>s lodin in .on on and his fliht out(/10

    Snowden>s passae throuh .on on inspired a local production team to produce alow8#udet five8minute film entitled $era%( 4he film, depictin the time Snowdenspent hidin in the :ira .otel while #ein unsuccessfull% traced #% the $7 and$hina>s :inistr% of State Securit%, was uploaded to Mou4u#e on June 2@, 2013(/110/111


    Bn Sunda%, June 23, 2013, Snowden landed in one of :oscow>s international airports,


    Ecuador>s forein minister, )icardo PatiQo, announced thatSnowden had reHuested as%lum in Ecuador(/1134he 'nited States has an e;traditiontreat% with Ecuador, #ut it contains a political offense e;ception under which Ecuadorcan den% e;tradition if it determines that Snowden is #ein prosecuted for politicalreasons(/119

    #orales plane incident

    Bn Jul% 1, 2013, president Evo :orales of -olivia, who had #een attendin aconference of as8e;portin countries in )ussia, appeared predisposed to offer as%lumto Snowden durin an interview with )ussia 4oda%(/11@4he followin da%, theairplane carr%in him #ac to -olivia from )ussia was rerouted to ustria when5rance, Spain and 7tal%/116denied access to their airspace due to suspicions thatSnowden was on #oard(/11A'pon landin in ienna, the presidential plane wasreportedl% searched #% ustrian officials, althouh the -olivian ?efense :inisterdenied a search too place, sa%in :orales had denied entr% to his plane(/11!/114herefusals for entr% into 5rench, Spanish and 7talian airspace ostensi#l% for technicalreasons, stronl% denounced #% -olivia, Ecuador and other South merican nations,were attri#uted to rumors perpetuated alleedl% #% the 'S that Snowden was on #oard(/120/121Spanish :inister of 5orein ffairs, Jos< GarcRa8:arallo, pu#licl% stated thatthe% were told he was on #oard #ut did not specif% as to who had informed them(/122

    ustrian media later claimed the rumor oriinated with the 'S am#assador to ustria(/1235rance apoloi"ed for the incident immediatel%(/1294he Spanish am#assador to-olivia apoloi"ed two wees later, citin inappropriate procedures(/12@

    'sylum applications

    Bn Jul% 1, 2013, Snowden had applied for political as%lum to 20 countries(/126 statement attri#uted to Snowden alsocontended that the '(S( administration, and specificall% ice President Joe -iden, had pressured the overnments of thesecountries to refuse his petition for as%lum(/12ASeveral da%s later, Snowden made a second #atch of applications for as%lum to6 countries, #ut declined to name them citin prior interference #% 'S officials(/12!/125inland, German%, 7ndia, Poland,&orwa%, ustria, 7tal%, and the &etherlands cited technical rounds for not considerin the application, sa%in thatapplications for as%lum to these countries must #e made from within the countries> #orders or at #order stations(/126/130/131/132/133/139Ecuador had initiall% offered Snowden a temporar% travel document #ut later withdrew itD/13@on Jul% 1, president)afael $orrea said the decision to issue the offer had #een a mistae(/136/13A

    Bn June 2@ and Jul% 1@, )ussian president ladimir Putin said that Snowden>s arrival in :oscow was a surprise and liean unwanted $hristmas ift(/13!Putin said that Snowden remained in the transit area of Sheremet%evo, noted that he had notcommitted an% crime on )ussian soil,/13and declared that Snowden was free to leave and should do so(/190.e also claimedthat )ussia>s intellience aencies neither had wored, nor were worin with Snowden(/13!/190Putin>s claims were

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    received septicall% #% some o#serversD/191/192one :oscow political anal%st said Snowden will fl% out of )ussia when theremlin decides he can o/193and in Jul% Mulia Lat%nina e;pressed her view that Snowden was under the total control of)ussia>s securit% services(/199ccordin to the Jamestown 5oundation, an anon%mous source informed them in earl% Jul% thatSnowden was not, in fact, residin at the airport #ut at a safe house controlled #% )ussia>s 5ederal Securit% Service *5S-+(/19@

    $orrea of Ecuador said that Snowden was under care of )ussia and could not leave :oscow(/196

    Bn Jul% 1, Putin said that if Snowden wanted to #e ranted as%lum in )ussia, Snowden would have to stop his wor aimed at

    harmin our merican partners(


    spoesman for Putin su#seHuentl% said that Snowden had withdrawn his as%lumapplication upon learnin a#out the conditions(/126/19

    Bn Jul% 12, in a meetin at Sheremet%evo irport with representatives of human rihts orani"ations and law%ers that theremlin helped orani"e,/1@0Snowden stated that he was acceptin all offers of as%lum that he had alread% received or that hewould receive in the future, notin that his ene"uela>s as%lee status was now formal,/!@he also said he would reHuestas%lum in )ussia until he resolved his travel pro#lems(/1@1Bn Jul% 16, 2013, )ussian 5ederal :iration Service officialsconfirmed that Snowden had su#mitted an application for temporar% as%lum in )ussia(/1@2natol% ucherena, Snowden>slaw%er, head of )ussia>s 7nterior ministr%>s pu#lic council/1@3and mem#er/1@9of the pu#lic council for the 5S-,/1@@saidSnowden had stated in the application that he faced possi#le torture and e;ecution if he returned to the 'S(/1@2ccordin toucherena, Snowden had also stated that he would meet Putin>s condition for rantin as%lum and would not further harm 'Sinterests(/1@2Bn Jul% 23 ucherena said his client intended to settle in )ussia(/1@6

    mid media reports in earl% Jul% 2013 attri#uted to 'S administration sources that B#ama>s one8on8one meetin with Putin,ahead of a G20 meetin in St Peters#ur scheduled for Septem#er, was in dou#t due to Snowden>s protracted soCourn in)ussia,/1@A/1@!top 'S officials repeatedl% made it clear to :oscow that Snowden should without dela% #e returned to the'nited States to face Custice(/1@/160/1617n a letter to )ussian :inister of Justice le;ander onovalov dated Jul% 23, '(S(ttorne% General Eric .older souht to eliminate the asserted rounds for :r( Snowden>s claim that he should #e treated as arefuee or ranted as%lum, temporar% or otherwiseD//162he assured the )ussian overnment that the '(S( would not see thedeath penalt% for Snowden irrespective of the chares he miht eventuall% face and said Snowden would #e issued a limitedvalidit% passport for returnin to the '(S(, and that upon his return, Snowden would #enefit from leal and constitutionalsafeuards and not #e tortured, as torture is unlawful in the 'nited States(/4he same da%, the )ussian president>sspoesman reiterated the remlin>s position that it would not hand an%one over he also noted that Putin was not personall%involved in the matter as Snowden had not made an% reHuest that would reHuire e;amination #% the head of state accordinto him the issue was #ein handled throuh tals #etween the 5S- and the 5-7(/163/169

    7n late Jul% 2013, Lon Snowden e;pressed a #elief that his son would #e #etter off sta%in in )ussia, sa%in he was no lonerconfident his son would receive a fair trial in the 'nited States,/16@and that )ussia was pro#a#l% the #est place to seeas%lum(/1664he elder Snowden said that the 5-7 had offered to fl% him to )ussia on their #ehalf #ut that he had declinedcitin a lac of assurance that he would see his son, and addin that he didn>t wish to #e used as an emotional tool(/16A

    (emporary asylum in Russia

    Bn uust 1, 2013, Snowden left the airport after more than a month in the transit section, havin #een ranted temporar%as%lum in )ussia for one %ear(/16!Snowden>s attorne%, natol% ucherena, said the as%lum could #e e;tended indefinitel% onan annual #asis, and that Snowden had one to an undisclosed location which would #e ept secret for securit% reasons(/16

    7n response to the temporar% as%lum, hite .ouse spoesman Ja% $arne% said the '(S( administration was e;tremel%

    disappointed #% the )ussian overnment>s decision and that the meetin scheduled for Septem#er #etween -arac B#amaand ladimir Putin was under reconsideration(/1A0/1A1Some '(S( leislators ured the president to tae a touh stand aainst)ussia, possi#l% includin a '(S( #o%cott of the 2019 inter Bl%mpics in Sochi(/1A1/1A2Bn uust A, the hite .ouseannounced that B#ama had canceled the meetin previousl% planned with Putin in :oscow citin lac of proress on a seriesof issues that included )ussia>s rantin Snowden temporar% as%lum(/1A3/1A9/1A@5ollowin cancellation of the #ilateral tals,Putin>s forein polic% aide Muri 'shaov said the% were disappointed and that it was clear to him that the decision was dueto the situation around Snowden, which the% had not created 'shaov alleed that the '(S( had #een avoidin sinin ane;tradition areement and had invaria#l% used its a#sence as a prete;t for den%in )ussian e;tradition reHuests(/1A6/1AA

    )ichard 5al, professor emeritus of international law at Princeton 'niversit%, noted that )ussia was o#liated #% law to offeras%lum(/1A!

    Lonnie Snowden praised ladimir Putin for his courae in standin up to the 'nited States #% rantin his son temporar%as%lum(/1A/1!0/1!17n June, Lon said that althouh Edward ma% have #roen the law, he was no traitor(/1!2?urin anuust 11 appearance on This Week, Lon and his law%er said that, prior to trial, it would #e irresponsi#le to suest thatEdward had #roen the law his law%er suested Edward>s actions miht #e protected #% the 5irst mendment( Lon said thathis son should fiht espionae chares in an open court in merica, if the Custice s%stem is oin to #e applied correctl%,

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    instead of acceptin an% deal from the B#ama dministration(/1!3$itin the treatment of -radle% :annin, Lon Snowdenhad e;pressed dou#t that his son could receive a fair trial in the 'S, and said that recent statements made #% 'S officials werea#solutel% irresponsi#le and inconsistent with our s%stem of Custice, and have served to >poison the well> with reard to apotential Cur% pool(/1!9/1!@Lonnie Snowden also revealed to This Weekthat )ussia had ranted him a visa to visit his son inthe near future(/1!6/1!A

    Lon Snowden spoe with his son on uust 1@ via an internet chat proram althouh Lon Snowden>s law%er had advisedaainst it, sa%in we don>t reall% now who this u% is on the other end( Edward>s law%er, ucherena, had also advisedaainst an% interactions #etween the famil% mem#ers unless the% were in person( 4he Wall Street &ournalreported that LonSnowden>s leal team was concerned that Greenwald and iileas were usin Snowden to advance their own aendas(/1!!

    The 'uffinton !ostreported that Edward Snowden sent them a statement, confirmed #% the merican $ivil Li#erties 'nionas authentic, sa%in that no one associated with his father represented him or had an% special nowlede a#out his situation(.e stated that he remained confident in the law%ers and Cournalists with whom he had #een worin, and that there was noconflict #etween them(/1!/10


    See also: !()S#*(es+onses to disclosures

    %nited States of 'merica

    E)ecuti"e *ranch

    4he '(S( ?irector of &ational 7ntellience, James )( $lapper, descri#ed the disclosure of P)7S: as recless(/114he &Sformall% reHuested that the ?epartment of Justice launch a criminal investiation into Snowden>s actions(/11Bn June 19,2013, 'S federal prosecutors filed a sealed complaint, made pu#lic on June 21,/!charin Snowden with theft of overnmentpropert%, unauthori"ed communication of national defense information, and willful communication of classified intellienceto an unauthori"ed person the latter two alleations are under the Espionae ct(/10

    7n June 2013, the '(S( militar% #loced access to parts of the Guardianwe#site related to overnment surveillance proramsfor thousands of defense personnel across the countr%, and to the entire Guardianwe#site for personnel stationed infhanistan, the :iddle East, and South sia(/12/13 spoesperson descri#ed the filterin as a routine networ h%iene

    measure intended to mitiate unauthori"ed disclosures of classified information onto the ?epartment of ?efense>s /?B?unclassified networs(/12

    Bn Sunda%, uust 9, $hairman of the Joint $hiefs of Staff :artin ?empse% was shown on the weel% -$ interview showThis Weeksa%in that Snowden has caused us some considera#le damae to our intellience architecture( Bur adversaries arechanin the wa% that the% communicate(/19

    'nited States President -arac B#ama was dismissive of Snowden in late June, sa%in, 7>m not oin to #e scram#lin Cets toet a 28%ear8old hacer(/1@/167n earl% uust, B#ama said that Snowden was no patriot and that mericans would have#een #etter off if the% had remained unaware of the &S surveillance activities that Snowden revealed(/1AB#ama also saidthat he had called for a thorouh review of our surveillance operations #efore :r( Snowden made these leas(((( :%preference, and 7 thin the merican people>s preference, would have #een for a lawful, orderl% e;amination of these laws athouhtful fact8#ased de#ate that would then lead us to a #etter place(/1ABn uust , B#ama announced that he was

    orderin ?irector of &ational 7ntellience James $lapper to arrane for a hih8level roup of outside e;perts to review ourentire intellience and communications technoloies(/1!/1


    )eactions to Snowden>s disclosures amon mem#ers of $onress were larel% neative(/200Speaer of the .ouse John-oehner/1!and senators ?ianne 5einstein/201and -ill &elson/202called Snowden a traitor, and several senators andrepresentatives Coined them in callin for Snowden>s arrest and prosecution(/201/203/209

    )epresentative 4homas :assie was one of few mem#ers of $onress to Huestion the constitutional validit% of the overnmentsurveillance prorams and suest that Snowden should #e ranted immunit% from prosecution(/20@Senators 4ed $ru"/206

    and )and Paul/20Aoffered tentative support for Snowden, sa%in the% were reservin Cudment on Snowden until moreinformation a#out the surveillance prorams and a#out Snowden>s motives were nown( Senator Paul said, 7 do thin whenhistor% loos at this, the% are oin to contrast the #ehavior of James $lapper, our &ational 7ntellience ?irector, with EdwardSnowden( :r( $lapper lied in $onress in defiance of the law, in the name of securit%( :r( Snowden told the truth in the

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    name of privac%(/20!Paul later called Snowden a civil diso#edient, lie :artin Luther in Jr(, #ut who faced lifeimprisonment(/20)epresentative John Lewis made comparisons #etween Snowden and Gandhi, sa%in the leaer wasappealin to a hiher law(/210

    Bn Jul% 2@, the 'S Senate $ommittee on ppropriations unanimousl% adopted an amendment #% Senator Lindse% Graham tothe 5iscal Mear 2019 ?epartment of State, 5orein Bperations, and )elated Prorams ppropriations -ill/211that wouldsee sanctions aainst an% countr% that offers as%lum to Snowden(/212/213/219

    7n response to the information release #% Snowden, )ep( Justin mash *)8:ich(+ and )ep( John $on%ers *?8:ich(+ proposedan amendment to the &ational ?efense uthori"ation ct/21@to curtail the &S atherin and storae of the personal records,#ut the .ouse reCected it #% a narrow marin of 20@21A(/216mash su#seHuentl% told 5o; &ews that Snowden was awhistle8#lower( .e told us what we need to now(/21A

    Bn the Sunda% -$ interview show This Week, )ep( ?utch )uppers#erer, ?8:ar%land, of the 'nited States .ouse Select$ommittee on 7ntellience was ased #% )addat", re efforts #ein thwarted in tr%in to et information for mem#ers of$onressI .e replied,

    (((/Since this incident occurred with Snowden, we>ve had three different hearins for mem#ers of our ?emocratic $aucus,and the )epu#lican $aucus, where General le;ander has come with his deput%, $hris 7nlis, to as an% Huestions that peoplehave as it relates to this information( nd we will continue to do that #ecause what we>re tr%in to do now is to et themerican pu#lic to now more a#out what>s oin on((((-ut we can do #etter( 7 have to educate m% caucus more, the?emocratic $aucus( nd we>re tr%in to declassif% as much as we can(/21!

    '(S( Senator John :c$ain *)8T+ said on the uust 11 edition ofFo% News Sunda,that Snowden had #ecome a hero to%oun mericans, as he reminded them of the Jason -ourne character( :c$ain attri#uted it to eneration chane and a lac ofconfidence in the federal overnment( )iht now there>s ind of a enerational chane, he said( Moun mericans do nottrust this overnment(/21

    Gordon .umphre%, the conservative )epu#lican senator for &ew .ampshire from 1A11, e;pressed support forSnowden(/220Glenn Greenwald revealed that .umphre%, a former mem#er of the Senate 5orein )elations $ommittee, had#een in contact with Snowden via email( .umphre% told Snowden, Provided %ou have not leaed information that would putin harms wa% an% intellience aent, 7 #elieve %ou have done the riht thin in e;posin what 7 reard as massive violation ofthe 'nited States $onstitution(/221.umphre% cited Snowden as a couraeous whistle8#lower(/16

    4om :c$lintoc *)8$alif+ came out in favor of amnest% for Snowden, sa%in 7 thin it would #e #est if the mericanovernment ranted him amnest% to et him #ac to merica where he can answer Huestions without the threat ofprosecution((( e have some ver% ood laws aainst sharin secrets and he #roe those laws( Bn the other hand, he #roethem for a ver% ood reason #ecause those laws were #ein used in direct contravention of our 9th mendment rihts asmericans(/222


    Polls conducted #% news oranisations followin Snowden>s disclosures a#out overnment surveillance prorams to the pressindicated that merican pu#lic opinion on Snowden>s actions was divided( Gallup poll conducted June 1011, 2013 showed99 percent of mericans thouht it was riht for Snowden to share the information with the press while 92 percent thouht itwas wron(/223 -S. Toda,FPew )esearch poll conducted June 1216 found that 9 percent thouht the release of

    information served the pu#lic interest while 99 percent thouht it harmed it( 4he same poll found that @9 percent felt acriminal case should #e #rouht aainst Snowden, while 3! percent thouht one should not #e #rouht,/229/22@while aWashinton !ostF-$ &ews poll conducted #etween the same dates as the Pew poll cited 93 percent of respondents sa%inSnowden ouht to #e chared with a crime, while 9! percent said he ouht not(/226nother poll in earl% Jul% found 3! percentof mericans thouht he did the wron thin, 33 percent said he did the riht thin, and 2 percent were unsure(/22ASJF&-$ poll conducted Jul% 1A21 found that 11U of mericans viewed Snowden positivel% while 39U had a neativeview(/22! Nuinnipiac 'niversit% Pollin 7nstitute poll conducted June 2! Jul% ! found that in the wae of Snowden>sdisclosures, more mericans said that overnment oes too far in restrictin civil li#erties as part of the war on terrorism *9@percent+ than said that overnment does not o far enouh to adeHuatel% protect the countr% *90 percent+(/224hat findin wasevidence of a massive swin in pu#lic opinion since an earlier Nuinnipiac poll, conducted in 2010, when onl% 2@ percent ofrespondents had said overnment oes too far in restrictin civil li#erties while 63 percent had said overnment does not ofar enouh( 4he same poll found that @@ percent of mericans rearded Snowden as a whistle#lower while 39 percent sawhim as a traitor(/22Nuinnipiac showed that a maCorit% of mericans, #% a wide marin, still rearded Snowden as a

    whistle#lower rather than a traitor when it repeated the poll Jul% 31 uust 1(/230

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    4he petition to pardon Snowden atthe hite .ouse we#site

    Glenn Greenwald, the Cournalist who received the leaed documents, praised Snowden for havin done a service #% revealinthe surveillance on the merican pu#lic(/231/232John $assid%, also of The New Yorker, called Snowden a hero, and said thatin revealin the colossal scale of the 'S overnment>s eavesdroppin on mericans and other people around the world,/Snowden has performed a reat pu#lic service that more than outweihs an% #reach of trust he ma% have committed(/233

    $&& columnist ?oulas )ushoff also called Snowden>s lea an act of heroism(/239m% ?avidson, writin in The NewYorker, was thanful for the overdue conversation on privac% and the limits of domestic surveillance(/23@

    merican political commentators and pu#lic fiures such as &oam $homs%,/236$hris .edes,/23A:ichael :oore,/23!

    $ornel est,/23Glenn -ec,/23!:att ?rude,/290le; Jones,/291ndrew &apolitano,/292Bliver Stone,/293:ichaelSavae,/299and Stephen alt/29@praised Snowden for e;posin secret overnment surveillance(

    Bther commentators were more critical of Snowden>s methods and motivations(/296Jeffre% 4oo#in, for e;ample, denouncedSnowden as a randiose narcissist who deserves to #e in prison(/29Aritin in the The New Yorker, 4oo#in aruedD

    n% overnment emplo%ee or contractor is warned repeatedl% that the unauthori"ed disclosure of classifiedinformation is a crime(((( 4hese were leall% authori"ed prorams in the case of eri"on -usinessVs phonerecords, Snowden certainl% new this, #ecause he leaed the ver% court order that approved the continuation ofthe proCect( So he wasnVt #lowin the whistle on an%thin illeal he was e;posin somethin that failed to meethis own standards of propriet%( 4he Huestion, of course, is whether the overnment can function when all of itsemplo%ees *and contractors+ can tae it upon themselves to sa#otae the prorams the% donVt lie( 4hatVs what

    Snowden has done(


    Stewart -aer, a former &S eneral counsel in the earl% 10s, said at a Jul% 1!, 2013 hearin, 7 am afraid that h%ped anddistorted press reports orchestrated #% Edward Snowden and his allies ma% cause us or other nations to construct newrestraints on our intellience atherin, restraints that will leave us vulnera#le to another securit% disaster(/29!5ormer $7and &S chief General :ichael .a%den welcomed the de#ate a#out the #alance #etween privac% and securit% that the leashave provoed( .e said 7 am convinced the more the merican people now e;actl% what it is we are doin in this #alance#etween privac% and securit%, the more the% now the more comforta#le the% will feel(/29/2@0Some former '(S( intellienceofficials speculated that $hinese or )ussian intellience aents miht have leaned additional classified material fromSnowden,/2@1/2@2/2@3a view shared #% some former )ussian aents(/2@9Snowden, however, told Greenwald in Jul% that 7never ave an% information to either overnment, and the% never too an%thin from m% laptops(/2@@

    5ormer 'S President Jimm% $arter saidD .e>s o#viousl% violated the laws of merica, for which he>s responsi#le, #ut 7 thin

    the invasion of human rihts and merican privac% has one too far (( ( 7 thin that the secrec% that has #een surroundin thisinvasion of privac% has #een e;cessive, so 7 thin that the #rinin of it to the pu#lic notice has pro#a#l% #een, in the lonterm, #eneficial(/2@6

    4he editors of -loom#er &ews arued that, while the overnment ouht to prosecuteSnowden, the media>s focus on Snowden too attention awa% from issues of '(S(overnment surveillance, the interpretations of the Patriot ct, and the 5orein7ntellience Surveillance ct *57S+ court actions, all of which are what reall%matters in all this(/2@AGreenwald accused the media in the '(S( of focusin onEdward Snowden instead of on wrondoin #% $lapper and other '(S( officials(/2@!7nan op8ed, author le; -erenson arued that the federal overnment should have flowna representative to .on on to as Snowden to ive testimon% in front of the '(S($onress and offer him a fair criminal trial, with a view to preventin further

    unintended disclosures of classified information to other countries(/2@

    e the People petition launched on whitehouse(ov on June to see a full, free,and a#solute pardon for an% crimes /Snowden has committed or ma% have committedrelated to #lowin the whistle on secret &S surveillance prorams attained 100,000 sinatures within two wees(/260

    Bn uust !, 2013, Lava#it, a 4e;as8#ased secure email service provider reportedl% used #% Snowden, a#ruptl% announced itwas shuttin down operations after nearl% 10 %ears of #usiness(/2614he owner, Ladar Levison, posted a statement onlinesa%in he would rather o out of #usiness than #ecome complicit in crimes aainst the merican people(/261.e also saidthat he was #arred #% law from disclosin what he had e;perienced over the precedin 6 wees, and that he was appealin thecase in the '(S( 5ourth $ircuit $ourt of ppeals(/261:ultiple sources speculated that the timin of the statement suestedthat Lava#it had #een tareted #% the 'S overnment in its pursuit of information a#out Snowden(/261/262/263/269/26@4hefollowin da%, a similar email service, Silent $ircle, preemptivel% shut down in order to prevent sp%in(/266Snowden said

    a#out the Lava#it closure, Ladar Levison and his team suspended the operations of their 108%ear old #usiness rather thanviolate the $onstitutional rihts of their rouhl% 900,000 users( 4he President, $onress, and the $ourts have forotten that

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    ?emonstration aainst P)7S: in

    -erlin, German%

    &avi Pilla%, the 'nited &ations> .ih

    $ommissioner for .uman )ihts,

    saidD Without +re/udin the validit,

    of an, as,lum claim , Snowden )

    a++eal to all States to res+ect the

    internationall, uaranteed riht to

    seek as,lum/2!1

    the costs of #ad polic% are alwa%s #orne #% ordinar% citi"ens, and it is our Co# to remind them that there are limits to what wewill pa%( .e said that internet titans lie Goole should as themselves wh% the% weren>t fihtin for our interests thesame wa% small #usinesses are(/26A



    -ritish 5orein :inister illiam .aue admitted that -ritain>s G$.N was also sp%in and colla#oratin with the &S, anddefended the two aencies> actions as indispensa#le(/26!/26/2A0:eanwhile, ' ?efence officials issued a confidential ?8&otice to -ritish media asin for restraint in runnin further stories related to surveillance leas includin the P)7S:proramme and the -ritish involvement therein(/2A1

    European overnments reacted anril%, with German and 5rench leaders nela :erel and 5ranWois .ollande #randin thesp%in as >unaccepta#le> and insistin the &S stop immediatel%,/2A0/2A2/2A3/2A9while the European 'nion Justice$ommissioner iviane )edin sent ashinton an official list of Huestions and demanded an e;planation(/2A@/2A6Europeandiplomats feared that upcomin E''S trade tals would #e overshadowed #% the disclosures(/2A9/2A6/2AA

    ?ocuments from Snowden show that cooperation #etween -erlin and ashinton in the area of diital surveillance anddefense intensified considera#l% durin time of $hancellor :erel( 4he -undesnachrichtendienst *-&?+, the forein

    intellience aenc% of German%, is directl% su#ordinated to the $hancellor>s Bffice( lthouh :erel denied nowin a#outsurveillance, Germans tae the claims seriousl%( ccordin to .ansCXr Geier, former head of the -&?, findinsFclaims areBrwellian and mutual political and economic espionae would #e e;plicitl% for#idden(/2A!


    n opinion poll carried out #% Emnid at the end of June revealed that @0U of Germansconsider Snowden a hero, and 3@U would hide him in their homes(/2A

    JYren 4rittin a German Green politician wrote in The GuardianEurope on Jul% 2,2013 Edward Snowden has done us all a reat service( 4he man who revealed that our'S and ' allies are sp%in on us ouht to #e iven refue #% an E' countr%( /((( 7fever a case demonstrated wh% we need the protection of whistle#lowers, this is it(/2!0

    Non,go"ernment organi-ations

    fter mnest% 7nternational met Edward Snowden in :oscow in mid Jul% 2013, theorani"ation saidD

    hat he has disclosed is patentl% in the pu#lic interest and as a whistle#lowerhis actions were Custified( .e has e;posed unlawful sweepin surveillanceprorammes that unHuestiona#l% interfere with an individualVs riht to privac%(States that attempt to stop a person from revealin such unlawful #ehaviour arefloutin international law( 5reedom of e;pression is a fundamental riht(/2!2

    idne% -rown, Senior ?irector of mnest%, feared that Snowden would #e at reat

    ris of human rihts violations if forci#l% transferred to the 'nited States,/2!3andured no countr% to return Snowden to the 'S( :ichael -ochene, ?irector of Lawand Polic% at mnest% 7nternational deplored the 'S pressure on overnments to#loc Snowden>s as%lum attempts, sa%in 7t is his unassaila#le riht, enshrined ininternational law(/2!9

    .uman )ihts atch said that if Snowden were a#le to raise the issue of &S masssurveillance without facin espionae chares, he would not have left the 'nitedStates in the first place(/2!@.uman )ihts atch writes that an% countr% whereSnowden sees as%lum should consider his claim fairl% and protect his rihts underinternational law, which reconi"es that revealin official secrets is sometimes Custified in the pu#lic interest(/2!6

    7nde; on $ensorship condemned the '(S( overnment for its mass surveillance of citi"ensV private communications and

    ured all overnment officials to uphold the 5irst mendment to the 'nited States $onstitution( statement released #%7nde; on $ensorship saidD histle#lowers such as Edward Snowden Z as well as Cournalists reportin on the Prism scandal,who have come under fire Z should #e protected under the first amendment, not criminalised(/2!A

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    .on on demonstration at 'S $onsulate on June 1@ in support of Snowden

    &avi Pilla%, the 'nited &ations .ih $ommissioner for .uman )ihts, saidD Snowden>s case has shown the need to protectpersons disclosin information on matters that have implications for human rihts, as well as the importance of ensurinrespect for the riht to privac%(/2!1

    4ransparenc% 7nternational, 7nternational ssociation of Law%ers aainst &uclear rms and ereiniun ?eutscherissenschaftler awarded Snowden the German histle#lowerpreis 2013(/2!!.umanist 'nion awarded him the 5rit" -auerPri"e 2013(/2!

    China and Hong Kong

    4he South "hina #ornin !ostpu#lished a poll of .on on residents conducted while Snowden was still in .on onthat showed that half of the @0 respondents #elieved the $hinese overnment should not surrender Snowden to the 'nitedStates if ashinton raises such a reHuest 33 percent of those polled thin of Snowden as a hero, 12(! percent descri#ed himas a traitor, 23 percent descri#ed him as somethin in #etween(/20

    )eferrin to Snowden>s presence in the territor%,.on on chief e;ecutive Leun $hun8Minassured that the overnment would handle thecase of :r Snowden in accordance with the lawsand esta#lished procedures of .on on /andfollow up on an% incidents related to the privac%or other rihts of the institutions or people in.on on #ein violated(/21Pan8democratleislators Gar% 5an and $laudia :o said that theperceived '(S( prosecution aainst Snowden will set a danerous precedent and will liel% #e used to Custif% similar actions#% authoritarian overnments(/22?urin Snowden>s sta%, the two main political roups, the pan8democrats and Pro8-eiCincamp, found rare areement to support Snowden(/23/294he pro8-eiCin ?- part% even oranised a separate march toGovernment headHuarters for Snowden(

    4he!eo+les 4ail,and the Gloal Timeseditorials of June 1 stated respectivel% that the central $hinese overnment wasunwillin to #e involved in a mess caused #% others, and that the .on on overnment should follow the pu#lic opinionand not concern itself with Sino8'S relations(/2@ 4sinhua 'niversit% communications studies specialist, Liu Jianmin,interpreted that the two articles as suestin that the mainland overnment did not want further involvement in the case and

    that the .on on overnment should handle it independentl%(/2@

    fter Snowden left .on on, $hinese8lanuae newspapers such as the#in !aoand the 5riental 4ail,e;pressed reliefthat .on on no loner had to shoulder the #urden of the Snowden situation(/26:ainland e;perts said that, althouh the$entral Government did not want to appear to #e intervenin in the matter, it was inconceiva#le that the .on onovernment acted independentl% in a matter that could have far8reachin conseHuences for Sino8'S relations( Bne e;pertsuested that, #% doin so, $hina had returned the favor for their not havin accepted the as%lum plea from an LiCun in5e#ruar% 2012(/2A4he official $hinese $ommunist Part% mouthpiece, the!eo+les 4ail,denied the 'S overnmentaccusation that the P)$ central overnment had allowed Snowden to escape, and said that Snowden helped in tearin offashinton>s sanctimonious mas(/2!

    South 'merica

    )o#ert :enende", chairman of the 'nited States forein relations panel, warned Ecuador that acceptin Snowden wouldseverel% Ceopardi"e preferential trade access the 'nited States provides to Ecuador(/2Ecuador>s President )afael $orrearesponded #% a#dicatin 'S trade #enefits(/300 overnment spoesman said that Ecuador would offer the 'S economic aidof 'SK23 million annuall%, similar to what we received with the trade #enefits, with the intention of providin educationa#out human rihts(/301

    $orrea critici"ed the 'S media for centerin its focus on Snowden and countries supportin him, instead of focusin on thelo#al and domestic privac% issues implicated in the leaed documents(/302

    fter -olivian president :orales> plane was denied access to Spanish, 5rench, and 7talian airspace durin a return fliht from:oscow, the presidents of 'ruua%, rentina, ene"uela and Suriname Coined $orrea and a representative from -ra"il, in$ocha#am#a, -olivia to discuss the incident(/303Presidents &icol[s :aduro of ene"uela and ?aniel Brtea of &icarauaoffered Snowden as%lum after the meetin(

    %nited Nations

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    Secretar% General -an i8moon said that the Snowden case is somethin 7 consider to #e misuse and that diitalcommunications should not #e misused in such a wa% as Snowden did(/309-iritta J\nsd\ttir, an 7celandic leislator,critici"ed -an for e;pressin a personal view while speain in an official capacit%( She said that -an seemed entirel%unconcerned a#out the invasion of privac% #% overnments around the world, and onl% concerned a#out how whistle#lowersare misusin the s%stem(/309

    Other countries

    )ussia, 4ure% and South frica reacted anril% after it was revealed that their diplomats had #een spied on durin the 200G820 London summit(/30@


    ?aniel Ells#er, the whistle#lower and leaer of the top8secret Pentaon Papers in 1A1, stated in an interview with $&& thathe thouht Snowden had done an incalcula#le service to his countr% and that his leas miht prevent the 'nited States from#ecomin a surveillance state( .e said Snowden had acted with the same sort of courae and patriotism as a soldier in #attle(/3067n an op8ed the followin mornin, Ells#er added that there has not #een in merican histor% a more important leathan Edward Snowden>s release of &S material ((( includin the Pentaon Papers(/A)a% :cGovern, a retired $7 officerturned political activist, areed with Ells#er and added, 4his time toda% 7>m feelin much more hopeful for our democrac%than 7 was feelin this time %esterda%(/30A

    illiam -inne%, a whistle#lower who disclosed details of the &S>s mass surveillance activities, said that Snowden hadperformed a reall% reat pu#lic service to #ein with #% e;posin these prorams and main the overnment in a sensepu#licl% accounta#le for what the%>re doin( fter Snowden cited a conversation with a relia#le source a#out alleationsthat the 'S was hacin into $hina, -inne% felt he was transitionin from whistle8#lower to a traitor(/30!

    4homas ?rae, former senior e;ecutive of &S and whistle#lower, said that he feels e;traordinar% inship with Snowden(hat he did was a manificent act of civil diso#edience( .e>s e;posin the inner worins of the surveillance state( nd it>sin the pu#lic interest( 7t trul% is(/30!/30

    iiLeas founder Julian ssane hailed Snowden as a hero who has e;posed one of the most serious events of thedecade the creepin formulation of a mass surveillance state(/310fter chares aainst Snowden were revealed, ssanereleased a statement asin people to step forward and stand with Snowden(/3115ollowin President B#ama>s assurances

    that chanes are planned for the &S surveillance proram, ssane said in a written statement that B#ama had validatedEdward Snowden>s role as a whistle8#lower(/312/313

    Shamai Lei#owit", who leaed details a#out an 5-7 operation, said that the leal threats and smear campain aainstSnowden are a rave mistae #ecause 7f the overnment reall% wanted to eep more secrets from comin out, the% woulddo well to let this man of conscience o live his life in some other countr%(/319

    See also

    $lassified information in the 'nited States 7nformation sensitivit% 4errorist Surveillance Proram &S warrantless surveillance *20010A+ &S whistle#lowersD illiam -inne%, 4homas

    ndrews ?rae, :ar lein, 4homas 4amm, )uss4ice

    Stellar ind *code name+ List of 'nited States e;tradition treaties :artin and :itchell defection

    List of people ranted as%lumList of people who have lived at airports E;traordinar% rendition


    1( /.on on>s Secretar% for Justice )ims% Muen arued that overnment officials did not issue a provisional arrest warrant forSnowden due to discrepancies and missin information in the paperwor sent #% '(S( authorities( Muen e;plained that Snowdenfull name was inconsistent, and his '(S( passport num#er was also missin(/10A.on on also wanted more details of the charesand evidence aainst Snowden to mae sure it was not a political case( Secretar% for Justice )ims% Muen said he spoe to 'Sttorne% General Eric .older #% phone to reinforce the reHuest for details a#solutel% necessar% for detention of Snowden( Muen

    said s the 'S overnment had failed to provide the information #% the time Snowden left .on on, it was impossi#le for the?epartment of Justice to appl% to a court for a temporar% warrant of arrest( 7n fact, even at this time, the 'S overnment has still notprovided the details we ased for(/10!

    Pae 12 of 29Edward Snowden 8 iipedia, the free enc%clopedia


  • 8/12/2019 Edward Snowden - Wikipedia



    1( /Greenwald, Glenn :acsill, Ewen Poitras, Laura *June 10, 2013+( Edward SnowdenD the whistle#lower #ehind the &Ssurveillance revelations *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF0Fedward8snowden8nsa8whistle#lower8surveillance]start8of8comments+( The Guardian*London+( 4he individual responsi#le for one of the most sinificant leas in 'S political histor% isEdward Snowden, a 28%ear8old former technical assistant for the $7 and current emplo%ee of the defense contractor -oo" llen.amilton( Snowden has #een worin at the &ational Securit% enc% for the last four %ears as an emplo%ee of various outside

    contractors, includin -oo" llen and ?ell(2( /Gellman, -arton :aron, Jerr% *June , 2013+( Edward Snowden sa%s motive #ehind leas was to e;pose >surveillancestate> *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comFpoliticsFedward8snowden8sa%s8motive8#ehind8leas8was8to8e;pose8surveillance8stateF2013F06F0Faa3f0!098d13#811e28aA3e8!26d2ff9@stor%(htmlItid^pmpoliticspop+(The Washinton !ost( )etrieved June10, 2013(

    3( _ a bGellman, -arton -lae, aron :iller, Gre *June , 2013+( Edward Snowden comes forward as source of &Sleas *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comFpoliticsFintellience8leaders8push8#ac8on8leaers8mediaF2013F06F0Ffff!01608d122811e28aA3e8!26d2ff9@stor%(html+( The Washinton !ost( )etrieved June 10, 2013(

    9( /Greenwald, Glenn :acsill, Ewen *June 6, 2013+( &S Prism proram taps in to user data of pple, Goole andothers *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF06Fus8tech8iants8nsa8data+( The Guardian( )etrieved June 1@, 2013(

    @( /?aniel Ells#er $alls Edward Snowden >.ero,> Sa%s &S Lea as :ost 7mportant in merican.istor% *httpDFFwww(huffintonpost(comF2013F06F10Fedward8snowden8daniel8ells#er8whistle#lower8histor%n3913@9@(html+('uffinton !ost(

    6( /Shane, Scott Somai%a, )avi *June 16, 2013+( &ew Lea 7ndicates '(S( and -ritain Eavesdropped at >0 orld$onferences *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F1AFworldFeuropeFnew8lea8indicates8us8and8#ritain8eavesdropped8at808world8

    conferences(html+( The New York Times(A( _ a bElls#er, ?aniel *June 10, 2013+( Edward SnowdenD savin us from the 'nited Stasi of

    merica *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFcommentisfreeF2013FCunF10Fedward8snowden8united8stasi8america+( The Guardian( )etrievedJune 10, 2013(

    !( _ a b5inn, Peter .orwit", Sari *June 21, 2013+( '(S( chares Snowden withespionae *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comFworldFnational8securit%Fus8chares8snowden8with8espionaeF2013F06F21F@0A9Ad!8da#1811e28a01682@9A#f09ccstor%(html+( The Washinton !ost( )etrieved June 21, 2013(

    ( _ a b c'S attorne% eneral>s letter to )ussian Custiceminister *httpDFFnews(##c(co(uF2FsharedF#spFhiFpdfsF260A13attorne%enerallettertorussianCusticeminister(pdf+( --$( Jul%26, 2013( )etrieved Jul% 26, 2013(

    10( _ a b'(S( vs( Edward J( Snowden criminal complaint *httpDFFapps(washintonpost(comFFdocumentsFworldFus8vs8edward8C8snowden8criminal8complaintF96F+( The Washinton !ost(

    11( /h% Edward Snowden 7s a .ero *httpDFFwww(new%orer(comFonlineF#losFCohncassid%F2013F06Fwh%8edward8snowden8is8a8hero(html+( 4he &ew Morer(

    12( /Bliver Stone defends Edward Snowden over &S revelations *httpDFFwww(theuardian(comFfilmF2013FCulF0@Foliver8stone8edward8

    snowden8nsa+( The Guardian( *Jul% @, 2013+(13( /?aniel Ells#erD Edward Snowden as )iht 4o Leave 4he '(S *httpDFFwww(huffintonpost(comF2013F0AF0!Fdaniel8ells#er8

    edward8snowden8as%lumn3@62@0@(html+('uffinton !ost(19( /mashD Snowden a whistle8#lower, >told us what we need to now> *httpDFFwww(fo;news(comFpoliticsF2013F0!F09Frepu#lican8rep8

    amash8snowden8whistle#lower8told8us8what8need8to8nowF+( 5o; &ews *uust 9, 2013+(1@( /s Edward Snowden )eceives s%lum in )ussia, Poll Shows mericans S%mpathetic to &S >histle8-lower> ashinton

    hispers *httpDFFwww(usnews(comFnewsF#losFwashinton8whispersF2013F0!F01Fedward8snowden8receives8as%lum8in8russia8poll8shows8americans8s%mpathetic8to8nsa8whistle8#lower+( usnews(com( uust 1, 2013(

    16( _ a bGold, .adas( 5ormer Sen( Gordon .umphre% emails with Edward Snowden *httpDFFwww(polit ico(comFstor%F2013F0AFe;8senator8emails8with8snowden89323(htmlIhp^f1+( Politico( )etrieved Jul% 1A, 2013(

    1A( /)ussian State ?uma named E( Snowden a dissident and fihter aains the s%stem *` bg (jbgjk jkk jbgjqb bb qgb+ *httpDFFtop(r#c(ruFpoliticsF26F06F2013F!6396A(shtml+((6" 4ail,( 26( )etrieved uust 9,2013( 4he head of the State ?uma $ommittee on 7nternational ffairs le;ei Pushov has called Edward Snowden, thewhistle#lower on the 'S intellience services, as a new dissident fihtin with the s%stem( 4he deput% wrote this in his micro#lo(ssane, :annin and Snowden were no spies and the% ave awa% secret information not out of mone% #ut out of conviction( 4he%are the new dissidents, fihters with the s%stem, 8 (Pushov #elieves( kk bqgqk b b gxjkbj gkygg z{b jkk kbk|qg} gx ~y kk jbgjk jb gjqb, b} qgb( qb gqkq jkk bg bbg( ykjx, jjj jbgj jg {bjk k ggqjjbk jg k gj, k gxgj( j jbg gjq, b qgb, |qkgq y(z{b(

    1!( _ a bLoGiurato, -rett *June 11, 2013+( John -oehnerD Edward Snowden 7s >4raitor> *httpDFFwww(sfate(comFtechnolo%F#usinessinsiderFarticleFJB.&8-BE.&E)8Edward8Snowden87s884raitor89@3261(php+( San Francisco "hronicle( )etrieved June 11, 2013(

    1( /de &esnera, ndre *uust !, 2013+( 7s &S Leaer Edward Snowden a 4raitorI *httpDFFwww(voanews(comFcontentFsnowden8traitorF1A262A2(html+( ashintonD oice of merica( )etrieved uust , 2013(

    20( /lein, E"ra( Edward Snowden, patriot *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comF#losFwon#loFwpF2013F0!F0Fedward8snowden8patriotF+( The Washinton !ost(

    21( /BpinionD Edward Snowden is a patriot 4revor 4imm *httpDFFwww(politico(comFstor%F2013F0!Fedward8snowden8is8a8patriot8@921(html+( Politico($om(

    22( _ a b c d e f g hGreenwald, Glenn :acsill, Ewen Poitras, Laura *June , 2013+( Edward SnowdenD the whistle#lower #ehind the

    &S surveillance revelations *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF0Fedward8snowden8nsa8whistle#lower8surveillance+( TheGuardian*London+( )etrieved June , 2013(23( /-lae, aron *June , 2013+( $lapperD Leas are literall% ut8wrenchin,V leaer #ein

    souht *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comF#losFpost8politicsFwpF2013F06F0Fclapper8leas8are8literall%8ut8wrenchin8leaer8#ein8souhtF+( The Washinton !ost( )etrieved uust !, 2013(

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  • 8/12/2019 Edward Snowden - Wikipedia


    29( /Jimm% $arter ?efends Snowden, Sa%s '(S( .as &o 5unctionin?emocrac% *httpDFFwww(thenewamerican(comFusnewsFconstitutionFitemF160938Cimm%8carter8defends8snowden8sa%s8u8s8has8no8functionin8democrac%+( 4henewamerican(com(

    2@( _ a bcerman, Spencer *June 10, 2013+( Edward Snowden failed in attempt to Coin 'S arm%>s elite special forcesunit *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF10Fedward8snowden8arm%8special8forces+( The Guardian*London+( )etrieved June10, 2013( 4he arm% did confirm Snowden>s date of #irthD June 21, 1!3(

    26( /)eportD Snowden has document to enter )ussia *httpDFFwww(wvec(comFnewsF)eport8Snowden8has8document8to8enter8)ussia8216A3!6@1(html+( E$( Jul% 29, 2013( )etrieved uust 3, 2013( Edward Snowden, who was #orn in Eli"a#eth $it%, &$, iswanted in the '(S( for espionae(

    2A( _ a b c d 4rac%, $onnor *June 10, 2013+( hat we now a#out &S leaer EdwardSnowden *httpDFFusnews(n#cnews(comFnewsF2013F06F10F1!!!261@8what8we8now8a#out8nsa8leaer8edward8snowdenIlite+( &-$&ews(

    2!( /7towit", $ol#% Sheehan, ?aniel Patric *June 10, 2013+( Edward Snowden>s father, stepmother plan to mae pu#licstatement *httpDFFwww(mcall(comFnewsF#reainFmc8pa8ed8snowden8nsa8lea820130610,0,A1A!@(stor%+( The #ornin "all*llentown, P+(

    2( /4oppo, Gre *June 10, 2013+( 5ormer neih#or remem#ers Snowden as >niceid> *httpDFFwww(usatoda%(comFstor%FnewsFnationF2013F06F10Fsnowden8neih#ors8surveillance8securit%F290!@A3F+( -S. Toda,*ashinton ?$+(

    30( /Edward Snowden>s father, a Lehih $ount% resident, tells networ he>s concerned for son>s well8#ei *httpDFFwww(lehihvalle%live(comFlehih8count%Finde;(ssfF2013F06Fedwardsnowdensfatheralehi(html+( Leheih all%E;press 4imes( )etrieved uust , 2013(

    31( /47:EL7&ED Edward Snowden>s Life s e now 7t *httpDFFa#cnews(o(comF-lotterFtimeline8edward8snowdens8lifeFstor%Iid^1399!A+( -$ &ews( June 13, 2013( )etrieved Jul% 10, 2013(

    32( _ a bProfileD Edward Snowden *httpDFFwww(##c(co(uFnewsFworld8us8canada822!3A100+( --$ &ews( June 10, 2013( )etrievedJune 10, 2013(

    33( _ a bEdward Snowden>s 5ather Speas But 4o 5o; #out :edia >:isinformation,> ss Son 4o StopLeain *httpDFFwww(mediaite(comFtvFedward8snowdens8father8speas8out8to8fo;8a#out8media8misinformation8ass8son8to8stop8leainF+( :ediaite( :a% 26, 2013( )etrieved June 1, 2013(

    39( /Leer, ?onna Leinwand *June , 2013+( &S contractorD >7 now 7 have done nothinwron> *httpDFFwww(usatoda%(comFstor%FnewsFnationF2013F06F0Fedward8snowden8uardian8interviewF290@!A3F+( -S. Toda,*ashinton ?$+( )etrieved June , 2013(

    3@( /'(S( 5ears Edward Snowden :a% ?efect to $hinaD Sources *httpDFFa#cnews(o(comF-lotterFus8fears8edward8snowden8defect8china8sourcesFstor%Iid^13!6A2pae^3+( -$ &ews( June 13, 2013( p( 3( )etrieved June 1, 2013(

    36( /Snowden>s Life Surrounded -% Sp%craft *httpDFF#istor%(ap(orFarticleFap8impact8snowdens8life8surrounded8sp%craft+( ssociatedPress( June 1@, 2013( )etrieved June 1@, 2013(

    3A( /$ooe, ristina Shiffman, Scott *June 12, 2013+( E;clusiveD Snowden as a teen onlineD anime and chee%humor *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F06F12Fus8usa8securit%8snowden8anime8id'S-)E@-19-20130612+( )euters()etrieved June 12, 2013( Lon #efore he #ecame nown worldwide as the &S contractor who e;posed top8secret '(S( overnmentsurveillance prorams, Edward Snowden wored for a Japanese anime compan% run #% friends and went #% the nicnames 4he 4rue.BB. and Phish(

    3!( /Moshida, )eiCi *June 1@, 2013+( Snowden e# mana profile stillonline *httpDFFwww(Capantimes(co(CpFnewsF2013F06F1@FnationalF028profile8paints8snowden8as8mana8anime8un8irlish8ee8with8list8of8liesF+(&a+an Times*4o%o+(

    3( /-roder, John :( Shane, Scott *June 1@, 2013+( 5or Snowden, a Life of m#ition, ?espite the?riftin *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F16FusFfor8snowden8a8life8of8am#ition8despite8the8driftin(htmlIpaewanted^all+( TheNew York Times( )etrieved June 1@, 2013( :r( Snowden, who has taen refue in .on on, has studied :andarin, was deepl%interested in martial arts, claimed -uddhism as his reliion and once mused that $hina is definitel% a ood option career wise(

    90( /:acsill, Ewen *June , 2013+( &S whistle#lower Edward SnowdenD >7 do not e;pect to see homeaain> *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF0Fnsa8whistle#lower8edward8snowden8wh%+( The Guardian*London+( )etrievedJune , 2013(

    91( /-lae, aron *June 10, 2013+( Edward Snowden apparentl% a )on Paul supporter *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comF#losFpost8politicsFwpF2013F06F10Fedward8snowden8apparentl%8a8ron8paul8supporterF+( The Washinton !ost( )etrieved June 2@, 2013(

    92( /Tara, $hristopher *June , 2013+( &S histle#lower )evealedD Edward Snowden ?onated K@00 4o )on Paul>s 2012 Presidential$ampainD ?oes &S histle#lower .ave Li#ertarian LeaninsI *httpDFFwww(i#times(comFnsa8whistle#lower8revealed8edward8snowden8donated8@008ron8pauls820128presidential8campain8does8nsa+()nternational 6usiness Times( )etrieved June , 2013(

    93( /Shane, Scott *June 26, 2013+( 'nder Snowden Screen &ame, 200 Post -eratedLeas *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F2AFworldFunder8snowdens8screen8name8a8declaration8in808that8leaers8should8#e8shot(html+( The New York Times(

    99( /elch, illiam :( *June 2A, 2013+( )eportD Snowden slammed leaers in online chats in200 *httpDFFwww(usatoda%(comFstor%FnewsF2013F06F2AFsnowden8participated8in8online8chats8nsa8leasF2962961F+( -S. Toda,(

    9@( /:ullin, Joe( *June 13, 2013+ &S leaer Ed SnowdenVs life on *httpDFFarstechnica(comFtech8polic%F2013F06Fnsa8leaer8ed8snowdens8life8on8ars8technicaF+( rs 4echnica(

    96( /:ullin, Joe *June 26, 2013+( 7n 200, Ed Snowden said leaers should #e shot( 4hen he #ecameone(( *httpDFFarstechnica(comFtech8polic%F2013F06Fe;clusive8in82008ed8snowden8said8leaers8should8#e8shot8then8he8#ecame8oneF3F+( arstechnica( )etrieved June 26, 2013(

    9A( /.all, Ellie( Edward Snowden>s Bnline Past )evealed *httpDFFwww(#u""feed(comFellievhallFedward8snowdens8online8past8revealed+(6u77Feed( )etrieved uust 3, 2013(

    9!( /Lam, Lana *June 13, 2013+( E=$L'S7ED histle8#lower Edward Snowden tals to South $hina :ornin

    Post *httpDFFwww(scmp(comFnewsFhon8onFarticleF12@33@Fe;clusive8whistle8#lower8edward8snowden8tals8south8china8morninIutmsource^dlvr(itutmmedium^twitter+( South "hina #ornin !ost*.on on+( )etrieved June 2!, 2013(9( _ a b-roder, John :( Shane, Scott *June 1@, 2013+( 5or Snowden, a Life of m#ition, ?espite the

    ?riftin *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F16FusFfor8snowden8a8life8of8am#ition8despite8the8driftin(htmlIpaewanted^allr^0+(The New York Times(

    Pae 19 of 29Edward Snowden 8 iipedia, the free enc%clopedia


  • 8/12/2019 Edward Snowden - Wikipedia


    @0( /Gasell, Stephanie *June 10, 2013+( )ecords show rm% dischared Edward Snowden after @months *httpDFFwww(politico(comFstor%F2013F06Fedward8snowden8arm%8dischare829!6(html+(!olitico(

    @1( /Leer, ?onna Leinwand *June 10, 2013+( ho is &S whiste#lower EdwardSnowdenI *httpDFFwww(usatoda%(comFstor%FnewsFnationF2013F06F0Fedward8snowden8uardian8interviewF290@!A3F+( -S. Toda,(

    @2( /Edward SnowdenD E;8$7 worer comes forward as leaer, sa%s he was protectin >#asicli#erties> *httpDFFwww(chicaotri#une(comFnewsFchi8nsa8prism8scandal82013060,0,932290(stor%+( "hicao Triune( )euters( June10, 2013( )etrieved June 1A, 2013(

    @3( /:emmott, :ar *June 10, 2013+( ho 7s Edward Snowden, 4he Self8St%led &S LeaerI *httpDFFwww(npr(orF#losFthetwo8wa%F2013F06F10F102320Fwho8is8edward8snowden8the8nsa8leaer+( &P)(

    @9( /-Ytiofer, $hristian *June 10, 2013+( ie die $7 sich in Genf -andaten #eschaffte /.ow the $7 acHuired #an data inGeneva *httpDFFwww(handels"eitun(chFpolitiFwie8die8cia8sich8enf8#andaten8#eschaffte+('andels7eitun*in German+ *Turich+()etrieved Jul% 3, 2013(

    @@( /4er Sonntaand Sonntas6licknewspapers@6( /Swiss president would #ac criminal pro#e aainst &S leaer *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F06F16Fus8usa8securit%8

    swit"erland8snowden8id'S-)E@50120130616+( )euters( June 16, 2013(@A( _ a b?rew, $hristopher and Shane, Scott( )the hihesthonor> *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF1AFedward8snowden8nsa8files8whistle#lower+( Guardian Securit, and 8iert,lo(

    A0( /Lam, Lana( E=$L'S7ED Snowden souht -oo" llen Co# to ather evidence on &S surveillance*httpDFFwww(scmp(comFnewsFhon8onFarticleF126!20Fe;clusive8snowden8souht8#oo"8allen8Co#8ather8evidence8nsa+( South"hina #ornin !ost*.on on+( June 29, 2013( )etrieved June 29, 2013(

    A1( /Golowsi, &ina *June 11, 2013+( &S whistle8#lower Edward Snowden 57)E? from K122,000 per8%ear Co# with defensecontractor -oo" .amilton *httpDFFwww(n%dail%news(comFnewsFworldFrussia8considers8as%lum8edward8snowden8article81(136!!!+(4ail, News*&ew Mor+( )etrieved June 16, 2013(

    A2( _ a b c-oo" llen hired Snowden despite discrepancies in his r

  • 8/12/2019 Edward Snowden - Wikipedia


    A6( _ a beiner, :acen"ie *June 10, 2013+( -arton Gellman, Glenn Greenwald feud over &Sleaer *httpDFFwww(politico(comFstor%F2013F06Fedward8snowden8nsa8leaer8lenn8reenwald8#arton8ellman82@0@(html]i;""2rPnC&f+(!olitico( )etrieved June 10, 2013(

    AA( _ a b c d eGellman, -arton *June 10, 2013+( $ode name >era;>D Snowden, in e;chanes with Post reporter, made clear he newriss *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comFworldFnational8securit%Fcode8name8vera;8snowden8in8e;chanes8with8post8reporter8made8clear8he8new8rissF2013F06F0Fca2@#@98d19c811e28f1a81aAcdee202!Astor%(html+(The Washinton !ost( )etrieved June 10,2013(

    A!( /Edward Snowden 7nterviewD 4he &S and 7ts illin .elpers *httpDFFwww(spieel(deFinternationalFworldFinterview8with8whistle#lower8edward8snowden8on8lo#al8sp%in8a810006(html+4er S+ieel

    A( _ a bSmith, :att Pearson, :ichael *June 10, 2013+( &S leaer holed up in .on on hotel, runnin low oncash *httpDFFedition(cnn(comF2013F06F10FpoliticsFnsa8leaFinde;(html+( $&&( )etrieved June 10, 2013(

    !0( /'S leaer Edward Snowden >defendin li#ert%> *httpDFFwww(##c(co(uFnewsFworld8us8canada822!92!3A+( --$ &ews( June 10,2013(

    !1( /Man, Jia L%nn *June 10, 2013+( Edward Snowden faces stron e;tradition treat% if he remains in .onon *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comFworldFasiapacificFhon8on8hotel8sa%s8edward8snowden8was8there8#ut8checed8out8monda%F2013F06F10F99#aa0fa8d1af811e28aA3e8!26d2ff9@stor%(html+(The Washinton !ost( )etrieved June 10, 2013(

    !2( /-archfield, Jenn% *Jul% 19, 2013+( GreenwaldD Snowden docs contain &S>#lueprint> *httpDFFwww(chron(comFnewsFworldFarticleFGreenwald8Snowden8docs8contain8&S8#lueprint8966@061(php+( ssociatedPress( )etrieved Jul% 19, 2013(

    !3( /:acsill, Ewen *June 12, 2013+( Edward SnowdenD how the sp% stor% of the ae leaedout *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF11Fedward8snowden8nsa8whistle#lower8profile+( The Guardian*London+( )etrievedJune 12, 2013(

    !9( /&S whistle#lower Edward SnowdenD >7 don>t want to live in a societ% that does these sort ofthins> *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldFvideoF2013FCunF0Fnsa8whistle#lower8edward8snowden8interview8video+ *video+( TheGuardian*London+( June , 2013(

    !@( _ a bEdward Snowden>s statement to human rihts roups infull *httpDFFwww(teleraph(co(uFnewsFworldnewsFeuropeFrussiaF101A6@2FEdward8Snowdens8statement8to8human8rihts8roups8in8full(html+( The 4ail, Telera+h( Jul% 12, 2013(

    !6( /Gellman, -arton( *June , 2013+ $ode name era;VD Snowden, in e;chanes with Post reporter, made clear he newriss *httpDFFarticles(washintonpost(comF201380680FworldF3!@66221intellience8powers8sinle8point+( The Washinton !ost(

    !A( /-arrett, ?evlin $hen, 4e8Pin *June 29, 2013+( Snowden on the)un *httpDFFonline(wsC(comFarticleFS-1000192912A!!A3236!3@09@A!@62!@23102A3!1!(html+( The Wall Street &ournal*&ewMor+(

    !!( /Statement reardin involvement of 7::7 in Edward Snowden as%lum reHuest *httpsDFFimmi(isFinde;(phpF!68statement8reardin8involvement8of8immi8in8edward8snowden8as%lum8reHuest+( )e%CavR, 7celandD 7nternational :odern :edia 7nstitute(June , 2013( )etrieved June 10, 2013(

    !( /$alled a defector, &S leaer defends his decision *httpDFFwww(cnn(comF2013F06F10FpoliticsFnsa8leaFinde;(html+( $&&( June10, 2013( )etrieved June 10, 2013(

    0( /Pomfret, James )oantree, nne :arie *June 12, 2013+( merican who leaed &S secrets is a free man in .on on fornow *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F06F12Fus8usa8securit%8honon8id'S-)E@-0A-20130612+( )euters( )etrieved June12, 2013( Sources at .on on law firms have said Snowden has approached human rihts law%ers in the cit% and ma% #e diinin his heels for a leal fiht in preparation for the 'nited States la%in chares aainst him(

    1( /Lam, Lana *June 12, 2013+( histle8#lower Edward Snowden tells S$:PD >Let .on on people decide m%fate> *httpDFFwww(scmp(comFnewsFhon8onFarticleF12@922Fedward8snowden8let8hon8on8people8decide8m%8fate+( South "hina#ornin !ost*.on on+( )etrieved June 12, 2013(

    2( /Lam, Lana *June 13, 2013+( histle#lower Edward Snowden tals to South $hina :orninPost *httpDFFwww(scmp(comFnewsFhon8onFarticleF12@33@Fe;clusive8whistle#lower8edward8snowden8tals8south8china8mornin8post+( South "hina #ornin !ost( )etrieved June 12, 2013( .e vowed to fiht an% e;tradition attempt #% the 'Sovernment, sa%inD >:% intention is to as the courts and people of .on on to decide m% fate( 7 have #een iven no reason todou#t %our s%stem(>

    3( /Eli Lae *June 2@, 2013+ GreenwaldD SnowdenVs 5iles re But 4here if n%thin .appensV to .im*httpDFFwww(thedail%#east(comFarticlesF2013F06F2@Freenwald8snowden8s8files8are8out8there8if8an%thin8happens8to8him(html+ The4ail, 6east

    9( /ill Enlund *uust 26, 2013+ )eportD Snowden sta%ed at )ussian consulate while in .on on*httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comFworldFreport8snowden8sta%ed8at8russian8consulate8while8in8hon8onF2013F0!F26F!23Acfa80e3811e38a2#38@e10Aedf!Astor%(html+

    @( /?osone, 4han%arat at", Greor% *June 19, 2013+( &S leaer Snowden not welcome in' *httpDFFwww(#usinesswee(comFapF2013806819F#ritain8sa%s8nsa8leaer8snowden8not8welcome8in8u+(6loomer 6usinessWeek*&ew Mor+( ssociated Press( )etrieved June 16, 2013(

    6( /-ritain to airlinesD ?on>t let Edward Snowden fl% to '( *httpDFFwww(c#snews(comF!30182021628@A@!309F#ritain8to8airlines8dont8let8edward8snowden8fl%8to8u(F+( $-S &ews( June 19, 2013( )etrieved June 19, 2013(

    A( /iiLeas plane >read%> to #rin Snowden to 7celand *httpDFFwww(scmp(comFnewsFhon8onFarticleF126@692Fwiileas8plane8read%8#rin8snowden8iceland+( South "hina #ornin !ost*.on on+( ence 5rance8Presse( June 21, 2013( )etrieved June 21,2013(

    !( /&o, Jennifer *June 21, 2013+( Julian ssane intervenes to help Snowden et to 7celand *httpDFFwww(scmp(comFnewsFhon8onFarticleF126@3!6FCulian8assane8intervenes8help8snowden8et8iceland+( South "hina #ornin !ost( ence 5rance8Presse()etrieved June 20, 2013rticle title in printD ssane intervenes over 7celand option(

    ( /'(S( revoes Snowden>s passportD official source *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F06F23Fus8usa8securit%8passport8

    id'S-)E@:0$20130623+( )euters( June 23, 2013( )etrieved June 2@, 2013(100( /Shane, Scott *June 23, 2013+( Bfferin Snowden id, iiLeas Gets -ac in theGame *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F29FworldFofferin8snowden8aid8wiileas8ets8#ac8in8the8ame(htmlIr^0paewanted^all+( The New York Times( rchived *httpDFFwww(we#citation( from the oriinal on June 29,2013( )etrieved June 29, 2013(

    Pae 16 of 29Edward Snowden 8 iipedia, the free enc%clopedia


  • 8/12/2019 Edward Snowden - Wikipedia


    101( /:ainen, Julie *June 23, 2013+( Snowden leaves .on on final destinationunclear *httpDFFwww(latimes(comFnewsFworldFworldnowFla8f8wn8hon8on8snowden820130623,0,2!A0(stor%+(8os .nelesTimes( )etrieved June 2@, 2013(

    102( /Perle", Jane -radsher, eith *June 29, 2013+( $hina Said to .ave :ade $all to Let Leaer?epart *httpsDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F29FworldFasiaFchina8said8to8have8made8call8to8let8leaer8depart(htmlIr^0+( The NewYork Times( p( *'S edition+( )etrieved June 29, 2013Print titleD $hina Said to .ave :ade $all to Let Leaer ?epart

    103( /.S) Government issues statement on EdwardSnowden *httpDFFwww(info(ov(hFiaFeneralF201306F23FP2013062309A6(htm+ *Press release+( .on on Government( June 23,2013(

    109( /-aer, Peter -arr%, Ellen *June 23, 2013+( &(S(( >Leaer Leaves .on on, Local BfficialsSa%> *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F06F29FworldFasiaFnsa8leaer8leaves8hon8on8local8officials8sa%(htmlIhpr^0+( The NewYork Times(

    10@( /Snowden left . lawfull%D $E *httpDFFwww(news(ov(hFenFcateoriesFlaworderFhtmlF2013F06F2013062916306(shtml+( .onon 7nformation Services ?epartment( June 29, 2013( )etrieved June 2@, 2013(

    106( /&o dela% in Snowden caseD SJ *httpDFFwww(news(ov(hFenFcateoriesFlaworderFhtmlF2013F06F2013062@1A@!3@(shtml+( .onon 7nformation Services ?epartment( June 2@, 2013( rchived *httpDFFwww(we#citation( from the oriinal on June26, 2013( )etrieved June 26, 2013(

    10A( /.on on did not assist Snowden>s departure *httpDFFwww(lo#alpost(comFdispatchFnewsFafpF13062@Fhon8on8did8not8assist8snowdens8departure+( Gloal !ost( ence 5rance8Presse( June 2@, 2013( Muen also said there were discrepencies and missininformation in documents used to identif% Snowden( >Bn the diplomatic documents, James was used as the middle name, on therecord upon enterin the #order, Joseph was used as the middle name, on the merican court documents sent to us #% the mericanJustice department, it onl% said Edward J Snowden,> he said( .on on authorities also noticed that documents produced #% the 'Sdid not show Snowden>s merican passport num#er(

    10!( /Lu, Eddie *June 26, 2013+( Justice chief spells it out *httpDFFwww(thestandard(com(hFnewsdetail(aspI

    ppcat^30artid^139@Asid^3!A0263cont%pe^1dstr^20130626isSearch^1sear%ear^2013+( The Standard*.onon+(

    10( /Pomfret, James 4orode, Gre *June 29, 2013+( -ehind Snowden>s .on on e;itD fear andpersuasion *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F06F29Fus8usa8securit%8reconstruction8id'S-)E@&1$20130629F+( )euters()etrieved June 29, 2013(

    110( /JShotideo *June 2@, 2013+( / v e r a ; D Edward Snowden F Short 5ilm *httpDFFwww(%outu#e(comFwatchIv^BG?-e)927+( Mou4u#e( )etrieved Jul% 9, 2013(

    111( /:aier#ruer, rno *June 9, 2013+( )ead% at lastD .on on director presents Snowden movie *httpDFFinvestvine(comFread%8at8last8hon8on8director8presents8snowden8movieF+()nside )nvestor( )etrieved June 9, 2013(

    112( /kbgq kb jbgjb g} ~gggqgb *httpDFFnewsru(comFrussiaF23Cun2013Flanded(html+ &ESru,June 23, 2013(

    113( /jbgj bb gxk kbg /Snowden ased for as%lum in Ecuador *httpDFFlenta(ruFnewsF2013F06F23FecuadorF+(9;?*in )ussian+( June 23, 2013(

    119( /:ontane, )enee *June 29, 2013+( 5or Edward Snowden, $onvoluted Path 4o Possi#les%lum *httpDFFwww(npr(orF2013F06F29F1@1A2A0Ffor8edward8snowden8a8convoluted8path8to8possi#le8as%lum+( &P)( )etrieved

    June 2@, 2013(11@( /Evo :orales se a#re a ceder asilo a Edward Snowden si lo solicita /Evo :orales prepared to ive as%lum to Edward Snowden if

    reHuested *httpDFFwww(emol(comFnoticiasFinternacionalF2013F0AF01F606!29Fevo8morales8se8a#re8a8ceder8asilo8a8edward8snowden8si8lo8solicita(html+(@l #ercurio*in Spanish+ *Santiao+( E5E( Jul% 1, 2013(

    116( /PortasD Portual autori"ou o so#revoo de :orales *httpDFFsol(sapo(ptFinicioFPoliticaF7nterior(asp;Icontentid^A361+ Sol Bnline,Jul% , 2013 0!ortuguese1

    11A( /Spain >told Edward Snowden was on -olivia president>s plane> *httpDFFwww(##c(co(uFnewsFworld8latin8america823201A6A+(--$ &ews( Jul% @, 2013(

    11!( /Gru#er, nelia( Snowden still in :oscow despite -olivian plane drama *httpDFFin(reuters(comFarticleF2013F0AF03Fusa8securit%8snowden8Cet8#olivia8id7&?EE620A-20130A03+( )euters( )etrieved uust 2, 2013(

    11( /5isher, :a; *Jul% 3, 2013+( Evo :orales>s controversial fliht over Europe, minute #% heavil% disputedminute *httpDFFwww(washintonpost(comF#losFworldviewsFwpF2013F0AF03Fevo8morales8controversial8fliht8over8europe8minute8#%8heavil%8disputed8minuteF+( The Washinton !ost( )etrieved uust 2, 2013(

    120( /Jenne, Philipp8:orit" alde", $arlos *Jul% 3, 2013+( -olivian leaders> plane rerouted on Snowdenfear *httpDFF#istor%(ap(orFarticleF#olivian8leaders8plane8rerouted8snowden8fear+( ssociated Press( )etrieved Jul% 9, 2013(

    121( /Shoichet, $atherine E( *Jul% 3, 2013+( -oliviaD Presidential plane forced to land after false rumors of Snowdenon#oard *httpDFFedition(cnn(comF2013F0AF02FworldFamericasF#olivia8presidential8plane+( $&&(

    122( /Spain >told Edward Snowden was on -olivia president>s plane> *httpDFFwww(##c(co(uFnewsFworld8latin8america823201A6A+(--$( Jul% @, 2013( )etrieved uust 2, 2013(

    123( />5ree from imperial persecution>D 4hree Latin merican countries offer shelter to Edward Snowden *httpDFFrt(comFnewsFmaduro8snowden8as%lum8vene"uela8A23F+( )ussiaD )4( )etrieved uust 2, 2013(

    129( /5rance apoloises to -olivia over Cet row( *httpDFFwww(alCa"eera(comFnewsFeuropeF2013F0AF2013A9A191A29(html+( lJa"eera

    12@( /)eportin #% ?aniel )amos ritin #% $aroline Stauffer Editin #% Paul Simao *Jul% 1@, 2013+( Spain apoloi"es to -olivia forpresidential plane dela% *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F0AF16Fus8usa8securit%8snowden8latinamerica8id'S-)E6506020130A16+( )euters( )etrieved uust , 2013(

    126( _ a b cEdward Snowden sees as%lum in 20 nations, #ut ets no immediate taers *httpDF Fwww(c#snews(comF!30182021628@A@10Fedward8snowden8sees8as%lum8in8208nations8#ut8ets8no8immediate8taersF+( $-S &ews( ssociated Press( Jul% 2, 2013()etrieved Jul% 9, 2013(

    12A( /Gladstone, )ic *Jul% 1, 2013+( Snowden 7s Said to $laim '(S( 7s -locin s%lum

    -ids *httpDFFwww(n%times(comF2013F0AF02FworldFeuropeFsnowden8speas8out8in8moscow8for8first8time(html+( The New York Times(12!( /Galeno, Luis( ene"uela, &icaraua offer as%lum to &S leaer

    Snowden *httpDFFworldnews(n#cnews(comFnewsF2013F0AF0@F13063@8vene"uela8nicaraua8offer8as%lum8to8nsa8leaer8snowdenIlite+( )euters( )etrieved Jul% A, 2013(

    Pae 1A of 29Edward Snowden 8 iipedia, the free enc%clopedia


  • 8/12/2019 Edward Snowden - Wikipedia


    12( /Spain Sa%s 7t as 4old Snowden as #oard -olivian Leader>s -loced Jet*httpDFFonline(wsC(comFarticleFS-1000192912A!!A323!A09@A!@!A931A3932@0(html+(The Wall Street &ournal( *Jul% @, 2013+(

    130( /Poland, 7ndia, -ra"il snu# Snowden as%lum application *httpDFFwww(thenews(plF1F10Frt%ulF1901A3,Poland87ndia8-ra"il8snu#8Snowden8as%lum8application+( Polish )adio Enlish Section( Jul% 3, 2013(

    131( /5rance reCects Snowden as%lum reHuest *httpDFFwww(fo;news(comFworldF2013F0AF09Ffrance8reCects8snowden8as%lum8reHuestF+('nited StatesD 5o; &ews $hannel( Jul% 9, 2013( )etrieved Jul% 9, 2013(

    132( /7tal% reCects Snowden as%lum reHuest *httpDFFwww(reuters(comFarticleF2013F0AF09Fus8ital%8snowden8id'S-)E6307G20130A09+()euters( Jul% 9, 2013(

    133( /sterreichische )eierun sieht 5ormalfehler #ei s%lantra von Snowden *httpDFFderstandard(atF13A11A1392!09F)eierun8sieht8

    5ormalfehler8#ei8s%lantra8von8Snowden+( ?erstandard(at(139( /4eevenD een asiel voor Snowden *httpDFFwww(nieuws(nlFalemeenF20130A02F4eeven8een8asiel8voor8Snowden+ *in ?utch+(

    &ovum &ieuws( Jul% 2, 2013( )etrieved Jul% A, 2013( ?e meriaanse loenluider Edward Snowden an fluiten naar een&ederlandse asielverunnin( /5red 4eeven heeft het ver"oe ontvanen, "et hiC( :aar het is >niet8ontvaneliC> want de aanvraa isniet in &ederland edaan(

    13@( /Ecuador cools on Edward Snowden as%lum as ssane frustration rows *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCunF2!Fedward8snowden8ecuador8Culian8assane+( The Guardian( June 2!, 2013(

    136( /Ecuador >helped Snowden #% mistae,> as%lum in dou#t *httpDFFrt(comFnewsFecuador8helped8snowden8mistae8as%lum8@1@F+( )4(Jul% 2, 2013(

    13A( /Ecuador sa%s it #lundered over Snowden travel document *httpDFFwww(uardian(co(uFworldF2013FCulF02Fecuador8rafael8correa8snowden8mistae+( The Guardian( Jul% 3, 2013(

    13!( _ a bzqj jkD jbgj bg( bbgqbk ~y jg q|bbgjk *httpDFFnewsru(comFworldF2@Cun2013Ferr%(html+( &ESru( June 2@, 2013(

    13( /PutinD Snowden still in :oscow airport transit "one, won>t #e e;tradited *httpDFFrt(comFnewsFputin8snowden8moscow8e;tradition8220F+( )4( June 2@, 2013( )etrieved June 2@, 2013(

    190( _ a bPutin sa%s Snowden at )ussian airport, sinals no e;tradition *httpDFFu(news(%ahoo(comFputin8sa%s8snowden8russian8airport8sinals8no8e;tradition819@9A113(html]&rEw@9+( )euters( June 2@, 2013(

    191( /iiLeas gx bg bg bgk jbgj *httpDFFi"vestia(ruFnewsF@@29A!+()7vestia*:oscow+( June23, 2013(

    192( /Julia 7offe, *June 2@, 2013+( Edward Snowden>s oin to sta% in )ussia, Cust %ouwait *httpDFFwww(newrepu#lic(comFarticleF113622Fputin8edward8snowden8free8man8will8sta%8russia8anela8davis+ The New(e+ulic

    193( /&emtsova, nna *June 26, 2013+( 4he &o8Show *httpDFFwww(foreinpolic%(comFarticlesF2013F06F26Fthenoshow+(Forein!olic,(

    199( /zkkb jbgjk( q bq b{gb kqk, |qb bkq} |gj b{b, k gg Z bbkjjb*httpDFFwww(nova%aa"eta(ruFcolumnsF@03(html+Nova,a Ga7eta, Jul% 1A, 2013( 0Russian1

    19@( /Pavel 5elenhauer((ussian )ntellience )ntends to Ga Snowden and Aee+ 'im in (ussia*httpDFFwww(Camestown(orFsinleFInocache^1t;ttnewsU@-ttnewsU@?^9113t;ttnewsU@-#acPidU@?^Ac.ash^ffec!@A90Aac#90A#e21d!ae#Aae1#]('eMAo0wd4@+@urasia 4ail, #onitor, Jul% 1!, 2013(

    196( /eissenstein, :ichael *June 30, 2013+( Ecuador PresidentD Snowden can>t leave :oscow *httpDFF#istor%(ap(orFarticleFecuador8

    president8snowden8cant8leave8moscow+( ssociated Press(19A( /Pearson, :ichael Smith, :att :ullen, Jethro *Jul% 2, 2013+( Snowden>s as%lum options

    dwindle *httpDFFedition(cnn(comF2013F0AF02FpoliticsFnsa8le