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Chapter Eleven Motivation and Emotion. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 2 Question Drive reduction theory states that motivation

Dec 26, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter Eleven Motivation and Emotion
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 2 Question Drive reduction theory states that motivation arises from a)imbalances in homeostasis. b)imbalances in brain neurotransmitters. c)internal drives to succeed. d)external challenges in the environment.
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 3 Answer Choice a is correct. According to drive reduction theory, homeostatic imbalances create a biological need. In response to such a need, the brain tries to re-establish homeostasis by creating a psychological state called a drive. (Chapter 11, Drive Reduction Theory section)
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 4 Question Your friend, Joe, enjoys snowboarding, riding roller coasters, driving to work on his motorcycle, and playing the game Operation. Which of the following theories best accounts for this assortment of motivated behaviors? a)Instinct theory b)Drive reduction theory c)Optimal arousal theory d)Incentive theory
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 5 Answer Choice c is correct. Optimal arousal theory posits that people are motivated to engage in certain behaviors in order to maintain what is, for them, an optimal level of arousal. This optimal level is higher for some people, including Joe, than for other people. (Chapter 11, Optimal Arousal Theory section)
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 6 Question Which of the following theories most closely resembles some of the ideas embodied in operant conditioning models of learning and behavior? a)Instinct theory b)Drive reduction theory c)Optimal arousal theory d)Incentive theory
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 7 Answer Choice d is correct. Incentive theory states that people are pulled toward behaviors that offer positive incentives (like reinforcers in operant conditioning models), and people are pushed away from behaviors that offer negative incentives (like punishment in operant conditioning models). (Chapter 11, Incentive Theory section)
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 8 Question If an organism sustained damage to its ___________, we might expect to see disruption in motivated behaviors including eating, drinking, and sexual behaviors. a)hippocampus b)hypothalamus c)amygdala d)reticular formation
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 9 Answer Choice b is correct. The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of a variety of motivated behaviors, including hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior. (Chapter 11, Hunger and the Brain section)
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 10 Question According to Maslow, only rare individuals, such as Mother Teresa and Martin Luther King, Jr., approach ___________, which means reaching ones full potential. a)ego-syntonic achievement b)homeostatic balance c)self-actualization d)the zone
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 11 Answer Choice c is correct. Self-actualization is at the apex of Maslows hierarchy of needs. It involves reaching ones full potential in different domains in ones life. (Chapter 11, Relations and Conflict Among Motives section)
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 12 Question Suppose you are currently working on esteem needs (the need to be respected as a useful, honorable person) within Maslows hierarchy of needs. If, suddenly, you lose your job and all of your money and dont know where your next meal will come from, then Maslow suggests that you will a)move back down the hierarchy and address your basic physiological needs. b)continue to address your esteem needs. c)progress on and begin working on self- actualization. d)none of the above.
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 13 Answer Choice a is correct. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs, an individual must re-visit previously addressed needs in the lower levels of the hierarchy if any of those needs are no longer adequately addressed. (Chapter 11, Relations and Conflicts Among Motives section)
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 14 Question You are currently facing the choice between dating Jessica Biel or Jessica Alba (or Brad Pitt or Heath Ledger). According to Millers four basic types of motivational conflicts, you are facing a(n) a)approach-approach conflict. b)avoidance-avoidance conflict. c)approach-avoidance conflict. d)multiple approach-avoidance conflict.
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 15 Answer Choice a is correct. An approach-approach conflict is when a person is faced with a choice between two desirable outcomes. These examples would typically represent just such a win- win situation for a given person. (Chapter 11, Linkages: Conflicting Motives and Stress section)
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 16 Question The ____________ in the ______________ appears to play a key role in various aspects of emotion. a)amygdala; limbic system b)hippocampus; hindbrain c)hypothalamus; limbic system d)striatum; cerebral cortex
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 17 Answer Choice a is correct. The amygdala in the limbic system is central to emotional processing in the brain. Damage to the amygdala can cause a variety of disruptions in normal emotional processing, including the inability to judge others emotional states. (Chapter 11, The Biology of Emotion section)
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 18 Question Which of the following physiological reactions do you notice MOST when you experience an intense emotion, such as fear, anger, or excitement? a)Dilated pupils b)Dry mouth c)Increased heart rate d)Rapid breathing e)Inhibition of digestion
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 19 Answer Polling question: no correct response
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 20 Question Which of the following theories of emotion might be termed the physiology first theory because of its emphasis on the primacy of specific physiological changes as the determinant of emotional experience? a)Jamess peripheral theory of emotion b)Cannons central theory of emotion c)Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion d)None of the above
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 21 Answer Choice a is correct. Jamess peripheral theory of emotion states that emotions are created by an awareness of specific patterns of autonomic nervous system activation (i.e., physiological arousal). James stated that we feel afraid, because we tremble. (Chapter 11, Jamess Peripheral Theory section)
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 22 Question The Schachter-Singer theory of emotion sheds light on the role of __________ in the experience of emotions. a)hormones b)cognitions c)neurotransmitters d)the thalamus
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 23 Answer Choice b is correct. The Schachter-Singer theory of emotion posits that emotions emerge from a combination of feedback from physiological responses and cognitive interpretations (labels) of the nature and cause of those physiological responses. (Chapter 11, Cognitive Theories section)
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