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Autism Disorder

Apr 04, 2018



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    Autistic Spectrum

    Disorder ASD

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    Leo Kanner introduced the

    label early infantile autism in


    Kanner's reuse ofautismled todecades of confused terminologylike infantile schizophrenia, andchild psychiatry's focus onmaternal deprivation led to

    misconceptions of autism .
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    1 in 250 births

    Cost of lifelong care can bereduced by 2/3 with earlydiagnosis and intervention

    Fastest-growingdevelopmental disability

    10 - 17 % annual growth

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    What is Autism?

    Autism is a complex, life-long biologicaldisorder of development that results in socialinteraction problems, communicationdifficulties, and restrictive or repetitiveinterests and behaviors.

    Autism affects information processing in thebrain by altering how nerve cells and theirsynapses connect and organize; how this

    occurs is not well understood

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    DevelopmentalDisorder, NOS



    Pervasive Developmental Disorders/Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

    Retts Disorder

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    Pervasive DevelopmentalDisorders


    Restricted andRepetitive Behaviors

    Reciprocal SocialInteraction

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    Impairments in:a. Nonverbal behaviors: eye

    gaze, facial expression,body postures, andgestures to regulate socialinteraction

    b. Peer relationshipsc. Seeking to share

    enjoyment, interests, orachievements with otherpeople

    a. Delay in, or lack ofdevelopment of, spokenlanguage

    b. Impairment in the abilityto initiate or sustain aconversation with others

    c. Stereotyped and repetitiveuse of language oridiosyncratic language

    Motor stereotypes

    Repetitive behaviors

    Narrow Interests

    Rituals, routines

    Preoccupation with

    parts of objects

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    One of three recognized disorders in theautism spectrum , the other two being

    Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in

    cognitive development and language, and

    Pervasive Developmental Disorder-NotOtherwise Specified (commonly abbreviatedas PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when thefull set of criteria for autism or Asperger

    syndrome are not met.

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    Children and adults with autism have difficultieswith everyday social interaction. Their ability to

    develop friendships is generally limited as istheir capacity to understand other people'semotional expression.

    People with autism can often haveaccompanying learning disabilities but everyonewith the condition shares a difficulty in makingsense of the world.

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    Autismaffects the

    amygdala,cerebellum,and many

    other partsof the brain.

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    Levelsof Cognitive Functioning

    55 70 85 100 115 130 145

    -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

    MEAN = 100


    Approx. 70-75% ofindividualswith autism

    Approx 45% of individuals withASD

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    Genetic disordersAbout 1015%

    Mental retardation mental retardation has

    been reported as anywhere from 25% to 70

    Epilepsy, with variations in risk of epilepsydue to age, cognitive level, and type of

    language disorder Sleep problems affect about two-thirds -

    symptoms of insomnia such as difficulty in

    falling asleep

    Several other conditions are common inchildren with autism . They include:
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    "Reality to an autistic person is aconfusing, interacting mass of events,

    people, places, sounds and sights. Thereseems to be no clear boundaries, order ormeaning to anything. A large part of mylife is spent just trying to work out the

    pattern behind everything.

    - A person with autism
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    Autism can be reliably diagnosed by or before agethree.

    Symptoms are usually detected during infancy,although a formal diagnosis is generally not madeuntil the child fails to develop functional language byage two.

    Approximately 20 percent of children with autismreportedly experience a "regression"; that is they haveapparently normal development followed by a loss of

    communication and social skills.

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    Diagnosis of ASD

    For a diagnosis of autism six criteria must be

    met: At least two impairments in social interaction.

    One impairment in communication skills.

    Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior. Two impairments in any of the three stipulated



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    Boys are three-to-four times more likelyto be affected by autism than girls.

    Autism occurs in all racial, ethnic, andsocial groups.

    An autistic culture has developed, with

    some individuals seeking a cure andothers believing autism should beaccepted as a difference and not treated

    as a disorder.

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    Deletion (1), duplication (2) andinversion (3) are all chromosomeabnormalities that have beenimplicated in autism.
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    Is there a Cure ?

    Although there is currently no known cure forautism, autism is treatable.

    Persons with autism can make progress if they

    receive appropriate, individual intervention.

    Pre-school children who receive intensive,individualized, behavioral interventions show

    remarkable progress.

    In addition, limited pharmacological interventionsare available to treat specific symptoms ofautism.

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    What Causes Autism?

    In the majority of cases, no specific underlying cause canbe identified .

    However, a variety of factors are being investigated:

    infectious, metabolic, genetic, and environmental


    In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents

    that cause birth defects.

    Controversies surround other proposed environmentalcauses, such as heavy metals, pesticides or childhood


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    What Causes Autism?

    Autism probably results from a geneticsusceptibility that involves multiple genes.

    To date, genetic causes for one disordercommonly accompanied by autism and

    one autism-spectrum disorder have beenidentified, Fragile X and Rett syndrome,respectively and genetic "hotspots" formore classic autism have been indicated.

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    What Causes Autism?

    Fragile X is the most common, geneticallyinherited form of mental retardationcurrently known and produces many of

    the same behaviors and symptoms asautism.

    Rett syndrome, which affects only girls, is

    a progressive brain disease that producesa loss of language/social skills that issimilar to autism and is classified as anautism spectrum disorder.

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    What can you do to help??

    Spread the word, thefirst step is awareness.

    April 2 is InternationalAutism Awareness day

    The Autism Society ofIndia can get youstarted! Visit -

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    Some facts and statistics

    40% of all children with autism wait more than threeyears for a clear diagnosis

    An estimated 535,000 people have autism in the UK

    Around 70% of people with autism have an IQ below70 (the average IQ of the population is 100). This is

    classed as a learning disability. Some people withautism have normal or high intelligence.

    Many people with Asperger's have normal or aboveaverage intelligence and can lead independent lives.
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    The Internet has helped autistic

    individuals bypass nonverbal cues andemotion