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CH. 7 IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATION AMERICA BECOMES A MELTING POT IN THE LATE 19 TH & EARLY 20 TH CENTURY

Dec 31, 2015

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CH. 7 IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATION

CH. 7 IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATIONAMERICA BECOMES A MELTING POT IN THE LATE 19TH & EARLY 20TH CENTURY

SECTION 1:THE NEW IMMIGRANTSMillions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuriesSome came to escape difficult conditions, others known as birds of passage intended to stay only temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homeland

Why Did People Come to the U.S.? #1Push Factors oppressionpovertywarreligious or ethnic persecution overcrowding in Europe

Pull Factors freedomeconomic opportunityabundant landcultural ties (some may have already had family here)

ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK #1Ellis Island was the arrival point for European immigrantsThey had to pass inspection at the immigration stationsProcessing took hours, and the sick were sent homeImmigrants also had to show that they were not criminals, had some money ($25), and were able to workFrom 1892-1924, 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Islands facilities

EUROPEANS #2Between 1870 and 1920, about 20 million Europeans arrived in the United StatesBefore 1890, most were from western and northern EuropeAfter 1890, most came from southern and eastern EuropeOften Catholic, Jewish, or Orthodox Christian, and spoke no English

ANGEL ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO #1Asians, primarily Chinese, arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel Island in the San Francisco BayBetween 1910 and 1940, 50,000 Chinese Immigrants entered the US.Processing was much harsher than Ellis Island as immigrants withstood tough questioning and long detentions in filthy conditions

CHINESE #2 Between 1851 and 1882, about 300,000 Chinese arrived on the West CoastSome were attracted by the Gold Rush, others went to work for the railroads, farmed or worked as domestic servantsAn anti-Chinese immigration act by Congress curtailed immigration after 1882

Many Chinese men worked for the railroadsJAPANESE #2In 1884, the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workersThe U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898 increased Japanese immigration to the west coastBy 1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the west coast

THE WEST INDIES AND MEXICO #2Between 1880 and 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern United States from the West IndiesThey came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islandsMexicans, too, immigrated to the U.S. to find work and flee political turmoil 700,000 Mexicans arrived in the early 20th century

LIFE IN THE NEW LANDIn the late 19th century most immigrants arrived via boatsThe trip from Europe took about a month, while it took about 3 weeks from AsiaThe trip was arduous and many died along the wayDestination was Ellis Island for Europeans, and Angel Island for Asians

ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR

ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLANDEthnic Neighborhoods #2 Once in the country, immigrants faced the challenge of finding a place to live, getting a job and acclimating to an unfamiliar culture. While some immigrants tried to assimilate into American culture, others kept to themselves and created ethnic communitiesCommitted to their own culture, but also trying hard to become Americans, many came to think of themselves as Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, Chinese-Americans, etc

Chinatowns are found in many major citiesIMMIGRANT RESTRICTIONS #4Nativism (favoritism toward native-born Americans) led to anti-immigrant organizations and governmental restrictions against immigrationNativism was caused by fear that immigrants to would take away jobs and by religious and ethnic prejudice.

Anti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycottsIMMIGRANT RESTRICTIONS #2In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which limited Chinese immigration until 1943This act banned all entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and govt officials. In 1892, congress extended the law for another 10 years.1902 Chinese immigration was restricted indefinitely, and was not repealed until 1943.

Anti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycottsRoosevelts Gentlemens Agreement #2The fears that had led to anti- Chinese agitation were extended to Japanese and other Asian people in the early 1900s.

In 1906, the local board of education in San Francisco segregated Japanese children by putting them in separate schools. When japan raised an angry protest at this treatment of its emigrants, President Roosevelt worked out a deal called the Gentlemens Agreement that agreed to limit immigration of unskilled workers to the US

Anti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycottsSECTION 2: THE CHALLENGES OF URBANIZATION #5Rapid urbanization occurred in the late 19th century in the Northeast & MidwestMost immigrants settled in cities because of the available jobs & affordable housingBy 1910, immigrants made up more than half the population of 18 major American cities

MIGRATION FROM COUNTRY TO CITY #5Rapid improvements in farm technology (tractors, reapers, steel plows) made farming more efficient in the late 19th centuryIt also meant less labor was needed to do the jobMany rural people left for cities to find work- including almost million African Americans

Discrimination and segregation were often the reality for African Americans who migrated North

URBAN PROBLEMS #5Problems in American cities in the late 19th and early 20th century included:Housing: overcrowded tenements were unsanitary sometimes 2-3 families in a single family apartmentSanitation: garbage was often not collected, polluted air, horse manure crowded the streets, sewage flowed through open gutters

Famous photographer Jacob Riis captured the struggle of living in crowded tenementsURBAN PROBLEMS CONTINUEDTransportation: Cities struggled to provide adequate transit systems, couldnt fix old ones to handle adequate transportation,Water: Without safe drinking water cholera and typhoid fever was common. Residents had to collect water in pails from faucets on the street and heat it for bathing. Crime: As populations increased thieves flourishedFire: Limited water supply and wooden structures combined with the use of candles led to many major urban fires Chicago 1871 and San Francisco 1906 were two major fires

Harpers Weekly image of Chicagoans fleeing the fire over the Randolph Street bridge in 1871PHOTOGRAPHER JACOB RIIS CAPTURED IMAGES OF THE CITY

Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis

Jacob RiisREFORMERS MOBILIZE #6Jacob Riis was a reformer who through his pictures. At age 21, Jacob Riis left his native Denmark for the US. Riis found work as a police reporter, where he was shocked about the conditions in the overcrowded, airless, and filthy tenements. He became a photographer and started taking photos of some really harsh things in 1889. He hoped for change he influenced many

REFORMERS MOBILIZE #7/#8/#9The Social Gospel Movement preached salvation through service to the poorSome reformers established Settlement Homes -These homes provided a place to stay, classes, health care and other social servicesJane Addams was the most famous member of the Settlement Movement (founded Hull House in Chicago) Addams worked to provide economic opportunities for the ethnic and religious minorities who inhabited the neighborhoods.

Jane Addams and Hull HouseSECTION 3: POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE #10As cities grew in the late 19th century, so did political machinesPolitical machines were an organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city. Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial reports. In the decades after the Civil War, political machines gained control of local government in Baltimore, New York, San Francisco, and other major cities. Ward bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked to ensure their candidate was elected

ROLE OF THE POLITICAL BOSS #11The Boss (typically the mayor) controlled jobs, business licenses, and influenced the court systemPrecinct captains and ward bosses were often 1st or 2nd generation immigrants so they helped immigrants with naturalization, jobs, and housing in exchange for votes

Boss Tweed ran NYCMUNICIPAL GRAFT AND SCANDAL#12Some political bosses were corruptSome political machines used fake names and voted multiple times to ensure victory (Vote early and often) called Election fraudGraft (bribes) was common among political bossesConstruction contracts often resulted in kick-backsThe fact that police forces were hired by the boss prevented close scrutiny

THE TWEED RING SCANDAL #13William M. Tweed, known as Boss Tweed, became head of Tammany Hall, NYCs powerful Democratic political machinesBetween 1869-1871, Tweed led the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the cityTweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and extortionTweed was sentenced to 12 years in jail released after one, arrested again, and escaped to Spain

Boss TweedCIVIL SERVICE REPLACES PATRONAGE #15Nationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system The system had been based on Patronage; giving jobs and favors to those who helped a candidate get electedReformers pushed for an adoption of a merit system of hiring the most qualified for jobsThe Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance

Applicants for federal jobs are required to take a Civil Service Exam