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Cold chain ppt

Jan 16, 2017



Storage and Handling of Vaccines


Cold ChainThe cold chain is the system of transporting and storing vaccines at recommended temperature from the point of manufacture to the point of use.


Why is the cold chain important ?Vaccines are:Biological productslose potency with timeProcess irreversible and accelerated if proper storage conditions are not adhered to.

2. Assurance in potent product and vaccine programmesProfessional responsibility Confident the vaccines you give will be effectivePublic Health responsibilityPublic confidence in immunisation programmes

3. Ensuring maximum benefit from immunisationsResponsibility not to waste scarce NHS resourcesReduce wastage from errors

4.Compliance with SPC/ManufacturerAny vaccine that has not been stored at a temperature of 2-8C as per its licensing conditions is no longer a licensed product



1.Walk in cold rooms(WIC)At regional levelStorage up to 3 months

At district & PHC levelsTemp :- -15oc to -25ocAt PHC, used only for the preparation of ice packs2.Deep freezers


3.Ice lined refrigerators(ILR)Both at district and PHC levelsTemp :- +2oc to +8ocILRs are top opening, can hold cold air inside better than front opening refrigerators

Vaccine StabilitySensitivity to HEATBCGVaricellaMMRMenCHepatitis BDT and/or aP/IPV/HIB

Sensitivity to COLDHepB and combinationDTand/or aP/IPV/HIBInfluenzaMenC*MMR*Varicella *BCG (*Freeze dried)


Temperature must be recorded twice in a day with dial thermometerLEAST SENSITIVE


Immunisation Department, Centre for InfectionsLight SensitiveSensitive to strong light, sunlight, ultraviolet, fluorescents (neon)

BCGMMRVaricella Meningococcal C ConjugateMost DTaP containing vaccines

Vaccines should always be stored in their original packaging until point of use to protect them from light


Vaccine Storage Use a dedicated vaccine fridge

Safeguard electricity supply

No more than 50% full

Place vaccines in clearly labelled plastic mesh baskets

Group vaccines by type (Paediatric, Adult, Adolescent)

Defrost/calibrate fridge regularly

Ensure back up facilities are available in the event of fridge failingX No food or medical specimens

X Do not place fridge in direct sunlight or near heat source

X Do not store vaccines for more than 1 month at PHC.

X Do not store vaccines in fridge doors or in solid plastic trays/containers within the fridge

X Keep vaccines away from fridge walls and cold air vents

Picture taken from



Used for transport of vaccinesFully frozen ice packs placed at the bottom and sidesDPT, TT, DT should not be kept in direct contact

1.Cold boxesUsed to carry small quantity of vaccines(16 to 20 vials)For out of reach sessions4 icepacks are used

2.Vaccine carriers

3.Day carriers

Used to carry very small quantities of vaccines(6 to 8 vials)For a near by session2 icepacks are usedFor only 2 hours period

Use of diluents

Specifically designed to reconstitute the vaccines with respect to volume, pH and other chemical propertiesStore at +2oc to +8oc in ILROnly use vaccines suppled and packaged by manufacturer

Vaccine Vial Monitor(VVM)VVM is a label containing heat sensitive material that is placed on a vaccine vial to register heat exposure over time

Vaccine vial monitor

Combined effects of time and temperature cause the inner square to darken gradually and irreversiblyVVM does not directly measure the vaccine potency but gives info about the main factor that affects potency

Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine.Controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases Estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. One of the most cost-effective health investments Accessible to even the most hard-to-reach and vulnerable populations.

Immunization schedule

Active immunization/vaccination has been named one of the

"Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century"

Immunization Schedule

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