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Diaci Nature Based Forestry

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    NATURE-BASED FORESTRY

    IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Alternatives to Industrial Forestryand Strict Preservation

    Edited by Jurij Diaci

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    Studia ForestaliaSlovenica

    Nr. 126

    Strokovna inznanstvena delat. 126

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    Univerza v Ljubljani

    Biotehnika fakultetaOddelek za gozdarstvo inobnovljive gozdne vireSlovenija

    University of Ljubljana

    Biotechnical FacultyDepartment of Forestry and

    Renewable Forest ResourcesSlovenia

    NATURE-BASED FORESTRY

    IN CENTRAL EUROPE

    Alternatives to Industrial Forestryand Strict Preservation

    Ljubljana 2006

    The publication was subsidised by the Slovenian Research Agency and

    Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food

    UDK: 630*907(4-014) ISBN: 978-961-6020-44-2

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    Published by

    Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources - Biotechnical Faculty

    Editor in Chief

    Jurij DIACI

    International Editorial Board

    Prof. Dr. Marijan Kotar,University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Prof. em. Dr. Dr. hc Jean-Philippe Schtz,Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zrich

    Prof. Dr. Pietro Piussi,University of Florence, Italy

    Acad. Prof. em. Dr. Dr. hc Slavko Mati,University of Zagreb, Croatia

    Prof. em. Dr. Dr. hc Duan Mlinek,University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Prof. Dr. Jurij Diaci,University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Print

    Tiskarna Pleko d.o.o.Rona dolina c. IV/32-341000 Ljubljana

    Printed in 2006200 copies

    Technical Editor and Page design

    Uro KolarProof reading and cover drawing

    Thomas Andrew Nagel

    CIP - Kataloni zapis o publikaciji

    Narodna in univerzitetna knjinica, Ljubljana630*907(4-014)

    NATURE-based forestry in Central Europe [Elektronski vir] : alternatives toindustrial forestry and strict preservation / editor in chief Jurij Diaci. - Ljubljana :Biotehnika fakulteta, Oddelek za gozdarstvo in obnovljive gozdne vire = BiotechnicalFaculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, 2006. - (Studiaforestalia Slovenica : strokovna in znanstvena dela / Oddelek za gozdarstvo inobnovljive gozdne vire, Biotehnika fakulteta ; t. 126)

    Dostopno tudi na: http://www.bf.uni-lj.si/gozdarstvo/oddelek/katedre/goj_gozd/

    objave/Nature-based_forestry_in_CE.pdf

    ISBN-10 961-6020-44-7ISBN-13 978-961-6020-44-2

    1. Diaci, Jurij230741504

    http://www.bf.uni-lj.si/gozdarstvo/oddelek/katedre/goj_gozd/objave/Nature-based_forestry_in_CE.pdfhttp://www.bf.uni-lj.si/gozdarstvo/oddelek/katedre/goj_gozd/objave/Nature-based_forestry_in_CE.pdfhttp://www.bf.uni-lj.si/gozdarstvo/oddelek/katedre/goj_gozd/objave/Nature-based_forestry_in_CE.pdfhttp://www.bf.uni-lj.si/gozdarstvo/oddelek/katedre/goj_gozd/objave/Nature-based_forestry_in_CE.pdf
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    Preface

    Historical development of nature-based forestryin Central Europe

    Natural management as an important factor of forestprotection and survival

    Close to nature forestry criteria and coppice management

    Opportunities and strategies of biorationalisationof forest tending within nature-based management

    Minority tree species - a challenge for multi-purpose forestry

    Economic aspects of irregular, continuous and close to naturesilviculture (SICPN) -Examples about forests in France

    Combination of economic and ecological aspects by

    close to nature forestry -A contribution to the economiccrisis of forestry

    Close to nature forestry as the only true culture of a mansactivity

    Protected forest management in Slovenia

    Nature-based silviculture in Slovenia: origins, developmentand future trends

    Development of forest monitoring methods for sustainableforest management in Slovenia

    Practicing Mlinek's nature-based forest tending undercontemporary circumstances in Slovenia

    Sustainable and multipurpose forest management withproduction of high quality timber

    Prof. Dr. Jurij DIACI

    Prof. Dr. Elisabeth JOHANN

    Prof. Dr. Dr. hc SlavkoMATI

    Prof. Dr. Pietro PIUSSI

    Prof. Dr. Dr. hc Jean-PhilippeSCHUETZ

    Prof. Dr. Heinrich SPIECKER

    Brice de TURCKHEIM

    Dr. Hermann WOBST

    Prof. Dr. Dr. hc DuanMLINEK

    Prof. Dr. Andrej BONINA

    Prof. Dr. Jurij DIACI

    Prof. Dr. Milan HOEVARDoc. Dr. David HLADNIK

    MSc. ivan VESELI

    Prof. Dr. Marijan KOTAR

    Contents

    vii

    1

    19

    27

    39

    47

    61

    79

    91

    105

    119

    133

    147

    153

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    Preface

    Nature-based management started in and around Central Europe asa response to forest overexploitation and degradation in fragile mountainlandscapes. Switzerland was the first country that prohibited clear-cut forestmanagement by law in 1902. It was followed by Slovenia in 1948/49. In thelast half of the century nature-based forestry gained more and more follow-ers across Central Europe, and elsewhere in Europe and the World in the lastdecade.

    Despite declared support for sustainable forest management by Europe-an societies, nature-based management is endangered by many circumstanc-

    es. One of the reasons is because it is more labour intensive. It is intrinsicallybound to production of large diameter timber, to which many external benefitsfor the environment and society are linked, yet this represents a major ob-stacle for mechanization and rationalization. Furthermore, many Europeancountries are increasingly importing cheep timber from abroad, while protect-ing large forest areas at home.

    However, there are also many tendencies favourable for development ofnature-based forestry, such as the recurrent energy crises, rising consumptionof wood, increasing demand for social and protection functions of forests, and

    emphasis on nature conservation.Therefore, favourable tendencies should be utilized in appropriate ways,

    while at the same time much effort should be invested in overcoming the devel-opmental constraints. In this way, nature-based forestry, which for more thantwo hundred years remained in the shadow of conventional forestry, may forthe first time in history face an important expansion and development, whichwould significantly raise the quality of life in Europe.

    This volume contains contributions from thirteen experts in the field of

    nature-based forestry, from practising foresters with excellent long-term ex-amples of natural multipurpose managed forests to university teachers and

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    researchers. The main objectives of the book are to: (1) present the historicaldevelopment of nature-based forestry, (2) point out contemporary problems,developmental constraints, and forest threats, (3) draw attention to possibleconsequences of decreased forest tending and increased non-management, (4)

    discuss the possible answers and solutions, (5) expose the rationality of con-tinual nature-based management of forests and their resources, and (6) stimu-late discussion on solutions and encourage professional and political alli-ances to promote nature-based forest management in Europe and the World.

    One of the important aims of this book is also to demonstrate that naturebased forestry is, in contrast to common understanding, more than solely aSwiss selection system or continuous cover forestry. It is based on natural

    processes, and therefore it freely and smoothly combines different silviculturalsystems. Nature based forestry is successfully applied in various circumstanc-

    es from multipurpose production forest, to protection and urban forests. More-over, it has, due to its flexibility, a great potential for adaptation to specialdemands and further development.

    Nevertheless, nature based forestry is closely linked to different geo-graphical regions with various cultural environments. Therefore, we wouldlike to note that the viewpoints and ideas of each individual author are notnecessarily shared by all the contributors in this book. Instead, the variousviewpoints found in this collection of papers represent a broad continuum ofideas encompassed by nature based forestry in Central Europe, some of whichare more oriented toward preservation, while others are more oriented towardmanagement.

    The book will serve as an overview of contemporary paradigms, ideas,solutions and overall, examples of good practices for development, and hope-fully future expansion of nature-based forestry. It is based on the experiencesfrom Central European forestry practice, yet it cannot be used as scheme forpractical work. For this, interested foresters or forest owners should step incontact with Pro-silva Europaea regional organizations. The book can be

    used by practising foresters, forest owners, researchers, landscape ecologistand planners, forestry students, nature conservation experts, as well as thebroader forest interested public.

    The work is dedicated to the 80th birthday of Prof. Dr. Dr. hc DuanMlinek, former president of IUFRO, who has significantly shaped the con-temporary doctrine of nature-based forestry in Slovenia, Central Europe, andthe World.

    I especially thank the members of the international editorial boardProf. Marijan Kotar, Prof. Jean-Philippe Schtz, Prof. Pietro Piussi, Prof.Slavko Mati and Prof. Duan Mlinek for their useful comments. Construc-tive reviews of all of the manuscripts were provided by Prof

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