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Child Psychopathology Learning Disability Chapter 11
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Child Psychopathology

Jan 29, 2016

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Child Psychopathology. Learning Disability Chapter 11. Learning Disability. Imagine having important needs and ideas to communicate, but being unable to express them. Perhaps feeling bombarded by sights and sounds, unable to focus your attention. Or trying to read or add but - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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  • Child Psychopathology

    Learning DisabilityChapter 11

  • Learning DisabilityImagine having important needs and ideas to communicate, but being unable to express them. Perhaps feeling bombarded by sights and sounds, unable to focus your attention. Or trying to read or add but not being able to make sense of the letters or numbers.

    You may not need to imagine. You may be the parent or teacher of a child experiencing academic problems, or have someone in your family diagnosed as learning disabled. Or possibly as a child you were told you had a reading problem called dyslexia or some other learning handicap.

  • Definitional IssuesBroad range of definitions in various regions, provinces, and settingsCommon issue: Children do not perform up to their expected level in schoolIssues: What is the expectation? What is the level? How do we assess performance? What are the areas we are concerned about?Multiple aspects of intelligence: Social, musical, kinesthetic intelligences not always figure into consideration: Or are these linked? Music/Math

  • DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria: Learning DisordersAbility as measured by tests is substantially below expected given age, intelligence, and age-appropriate educationAchievement or activities of daily living is affectedNot due to sensory deficit, medical conditionKinds: Reading Disorder, Mathematics Disorder, Disorder of Written Expression, Developmental Coordination Disorder, Expressive Language Disorder, Phonological Disorder

  • Assessment issuesDetailed assessment of achievementWRAT-III has Reading, Arithmetic, and Spelling subtestsIntelligencee.g., Average IQ, but inconsistent performance such as peaks and valleys in profile or VIQ>PIQ, PIQAchievementOther cognitive processes Memory (WMS), perceptual processing (Beery), sound/letter correspondance (TOPA), grammar/ spelling in writing

  • What is reading? What can go wrong? Focus attention on the printed marks and control eye movements across the page Left to right movement Recognize the sounds associated with letters Understand words and grammar Build ideas and images Compare new ideas to what you already know Store ideas in memory

  • Reading DisordersCommon underlying feature is inability to distinguish or separate the sounds in spoken words or decode words from textReading speed, accuracy, and/or comprehension are affectedReversals (bab = bad), transpositions (was = saw; plane = plaen), inversions (M/W; u/n), omissions (bread = bead; pear = pea).Give example of each for nub

  • Mathematics DisorderDifficulty in recognizing numbers and symbols, memorizing facts, aligning numbers, and abstract concepts (What is +; 3 vs. 8; deleting 0 from 100; $$)Core deficits in arithmetic calculation (2+2=3) and or mathematics reasoning abilitiesVisual perceptual and visual spatial domains (Geometry, sets, maps)

  • Writing DisorderProblems with writing, drawing, or other visual-motor tasksCombination of core deficits related to written output including spelling, grammar, punctuation, poor organization, poor handwriting; Specifics similar to readingThink of how pervasive writing is to testing within the school systemCan computers compensate for everything

  • EtiologyReading disorders 60% heritable, thus genetic basis highly likely: autosomal dominantDifficult to detect neurological problemAnoxia at birth leads to elevated risk, even when IVH or lesion cannot be detectedIntegration of skills and information == Metacognitive deficits, strategiesAuditory processing is importantComorbid attentional and behavioral problems

  • LD: Cycle of failure and motivationThere is a cycle of failure, internal attributions of failure (I am stupid), external blame (School is dumb), loss of motivation to try, (What is the point), leading to further failure, which becomes self-fulfilling.Comorbid depression, anxiety, and self-esteem problemsConflict with parentsConflict with teachersPeer problems can ariseCycle must be stoppedBuild on successes

  • Learning Disorders: Treatments and preventionEarly identification and treatment, e.g., reading recovery, parental reading; Later, special placementsChildren are usually in regular classrooms with extra assistance either in or outside of classroomDirect instruction is necessary, e.g., sound-letter correspondence, steps in math problems, monitoring spelling and grammarWhole language vs. Code-emphasis model of reading instruction. The former is good to create initial interest, but skills must be taughtMetacognitive training: What are you doing? How long has it taken? Am you on task? External cues

  • How do learning disorders effect peer relations?

    The term children with learning disorders refers broadly to children who are not performing at age expected academic level.It is estimated that 75% of children with learning disorders have some kind of social deficit.Children often experience rejection and are victimized by peers. This can lead to loneliness and possibly depression. Peer relations are vital to a childs development

  • Social Deficits

    Reduced social and communicative competence Fewer initiated social interactionsLess cooperativeLess tactful in social situationsLess developed concept of conflict

  • Social DeficitsAdjustment difficultiesImmaturitiesDifficulty distinguishing subtle cuesDifficulty processing facial expressions and other social information

  • If children with learning disorders are rejected by peers then they do not get the opportunity to practice social interactions.

    Friendships give these children a medium to learn skills and develop

  • Bullying and Rejectionbullying can be direct (name calling) or indirect (gossiping)bullying may increase the childs experience of emotional and social problemsisolation only limits their opportunities to learn and practice skills

  • Bullying and RejectionApproximately 30% of children with learning disorders are rejected by peers in comparison to 8-16% of normal achieving childrenLearning disorders are often associated as a deficit of the individual and they are seen as abnormal which will reduce social acceptance.Children are often left vulnerable due to their complete lack of social networks and are also at risk for being victims of bullying and violence

  • Types of Peer RelationshipsMore negative nominations than normal achieving peersPeer relationships are less stableMore relationships with younger peersMore friends who also have learning disordersBoys with learning disorders are more likely to have friends outside of school

  • ImplicationsChildren are at a much greater risk for experiencing loneliness and possibly depression and anxietyChildren with learning disorders have a lower sense of coherence and a lower self esteem than their peersAt least one friend is an important provider of social support and learning and reduces loneliness