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Ancient History

Dec 30, 2015

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Ancient History. Early History. Scientists: Archaeologists - scientists who dig for artifacts and traces of early settlements Artifacts are human-made objects Anthropologists - scientists who study people’s cultural behavior - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Ancient History

  • Early HistoryScientists:Archaeologists- scientists who dig for artifacts and traces of early settlements

    Artifacts are human-made objects

    Anthropologists- scientists who study peoples cultural behavior

    Culture-peoples unique way of life including customs, family life, and social relationships

  • Early HistoryThose who could walk upright are called hominids

    Prehistory is the time before the development of writing

  • Early HistoryOrigin of man is Africa and man migrated out

  • Early HistoryThe next evolution of hominids?

    Bones found in Neander Valley in Germany = Neanderthals

  • Early HistoryThe next version? = Cro-Magnon

    Closely resemble us

    The common picture for the cave man

  • RECIPESR-Religion (how people relate to the unknown)E-Economic (how people made a living)C-Cultural (how people express themselves using painting, sculptures, music, dance, theater, and literature)I-Intellectual (how people think or what they invent in science, math, philosophy, or tech)P-Political (how people are governed)E-Environmental (physical places where people areS-Social (how people organize in society)

  • Early HistoryPaleolithic Age (Early Stone Age)- mastered fire, development of language, created art and invented stone tools

    No Civilization started because people were just trying to survive

  • Early HistoryPeople who move place to place to search for food = Nomads

    They were hunter-gatherersMales huntedFemales gatheredSmall groups and small bodies

  • Cave PaintingsThe first works of art

  • Early HistoryNeolithic AgeDuring the Neolithic Revolution, people developed agricultureAgriculture was developed at the different times in different parts of the worldPlow inventedWheel invented

  • Early HistoryAgriculture will lead to development of villagesWhy?

  • Early HistoryAll early civilizations developed in river valleys

  • Early HistoryCivilization Characteristics:Advanced cities Specialized workersComplex institutionsRecord keepingAdvanced technology

  • Early HistoryCultural Diffusion: Borrowing or exchanging of goods and ideas between peoples

  • SumerOldest civilization developed in the Fertile Crescent between 2 rivers: Tigris and EuphratesBetween 2 rivers is called Mesopotamia

  • SumerGoverned by theocracy (led by religious leaders or a divine leader)

    Barter- exchange goods for other goods

    Sumer started Bronze Age.

  • SumerPyramid shaped temples of Sumer society - ZigguratCompare to a pyramid.

  • Sumerians laterCreated irrigation-bringing of water to crops by using canals and ditches

    City State was formed where a city controls the area around the city

    Kings started dynasties (kids inherit)

  • WritingSumer developed the first writing system called cuneiform

    Created Gilgamesh hero of the worlds oldest epic

  • Sumers ReligionPolytheistic- believed in many godsEnlil most powerful (sky and cloud god)Wicked Udugs (lowest gods)Believed in roughly of 3000 gods

  • Sumer CultureAgriculture economyWindowless box housesCan move up in societySlaves (prisoners of war or children sold to pay debts) can work to become freeWomen could own property and join lower ranks of priesthood, but most were uneducatedInvented number system with a base of 60

  • Art of Sumer

  • Sargon of AkkadCreated worlds first empire (many different people, cultures, and nations under one ruler)

  • AkkadBorrower Empire-takes over a country and adopts their culture

  • Code of HammurabiHammurabi was king of Babylon First written code of laws The principal was eye for an eye

  • EgyptCivilization started on the Nile River

  • Egypt continuedMenes unites upper and lower Egypt and started the Old Kingdom

    Egypt was ruled by pharaohs (god-kings). They led the religion and government.

    Pyramids built as a tomb for the dead pharaohs

  • Egyptian CulturePolytheisticMore than 2000 godsHigh God is RaDeath God is Osiris and his wife IssisEgyptians could move up in societySlavery was usedWomen were almost equalCould own property Could divorce and receive 1/3 of property

  • MummiesPull brain out of nostrils with iron hookWith sharp stone they would cut you on the side and take out your bowelsThey would remove your organs and put them in jarsFill you up with spices and perfume and sew you up.Leave you in a preserver for 70 days then wrap you

  • WritingEgyptians used hieroglyphics where pictures were used to show ideas and sound

  • Rosetta StoneThe way to read hieroglyphics was lost for 1000s of years until Napoleon found the Rosetta Stone which allowed us to decipher the pictures

  • The Fall of EgyptGroup of Asians called Hyksos came with chariots and took over the Egyptian Civilization.

  • Egyptian EmpirePharaohs overthrew the HyksosThe New Kingdom (rulers after the Hyksos) started to expand Egypt

  • Great Egyptian PharaohsHatshepsut: First Women rulerThutmose III expanded Egypt through warOthersNefertiti (Rachel Wiez in the Mummy)Akenaton (monotheistic ruler)King Tut (grave untouched)

  • Ramses IIRamses II was the last great pharaoh

  • Egypt DeclinesUnknown group called People of the Sea attacked Egypt and the Hittites weakening them further Egypt eventually faded

  • KushArea around Nubia

    The New Kingdom pharaohs of Egypt conquered Kush

    After Ramses II, Kush conquered Egypt

  • Kush continedKush was a borrower empirePiankhi was the greatest of Kush pharaohs

  • Kush moveArrival of the Assyrians forced the Kushites to flee to Meroe and started a trading empire there

  • PhoeniciaGreat seafarers of the Mediterranean that founded many city-states like Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage

  • Phoenicia AlphabetMost famous for their alphabet Trading in all ports of the Mediterranean, they spread the use of their alphabet to the ancient world

  • LydiaInvented money

  • AssyriaWith a large and organized military, Assyria conquered the Fertile Crescent and Egypt

  • AssyriaDestroyer Empire- They destroyed all cultures of other peoples

    Its capital was Nineveh Under Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, Nineveh had the largest library in the world

  • Fall of AssyriaCombined army attacked Assyria and burned down NinevehThe fire glazed the tablets, so they were preserved for archaeologists to find

  • New Babylon Empire

    Nebuchadnezzar restored the city

    The Hanging Gardens of Babylon is one of the seven wonders of the world

  • PersiaCyrus created the Persian Empire

  • Persia continuedCyrus had a different way of governingHe was kind and tolerantVery little looting or burning of conquered citiesHonoring local customs and religions

  • After CyrusEventually, Darius would take over and enlarge the Persian Empire

  • GovernmentDarius divided Empire into 20 provincesA satrap, governor, would rule a province under DariusDarius sent out inspectors (Kings Eyes and Ears) to watch the satraps

  • Royal RoadAn excellent road system was built The Royal Road was the longest and help unite the Empire

  • Persian ReligionZoroaster created a religion called ZoroastrianismGods of good and evil fight for a persons soul All souls would be judged on which side they chose

  • JudaismGod chose Abraham to be the father of the Hebrew people and he made a covenant with him

    The Hebrews God was called Yahweh and they believed in him only= Monotheistic

  • Judaism The Hebrews migrated to Egypt where they were enslavedMoses led the Exodus out of Egypt

  • JudaismAfter much fighting, only one large tribe left (Judah=called Jews)

    The Hebrews united under 3 kings to form IsraelSaul (first king)David (beat Goliath and great warrior)Solomon (greatest of all Israeli kings)

  • JudaismAfter Solomon, the kingdom divides into 2Israel in the NorthJudah in the South

  • JudaismAssyria conquers IsraelNew Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar destroys JudahDestroyed the Temple

    Cyrus of Persia allowed the Hebrews to return and rebuild the Temple

  • Writings of the HebrewsTorah-first five books of the Old Testament

    Ten Commandments- laws handed to Moses

  • Traditional Economic SystemsReliance of labor of the entire family, with distinct economic roles for each