Feb 22, 2016
Individual Differences: Abnormality
KEY FIGURES2Sigmund FreudOriginated psychoanalysisFrom Vienna, AustriaStudied the unconscious mind Techniques includedFree association: avoid censoring thoughtsDream analysis: unconscious revealing primitive urges (eat, sleep, etc.)
Sir Francis Galton19th century mathematician and scientistSuggested that heredity influences a persons character and behaviourTraced ancestry and found greatness runs in familiesProponent of EugenicsInvented mental testing procedures
Ivan PavlovBehaviourisminvestigate observable behaviourNobel Prize in 1904physiology of digestionTuning fork dog food salivate tuning fork salivateStimulus and response
B F. SkinnerAmerican behavioural psychologistConditioning behaviour with rewards and punishmentsNovelistSocial visionary
Carl Rogers / Abraham MaslowHumanistic psychologyBacklash against behaviourismHuman nature as active and creativeMaslows hierarchypyramid of self actualization
MODELS889Models of AbnormalityDefinitions Tell you about abnormality (mentally illness)ModelDescribes the cause of their mental illnessMust distinguish!Definitions tell you if a person is abnormal (mentally ill) or not.A model is a way of describing why they are ill, i.e. what is the cause of their mental illness.You need to ensure that you can distinguish between models and definitions.Definitions answer are they or arent they? questions, Models try to answer the why are they? question.
910Psychological Perspectives/ApproachesModels based on approaches (points of view)Types of psychologistEach approach give different explanations for the same behaviourFour approaches we are going to look atBiologicalBehaviouralPsychodynamicCognitiveHow would each approach explain violent behaviour?Psychological Perspectives or Approaches refer the different types of psychologists, and how they view things differently from each otherEach approach will give different explanations for the same behaviour.The four approaches we are going to look at are the Biological, Behavioural, Psychodynamic and Cognitive. Can you remember the differences between these?For example how would each approach explain violent behaviour differently?
1011Explanations for Violent Behaviour
Biological ApproachBehavioural ApproachCognitive ApproachPsychodynamic Approach
It is due to your Physiology i.e. your HormonesGeneticsEvolutionBrain DamageLearned from violent parents or peers Unconscious need to release aggression You have distorted thinking or have reasoned that it will get you what you want1112KISSING
HOW WOULD THE DIFFERENT APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY EXPLAIN KISSING? Write down a quick note of your ideasfor how the Biological, Behavioural, Psychodynamic and Cognitive approaches would explain it!
12Biological (Medical) Model of Abnormality13
13KEY FEATURES Assumption 1: The Biological or Medical Model of abnormality assumes that mental abnormality has physiological causes. These abnormalities may be caused by chemical malfunctions in the brain or by genetic disorders. For example, too much dopamine in the brain is linked with the mental illness called schizophrenia. It is also clear that the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa has a genetic component.Assumption 2: The Medical Model also assumes that mental disorders can be treated in ways similar to physical disorders. In other words, we can cure the patient by using medical treatments. Treatments include medication (drugs), ECT and psychosurgery.
Biological Model AssumptionsMental disorders have physiological causes
They can be treated similarly to other disorders14
14Assumption 1: The Biological or Medical Model of abnormality assumes that mental abnormality has physiological causes. These abnormalities may be caused by chemical malfunctions in the brain or by genetic disorders. For example, too much dopamine in the brain is linked with the mental illness called schizophrenia. It is also clear that the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa has a genetic component.Assumption 2: The Medical Model also assumes that mental disorders can be treated in ways similar to physical disorders. In other words, we can cure the patient by using medical treatments. Treatments include medication (drugs), ECT and psychosurgery.
Physiological CausesGenetic factorsInherited predispositions to certain mental illnesses (anorexia nervosa, Tourette's syndrome, Downs syndrome)BiochemistryExcess/lack of certain chemicals in brain e.g., too much dopamine - schizophreniatoo little serotonin - depressionNeuroanatomybrain damage or inherited structural/organisational defects (autism)
15BIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGYGenetic factorsinherited predispositions to certain mental illnesses (Anorexia Nervosa, Tourettes & Downs Syndrome)Biochemistryexcessive or low amounts of certain biochemicals in the brain (Dopamine Schizophrenia, Serotonin - Depression)Neuroanatomybrain damage or inherited structural/organisational defects (Autism)Treatment (acts on physiology)Drugs (chemotherapy)Genetic counselling / gene therapy possibly to comeElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT)Psychosurgery
TreatmentsDrugs (chemotherapy)Genetic counsellingMaybe gene therapy?Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)Psychosurgery
Best Explanations Decide which would be the best biological explanation/s for the following disorders. Justify your thoughts.AnorexiaTourettes SyndromeDementiaDepressionSchizophreniaPhobic DisordersOCD
17StrengthsScientific: results of treatment can be measured and treatment altered until we have a satisfactory outcomePatient is seen as being ill, therefore not to blame for their behaviourLimitationsMay be more effective at treating symptoms of mental illness than underlying causes. Medical intervention may have undesirable side effects18EVALUATION - MEDICAL MODEL
18Strength 1: The main strength of the Medical Model is that it is scientific. The results of treatment can be measured and manipulated until we have a satisfactory outcome. For example, we can vary the dosage of Prozac until the depressed patient is able to function adequately.Strength 2: A second strength is that the patient is seen as being ill and therefore not responsible (to blame) for their behaviour. Although the label of mental illness still carries a stigma in our society. It is reassuring to most people to learn that their behaviour has an organic/medical cause that can be corrected by medical treatment.Limitation 1: The main limitation of the Medical Model is that it may be useful in dealing with the symptoms of mental illness but it may not be effective in resolving the underlying causes. Mental illness may have multiple causes, including cognitive and behavioural causes. The MM does not take these into consideration. It is always dangerous to reduce a complex phenomenon to a single explanation (reductionism).Limitation 2: A second limitation is that medical intervention may have undesirable side effects. Very few drugs can be used without negative side effects. For example, prolonged use of Prozac is associated with suicidal thoughts. Drugs may also encourage addiction and dependency similar to nicotine addiction. In addition, techniques such as ECT and psychosurgery are invasive, unpredictable and often irreversible.
Defining Abnormality:Tourettes SyndromeWatch the video and give examples of behaviours that match:Each of the four definitions of abnormality.Each of Rosenhan & Seligmans seven elements of abnormality (see notes). Discuss the limitations of each definition and your explanations.Give the main evidence to support the conclusion that Tourettes Syndrome is a biological illness.
19The four definitions of abnormality Statistical InfrequencyDeviation from Social NormsDeviation from ideal mental healthFailure to function adequately
Rosenhan & Seligmans seven elements of abnormality
suffering - most abnormal individuals report that they are suffering."People do not come to clinics because they have met some abstract definition of abnormality. For the most part, they come because their feelings or behaviour cause them distress." (Edgar Miller & Stephen Morley, 1986)maladaptiveness - behaviour which prevents people from achieving major life goals such as enjoying good relationships with other people or working effectivelyvivid/unconventional behaviour - ways in which abnormal individuals tend to behave often differs substantially from most people"Generally, people recognise as acceptable and conventional those actions that they themselves are willing to do.... If we do it, it's conventional and normal. If we don't, it stands out vividly as unconventional and abnormal." (Rosenhan & Seligman)unpredictability/loss of control - the behaviour of abnormal people is often very variable and uncontrolled and inappropriate"We expect people to be consistent from time to time, from one occasion to the next, and very much in control of themselves." (Rosenhan & Seligman)irrationality/incomprehensibility - others cannot understand why anyone would choose to behave in this wayobserver discomfort - observers to the behaviour are made uncomfortable by itviolation of moral/ideal standards - behaviour may be judged 'abnormal' when it violates established moral standardsRosenhan & Seligman argued that each might not be significant on its own but, when several were present, they are indicative of abnormality.