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Climate Change and Tourism

Jan 03, 2016

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Climate Change and Tourism. Dr. Ulric Trotz. Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean, with Special Attention to Tourism and Insurance” A Symposium sponsored by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Mona Campus, UWI, Jamaica, and The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Belize - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Climate Change and TourismDr. Ulric Trotz

    23rd May 2007

  • Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean, with Special Attention to Tourism and Insurance

    A Symposium sponsored by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Mona Campus, UWI, Jamaica, and The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, BelizeUWI, Mona, June 15-17, 2007

    CLIMATE CHANGE & TOURISM IN THE CARIBBEANU. O. TROTZ - CCCCC

    23rd May 2007

  • GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGERecently released Fourth Assessment Report of theIPCC concludes: Unequivocal evidence that the earths temperature is rising and attributable to anthropogenic activities Green House GasesRise in global temperatures of between 2 -4.5 oC.Sea level rise of between 11 -77 cm.Changed weather patterns More intense extremes drought ,floodsMore intense hurricanes

    23rd May 2007

  • CLIMATE TRENDS IN THE CARIBBEANMean temp. increase for past 3 decades.By end of 1970s a significant warming detected in lower part of atmosphere.Significant >> in minimum temp.(1.4 deg. since 1960).2 degree decrease in diurnal temp. range for region. No. of warm days in region >>, no. of cold nights since 1960 (Cuba).Frequency of occurrence of extreme events changing- Flooding & hurricane passage > in 1990s

    23rd May 2007

  • Dependencies of Tourism in the Caribbean

    Equitable climateTourism plant-Hotels and other facilitiesInfrastructure- airports, cruise ship berths, roads, coastal protection structures etc.Natural amenities beach, reefs, wetlandsAccess to clean and adequate supply of water Access to ready supply of energyFinancial services especially insuranceHealthy environment free from diseasesAdequate supplies of foodSocial harmony

    23rd May 2007

  • IMPACTS ON TOURISMDirect Impacts climate variability and changing weather patterns affect:Planning of tourism programsTourists comfortTravel decisions warmer wintersHeat wavesHurricanesTourist flows

    23rd May 2007

  • IMPACTS ON TOURISMIndirect Sea Level Rise (SLR)Coast and Beach erosionInundation of flood plainsSoil and aquifer salinisationExaggerated storm surgeLoss of mangroves and other coastal ecosystems.At worst total submersion

    23rd May 2007

  • SLR & Storm Surge

    23rd May 2007

  • Coastal Impact of Storm Surge and Wave Action under a Sea Level Rise Scenario

    MSL 1997

    MSL 1997

    1997

    2020

    Response Strategies: Retreat Accommodation Protection

    Wave Action

    Storm Surge

    Wave Action

    Storm Surge

    MSL 2020

  • IMPACTS ON TOURISMWarmer sea temperatureCoral bleaching El Nino 1998 extensive bleaching in regionBreakdown of reef protectionAmenity loss for divers and snorkelersIn combination with loss of mangroves, sea-grass beds impact on fisheriesProjected increase in frequency of extreme events floods, droughtsProjected increase in intensity of hurricanes

    23rd May 2007

  • IMPACTS ON TOURISMIncrease in frequency?? And intensity of hurricanes:Damage to sea-defences.Damage to reefsDestruction of mangroves Beach and coastal erosionStorm surge damage to shorelineDamage to coastal infrastructure roads, utilities,airports, Damage to hotels and other tourism plant Disruption of services.

    23rd May 2007

  • IMPACTS ON TOURISMChanging weather patterns & water supplyProjected decrease in precipitation Less water availableAquifer salinization Serious consequences for water short countries Barbados, Antigua& BarbudaInadequate aquifer recharge

    23rd May 2007

  • RESPONDING TO IMPACTSDeveloping countries responsible for negligible percentage of global GHG emissions.

    They stand to bear the brunt of CC impacts because of their inherent vulnerability.

    They must insist on Mitigation ( reducing GHG emissions) by the industrialized and large developing countries

    The region must adapt to climate change (take proactive action that would decrease climate change impacts).

    23rd May 2007

  • SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEANSea Level RiseBuilding seawalls and breakwatersEnhancing preservation of natural sea-defences (mangroves)Relieve anthropogenic stresses on reef systemBeach nourishment (expensive)Prohibit sand miningAdjust setbacks and enforceInstitute a local system of marine protected area

    23rd May 2007

  • SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEANWater SectorDesalinationWater conservationRecycling grey water in the industryWater harvestingLow flush toilets Aquifer rechargeDrip irrigation in agriculture

    23rd May 2007

  • SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEANBuilt EnvironmentBuilding design for efficient coolingAdequate setbacks from eroding coastsLocating coastal infrastructure away from eroding coastsFacilities designed to accommodate future climate (revisit CUBIC)Incentives (fiscal, insurance) to industry for complianceFactor in increased insurance costs into resort profitability

    23rd May 2007

  • SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEANEnabling Government Policy Fiscal incentives for changes to built tourism infrastructure (e.g retrofitting to comply with adjusted building codes)Fiscal regime to encourage sustainable construction in less vulnerable coastal zonesGreater public infrastructure for new tourism developments e.g. coastal defenceLand use planning to incorporate CC considerationsRetraining of displaced workers

    23rd May 2007

  • TOURISM AS ACONTRIBUTING CAUSEGHG emissions from the sector derived from:TransportRoad SeaAviationActivity specific tourism e.g. sportBuildings and other tourism amenities use of energyIncreased stress on natural ecosystems coastal ecosystems, natural resource base for ecotourism

    23rd May 2007

  • DECREASING TOURISM EMISSIONS FOOTPRINTEncourage green tourismEnergy efficient building designs cooling/lightWater conservation low flush toilets etc.Energy efficiency management practicesRenewable energy use e.g. solar water heatingEncourage use of energy efficient vehicles, cycling & activities that use less energy.Bear in mind that some countries thinking of an aviation tax increased airfares disincentive for travel????

    23rd May 2007

  • DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGECall on UN, international, financial & bilateral agencies to support govts. of developing countries in their efforts to address and to adapt to the adverse effects of cc and formulate appropriate action plans.

    Request international organisations, govts. NGOs and academic institutions to support local governments and destination management organisations in implementing adaptation and mitigation measures that respond to the specific climate change impacts at local destinations.

    23rd May 2007

  • DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGEEncourage the tourism industry to adjust their activities:use more energy efficient and cleaner technologies and logistics (for transport companies, hoteliers, tour operators, travel agents and tourist guides). Call on govts., bilateral and multilateral institutions to conceive and to implement sustainable management policies for water resourcesconservation of wetlands and other freshwater ecosystems

    23rd May 2007

  • DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGECall upon govts. to encourage the use of renewable energy sources in tourism and transport companies and activities, by facilitating technical assistance and using fiscal and other incentives.

    Encourage consumer associations, tourism companies and the media to raise consumers awareness of destinations and in generating markets, in order to change consumption behaviour and make more climate friendly tourism choices

    23rd May 2007

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORSustainable tourism thrust of regional industry in consonance with actions to mitigate climate change impactsImprove environmental performance of industry through benchmarking &eco-labeling e.g. through Green Globe 21 includes GHG emissions as one of nine key indicators.Explore potential of tourists to participate in carbon offsetting schemes- Trees for Travelers, Climate Care, Business Enterprises for SustainableTravel.

    23rd May 2007

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORMore discriminatory approach to tourism destinations green tourism- win-win situations for the Caribbean.Factor in climate factors into management & planning for the sector.Work with regional climate science community (CCCCC) to generate relevant climate information.

    23rd May 2007

  • EXAMPLES OF RELEVANT CLIMATE INFORMATION

    Expected to answer the following e.g. :What is expected change in-TemperatureSea levelFrequency of weather extremes El Nino, La NinaFrequency and intensity of hurricanesFrequency in return periods of extreme events floods , droughtsPatterns and intensity of precipitation. Storm surge and new areas at riskFlood plains

    23rd May 2007

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORPartnership with government to facilitate development of an enabling policy environment for sustainable tourism.Partnership with regional insurance companies, climate science community to better define future climate risks to which the region may be exposed in order to:Provide a rational basis for the design of insurance instruments e.g weather derivatives, catastrophe bonds, parametric insurance.Provide the basis for incentives from the financial/government/insurance sectors for smart development in the sector

    23rd May 2007

  • WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTORActions required for sustainable tourism are in many cases identical to those required to increase the resilienc