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Oct 29, 2014

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india's communication

India'sInitial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Government of India2004lndio'slnitioI NotionoI Communicotion to the UnitedNotions Fromework Convention on CIimote ChongeIndiasInitialNationalCommunicationtotheUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChange Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, 2004Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India andChairman (National Steering Committee and Technical Advisory Committee)Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO ComplexLodi Road, New Delhi 110 003Phone: 91-11-24360721Fax: 91-11-24362746E-mail: [email protected] Project DirectorIndias Initial National Communication to the UNFCCCRoom No. 564, Paryavaran BhawanMinistry of Environment and ForestsCGO Complex, Lodi RoadNew Delhi 110 003Telefax: 91-11-24360861Email: [email protected]: www.natcomindia.orgInitial National Communication Project Management CellWinrock International India (Facilitating Agency)1, Navjeevan ViharNew Delhi 110 017Telefax: 91-11-26693876Email: [email protected]@winrockindia.orgISBN81737149835>A4F>A3MINISTERENVIRONMENT&FORESTSGOVERNMENTOFINDIANEW DELHI-110003UUUU-110003A.RAJA.UOn bchaIf of lhc Govcrnmcnl of India, I havc grcal pIcasurc in prcscnling India's IniliaINalionaI Communicalion in fuIfiIImcnl of our commilmcnl in lhis rcspccl undcr lhcUnilcd Nalions Iramcwork Convcnlion on CIimalc Changc. Thc Communicalion hasbccnprcparcdbyanalionaIcfforlinvoIvingmorclhan35OscicnlificpcrsonncIconslilulcdinlo131muIli-discipIinarylcams.ThiscxcrciscwascoordinalcdbylhcMinislry of Lnvironmcnl & Iorcsls. Thc Communicalion has bccn prcparcd in lcrmsof lhc rcquircmcnls of ArlicIc 12 of lhc Convcnlion and in accordancc wilh lhc rcIcvanldccisions of lhc Confcrcncc of Iarlics. Wc commillcd lo mainlain lhc highcsl slandardsof scicnlific rigour in conducling lhis cxcrcisc and lhc rcscarch oulpuls undcrpinninglhc NalionaI Communicalions has bccn cxlcnsivcIy pccr rcviwcd.ThisnalionaIcfforlhasbuiIluphumanandinslilulionaIcapacilicsinlhcdiffcrcnldiscipIincs rcIalcd lo lhc prcparalion of lhis IniliaI NalionaI Communicalion. Howcvcr,wc arc awarc and havc idcnlificd in our Communicalion lhc conslrainls and lhc gapslhal sliII cxisl, and lhc rcIalcd financiaI and capacily buiIding nccds, which arc rcquircdlo furlhcr improvc upon lhis cfforl in our fulurc NalionaI Communicalions.I congraluIalc aII lhosc who havc bccn invoIvcd in lhis nalionaI lask. Thc Govcrnmcnlof India is aIso lhankfuI lo lhc UNDI-GLI for providing lhc ncccssary financiaI supporlfor conducling lhis cxcrcisc.(A. Raja)Place: New DelhiDated: 16.06.2004ContentsExecutive Summary1. NationalCircumstances....................................................................................................12. GHGInventoryInformation.............................................................................................293. VulnerabilityAssessmentandAdaptation.......................................................................574. ResearchandSystematicObservations.........................................................................1335. Education, TrainingandPublicAwareness....................................................................1596. ProgrammesRelatedtoSustainableDevelopment........................................................1837. Constraints and Gaps, and Related Financial, Technical and Capacity Needs ........................ 203References......................................................................................................................................231Annexures......................................................................................................................................239Implementation and Institutional Arrangements for the preparation of Indias InitialNational CommunicationAbbreviationsContributors to Indias Initial National CommunicationEvents for Education, Training and Public AwarenessPublications under the Aegis of Indias Initial National CommunicationExecutive5ummoryExecutive SummaryIndias Initial National CommunicationExecutive SummaryIndia is a Party to the United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) andthe Government of India attaches great importancetoclimatechangeissues.TheConventionaimstostabilizegreenhousegasconcentrationsintheatmosphereatlevelsthatwouldpreventdangerousanthropogenic interference with the climate system.Eradicationofpoverty,avoidingriskstofoodproduction,andsustainabledevelopmentarethreeprinciples embedded in the Convention. Informationprovided in the Initial National Communication isinterms of guidelines prescribed for Parties not includedinAnnexItotheUNFCCCandtheinventoryisprepared for the base year 1994 as stipulated.India is a vast country covering 3.28 million km2 withdiverse surface features. India occupies only 2.4 percentoftheworldsgeographicalarea,butsupports16.2 per cent of the global human population. Indiaisendowedwithvariedsoils,climate,biodiversityand ecological regimes. Under such diverse naturalconditions, over a billion people speaking differentlanguages, following different religions and living inruralandurbanareas,liveinharmonyunderademocratic system.NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCESIndias land surface may be classified as (a) the GreatMountain Wall of the North; (b) the Northern Plains;(c)theGreatSouthernPeninsularPlateau;(d)theCoastalPlains;and(e)theIslands.Indiasuniquegeography produces a spectrum of climates yieldingawealthofbiologicalandculturaldiversity.Landareas in the north have a continental climate with highsummertemperatureswithcoldwinterswhentemperatures may go below freezing. In contrast arethecoastalregionsofthecountrywherethetemperatureismoreeventhroughouttheyearandrainsaremorefrequent. Thereislargevariationinthe amounts of rainfall received in different parts ofthe country. Average annual rainfall is less than 13 cmin the Thar desert, while at Cherrapunji in the North-East it is as high as 1080 cm. The different climateregimes of the country vary from humid in the North-East(about180daysrainfallinayear)toaridinRajasthan (20 days rainfall in a year). A semi-arid beltin the peninsular region extends in the area betweenthe humid west coast and the central and eastern partsof the country. The most important feature of Indiasclimate is the season of concentrated rain called themonsoon. The Southwest (SW) monsoon (May -September) is the most important feature of the Indianclimate.India is a land with many rivers. The twelve majorrivers spread over a catchment area of 252.8 millionhectares(Mha)covermorethan75percentofthetotal area of the country. Rivers in India are classifiedasHimalayan,Peninsular,Coastal,andInland-drainage basin rivers.The land use pattern is influenced by diverse factorssuchaspopulationdensity,urbanization,industry,agriculture,animalhusbandry,irrigationdemands,andnaturalcalamitieslikefloodsanddroughts.Despite stresses, the area under forests has increasedinrecentyearsduetoproactivereforestationandafforestation programmes of the Government of India.Presently 23 per cent of the total land area is underforest and tree cover, while 44 per cent is net sownarea.Theremainingone-thirdisroughlyequallydistributed between fallow land, non-agricultural land,and barren land.The panorama of Indian forests ranges from evergreentropicalrainforestsintheAndamanandNicobarIslands, the Western Ghats, and the North-east, to dryalpinescrubhighintheHimalayasinthenorth.Betweentheseextremes,thecountryhassemi-iExecutive Summaryevergreenrainforests,deciduousmonsoonforests,thornforests,subtropicalpineforestsinthelowermontanezone,andtemperatemontaneforests.AccordingtotheForestSurveyofIndia,thetotalforest cover in the year 2000 was 6,75,538 km2.India is a largely agrarian society with nearly 64 percentofthepopulationdependentonagriculture,although the share of agriculture in the gross domesticproduct has been continuously declining over the last50years.CropproductioninIndiatakesplaceinalmostalllandclasstypes,namely,dry,semidry,moist,subhumid,humid,fluvisolsandgleysols.Agriculture will continue to be important in Indiaseconomy in the years to come as it feeds a large andgrowingpopulation, employs a large labour force,and provides raw material to agro-based industries.Indiaisthesecondmostpopulouscountryintheworld. The population crossed the one billion markin2000.Thedecadalpopulationgrowthratehassteadily declined from 24.8 per cent during 1961-1971to 21.3 per cent during 1991-2001 and is expected tofurtherdeclineto16.2percentduring2001-2011,due to various policies of the Government ofIndiarelatingtofamilywelfare,education,healthandempowerment of women.India had more than 160 million households in 1994.Nearly three fourths of these households live in ruralareas,accountingforone-thirdoftotalnationalprimaryenergyconsumption. Withrisingincomes,householdsatallsocioeconomiclevelsareincreasinglyusingenergyusingdevicessuchaselectric bulbs, fans, televisions, refrigerators, washingmachines, air-coolers, air-conditioners, water heaters,scooters and cars. The related greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions will continue to rise even though the energyefficienciesoftheappliancesarecontinuallyimproving.GDP (at factor cost and constant prices) grew by 7.2percentinthefiscalyear1994.Inthedecadefollowing 1990s, the annual average GDP growth ratewas 6.6 per cent making India one of the 10 fastestgrowing economies of the world. Key socio-economicindicators for 1994 are presented in Table 1.The Indian economy has made enormous strides sinceindependence in 1947, achieving self-sufficiency infood for a rising population, increasing per capita GDPby over three-times, reducing illiteracy and fertilityrates, creating a strong and diversified industrial base,building up infrastructure, developing technologicalcapabilitiesinsophisticatedareasandestablishinggrowing linkages with the world economy. However,much remains to be achieved and the Government ofIndia is c