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4. TYPES OF TRANSLATION. ASPECTS a) historical aspects: oral vs. written vs. mechanical significance / historical role of TR - contribution to & impact

Dec 18, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • 4. TYPES OF TRANSLATION
  • Slide 2
  • ASPECTS a) historical aspects: oral vs. written vs. mechanical significance / historical role of TR - contribution to & impact on: development an growth of human culture (trade, preachers, military exchanges, diplomatic affairs, transfer of artefacts) civilisation individual languages b) TYPES: literary vs. non-literary c) METHODS of ORAL TR: simultaneous vs. consecutive d) FORM: oral (always non-literary) vs. written e) medium in which TR is performed: mechanical & computer-aided vs. human
  • Slide 3
  • The role of the Translator TLR as a linguistic person (knowledge, spatio-temporal restrictions) Sender, TLR, Receiver as linguistic persons in the communicative act TLR as a linguistic person in the communicative act: change as much as necessary - BUT as little as possible
  • Slide 4
  • MECHANICAL / MACHINE TR (MT) always written and non-literary 50's & 60's cold war (US/Russia) ASSUMPTION: computer - programmed to decode (SL) & encode (TL) !!!? equivalence between SL and TL (one-to-one correspondence) 1980-ies: initial success and promises (large investments - projects) human TLR - more efficient
  • Slide 5
  • Machine translationMachine translation (MT) Wikip. a procedure whereby a computer program analyses a source text and produces a target text without further human intervention.source text however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing an exception to that rule: e.g., the translation of technical specifications (strings of technical terms and adjectives), using a dictionary-based machine-translation system.technical termsdictionary-based machine-translation
  • Slide 6
  • MT In regard to texts (e.g., weather reports) with limited ranges of vocabulary and simple sentence structure, machine translation can deliver results that do not require much human intervention to be useful.weather reportsvocabularysentencestructure Also, the use of a controlled language, combined with a machine-translation tool, will typically generate largely comprehensible translations (AirSpeak)controlled language
  • Slide 7
  • MT Relying on machine translation exclusively ignores the fact that communication in human language is context- embedded and thathuman languagecontext it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability. even purely human-generated translations are prone to error. such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human
  • Slide 8
  • MT To date, machine translation a major goal of natural- language processing has met with limited success. [16]natural- language processing[16] Machine translation has been brought to a large public by tools available on the Internet, such as AltaVista's Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict, Systran, Trados. These tools produce a "gisting translation" a rough translation that "gives the gist" of the source text.AltaVistaBabel FishBabylonStarDict With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with re-working of the machine translation by a professional human translator (post-editing), commercial machine- translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation-memory or globalization-management system. [17]terminology work translation-memoryglobalization-management system [17]
  • Slide 9
  • Machine translation (MT) a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another.computational linguisticscomputer softwaretranslatenatural language At its basic level, MT performs simple substitution of words in one natural language for words in another.substitution Using corpus techniques, more complex translations may be attempted, allowing for better handling of differences in linguistic typology, phrase recognition, and translation of idioms, as well as the isolation of anomalies.corpuslinguistic typologyrecognitionidioms Current machine translation software often allows for customisation by domain (filters: field, subject matter)
  • Slide 10
  • MT Current machine translation software often allows for customisation by profession (such as weather reports) improving output by limiting the scope of allowable substitutions. professionweather reports particularly effective in domains where formal or formulaic language is used i.e. machine translation of government and legal documents more readily produces usable output than conversation or less standardised text
  • Slide 11
  • MT - HAMT Improved output quality can also be achieved by human intervention: E.g. some systems are able to translate more accurately if the user has unambiguously identified which words in the text are names.unambiguously identified With the assistance of these techniques, MT has proven useful as a tool to assist human translators, and in some cases can even produce output that can be used "as is". However, current systems are unable to produce output of the same quality as a human translator, particularly where the text to be translated uses casual language
  • Slide 12
  • FAILURE of MT (?) computers are not human beings - THE NATURE OF TR. (AND HUMAN LANGUAGE) IS NOT AN ALGORITHMIC PROCESS:, esp.: 1. polysemy - on the lexical level 2. connotations, pragmatics etc. (sijeanj - januar) 3. unable to account for changes in word order (syntax) 90's - in spite of taggers and parsers & semantic programs/ MT (translators) (whole blocks of language - now algorithmically available for TR UNABLE translate literary texts (esp. poetry)
  • Slide 13
  • USAGE / ADVANTAGE of MT today: pre-translation procedure (computer-aided TR) raw material for human refinement even: voice recognition - automated transcripts of human speech restricted texts: institutional, legal, specific technical (operational / maintenance) instructions; scientific abstracts, etc. TR tools (dictionaries, glossaries, lexical & textual databases, wordnet, www) corpus linguistics etc.: COBUILD, BNC, Brown, LOB, etc.
  • Slide 14
  • SIGNIFICANCE of MT though practically still unusable (except in restricted languages) - MT important for the theory of TR: investigation of basic relationships in the process of TR algorithmic rigour of MT - clear linguistic descriptions investigation of cognitive processes and the process of human TR (brain) computers useful in helping humans (speed) in the translation activity rather than in translation itself
  • Slide 15
  • HUMAN TR very common and ever-present human activity interest in the nature of the process of TR what happens in the translator's brain (Think- aloud protocols, Translog) assessment of the product of TR, criticism human brain - inaccessible for investigation (psycholinguistics) - only results are accessible and available for research - indirect conclusions for teaching purposes
  • Slide 16
  • Types of Translation TRANSLATION HUMANMECHANICAL COMPUTER- AIDED
  • Slide 17
  • Types of Translation HUMAN WRITTEN NON-LIERARYLITERARY ORAL NON- LITERARY consecutive simultaneous Sight translation
  • Slide 18
  • Audiovisual Translation (AVT) an exciting new field in translation - a growing professional demand dubbing and voice-over surtitling and subtitling http://ics.leeds.ac.uk/papers/llp/exhibits/16/IntroAVTranslation_Adriana_S erban.ppt#257,2,Talk map
  • Slide 19
  • AVT Audiovisual translation (AVT) - subtitling and dubbing: one of the commonest forms of translation encountered in everyday life in contemporary societies of the 8,108 hours of programming broadcast by the Finnish broadcasting company YLE in 1996, 48% consisted of foreign-language programmes (including re-runs) (Kontula, Larma and Petinen 1997:52-53).
  • Slide 20
  • AVT The visibility of AVT is probably one reason why AVT also lends itself to easy and occasionally sharp criticism among viewers "subtitles offer the pretext for a linguistic game of 'spot the error'" for those viewers who have a command of both (Shochat and Stam 1985:46) Internet sites devoted to listing subtitling gaffes, e,g, Turun Sanomat 5.7.1998
  • Slide 21
  • It is interesting that in a sense AVT has been a channel for venting ideas on linguistic purism for quite a long while E.g.: an angry viewer had written to the editor complaining about the quality of a subtitling in a film. (Paunonen 1996:549): he demanded that distributors should take action to improve the quality of translations, or else censorship should intervene. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/hum/engla/pg/jaskanen /ch2.html
  • Slide 22
  • Types of Translation translation TRANSLATIONINTERPRETATION
  • Slide 23
  • Language interpreting or interpretation the intellectual activity of facilitating oral and sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between two, or among three or more, speakers who neither speak nor sign the same source language.language Functionally, interpreting and interpretation are the descriptive words for the activity;
  • Slide 24
  • Interpreting Functionally, an interpreter orally translates a source language to a target la