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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND- POLITICAL ASPECTS

Feb 12, 2017

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  • TABLE OF CONTENTS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND- POLITICAL ASPECTS ........... 4

    CYPRUS HISTORY............................................ 4 OPPRESSION OF THE GREEKS.............................. 6 TURKISH TROOPS WERE GUIDED BY GREEKS............ 6

    THE TURKISH PERIOD (1571-1878) ........................... 6

    SELF RULE (AUTONOMY) ................................... 7

    SUMMARY OF PRIVILEGES GRANTED TO THE GREEKS.. 8

    THE PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE OF ARMENIANS AND TURKS ........................................................ 8

    CONCLUSION................................................. 9

    THE BRITISH TAKEOVER & IMPORTANT EVENTS ............ 9 1931 THE UPRISING ..........................................14 TURKISH CYPRIOT EFFORTS TO BE ORGANISED ...........18 CYPRUS HISTORY 1950 - 1957................................19 1960 SETTLEMENT & INDEPENDANCE .......................28 GREEK ATTACKS 1963 - 1968.................................36 THE AKRITAS PLAN ............................................48 INTERCOMMUNAL TALKS 1968 1974 .......................54 THE COUP & TURKISH PEACE OPERATION..................58 NEGOTIATION PROCESS .......................................63

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  • ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TRNC...............................65 TURKISH CYPRIOT CASUALTIES ..............................69

    MURATAGA AND SANDALLAR VILLAGES MASSACRES..74

    ATLILAR VILLAGE MASSACRE .............................75 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CYPRUS.........................79

    AID PROMISES TO THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS .............81

    REACTIONS TO GREEK NO & TURKISH YES VOTE ......86 CYPRUS PHOTOS ...............................................88

    TURKISH CYPRIOT PAIN .......................................94

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  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND- POLITICAL ASPECTS

    Cyprus has been ruled by more than two dozen nations, by medieval knights, city-states and self appointed kings during its long and turbulent history. Its rulers have always been one of the strongest powers in the region, whose rule deeply influenced the island in matters of religion, trade, culture, language, way of life and politics.

    CYPRUS HISTORY

    Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Mediterranean between the 34th and the 36th Northern Latitudes and the 32nd and the 35th Eastern Longitudes. It is an island of 9.251 sq. km. Its distance to Turkey is 71 km. and to Greece 900 km. Its highest point stands at an altitude of 1.019 mt. The longest distance between its East and West is 227 km. and between North and South 97 km. Its total coastal length is 782 km. The first inhabitants of Cyprus were Neolithic tribes who came from Anatolia and Syria about 7000 BC. They used stone vessels, did not know the art of making pottery, but were well-established agriculturists, growing wheat and barley and domesticating animals: sheep, oxen and dogs. New waves of settlers arrived in about 6000 BC, and they brought with them skills in making pottery, and gradually the stone vessels used by the first settlers were replaced by earthenware pots as cooking utensils. The first inhabitants are classified by archaeologists as Neolithic tribes in the pre-pottery or a ceramic stage, Neolithic A, and the folk who came later, Neolithic B. The first settlers established small villages along the coast and some times they dwelt in riverside settlements of circular huts. The objects found reveal a peaceful life of farming, fishing, looking after animals and weaving cloth from wool. It must have been a peaceful life because very few weapons were found during the excavations. The adoption of bronze for implements and weapons, about 2500 BC, coincided with the appearance of the ox, the plough, and a plain red pottery, suggestive of Anatolian origin, of which large quantities have been found in rock-cut tombs of the period. It may well be that immigrants from Anatolia first exploited the island's copper resources. By the Late Bronze Age (1600-1050 BC) these had focused neighboring attention on the island, which prospered as a commercial and culture link between East and West. Under the name Alasia, Cyprus is recorded among the tributaries of Egypt, from the time of Thotmes III, but it remained open to traders and settlers from the Mycenaean Empire. On the disruption of that Empire, Achaean colonies established themselves in settlements founded, according to legend, by heroes returning from the Trojan war who brought with them their language and religion, perhaps by way of the coast of Asia Minor. In the late eighth century BC. by which time Phoenician enterprise had renewed early ties with the Syria coast, the island was divided into a series of independent kingdoms, tributaries of the Assyrian Empire. It was conquered by the Egyptians in the sixth century BC and held until 525 BC, when, retaining its petty kingdoms, it became absorbed into the Persian Empire. In 499/8 BC a revolt to assist the Greeks of Ionia in their struggle against Persia was suppressed. Later, Evagoras of Salamis, having made himself master of almost the whole of Cyprus (391 BC), raised the island to a position of

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  • virtual independence. Honoured and intermittently aided by Athens Evagoras even seized cities on the Syria coast. But a punitive expedition forced him to give up all the cities of Cyprus and he remained King of Salamis alone and a tributary of Persia. It remained for Alexander the Great to liberate the island in 333 BC. At the division of his Empire, Cyprus passed to the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt; it became a Roman Province in 58 BC, was early converted to Christianity and on the partition of the Roman Empire fell under the rule of the Byzantine Emperor. For 300 years from the middle of the seventh century Cyprus lay, in the words of a contemporary English visitor, "betwixt Greek and Saracens", ravaged by one Arab raid after another. In 1185 Isaac Comnenos, a relative of the reigning Emperor of Byzantium usurped the governorship of Cyprus and maintained his independence until 1191, when his rule was brought to an end by Richard Coeur-de-lion, who was on his way eastwards to take part in the Third Crusade. Richard occupied the island to avenge wrongs done to the members of his following by Isaac, but after a few months sold it to the Knights Templar. They in turn finding its occupation burdensome, transferred it, at Richard's wish, to Guy de Lusignan ruled the island until 1489, although from 1373 to 1464 the Genoese republic held Famagusta and exercised suzerainty over a part of the country. The 300 years of Frankish rule were a great epoch in the varied history of Cyprus. The little kingdom played a distinguished part in several aspects of medieval civilisation. Its constitution, inherited from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, was the model of that of the medieval feudal state; but, with that conservatism which characterized the island throughout its history, it retained the Assizes of Jerusalem long after they had been outmoded. In 1489 Cyprus fell to the republic of Venice, which held it until it was won by the Turks in 1571, in the Sultanate Selim II. The Venetian administration, elaborate but often inefficient and corrupt, laboured under the excessive control exercised by the Signory, which spent on it little more than one-third of the revenue it drew from the island. The population increased to some 200000 but the former prosperity did not return.

    In the long history of Cyprus, there has never existed a Cypriot nation. The Cypriot population is the remnant of the many nations who occupied and ruled Cyprus.

    ... at no time has the island been a constituent part of Hellenic Greece... That there was real racial affinity with the Hellenic stock there is nothing to prove; the anthropological evidence, so far as it goes, seems on the whole to favour the contrary view. (Sir George Hill, A History of Cyprus, vol. IV, pp. 488-89)

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  • OPPRESSION OF THE GREEKS

    Before the Turkish Conquest in 1570-1571, oppression of the Greek Orthodox inhabitants of Cyprus by the Catholic Latins (Lusignan and Venetian) was very severe. (Doros Alastos, Cyprus in History, pp. 151-152; Sir George Hill, A History of Cyprus, vol. IV, pp. 5-7) During the Latin period of 380 years, (1191-1571) their autocephalous Orthodox Church was oppressed and subordinated by the ruling Latin tyrants who were Catholics. The lands and property of the Greek Orthodox Church were confiscated and given to the Roman Catholic sees. The independent Orthodox Archbishopric was totally suppressed. Orthodox churches were closed and the Greek bishops were deported to remote parts of the island. (Hill, ibid., p.47, Ahmet Gaziolu, The Turks in Cyprus, (London 1992) pp. 3-6) The Greek Cypriots secretly sent a delegation to the Turkish capital, Istanbul, in 1560, to ask for a Turkish conquest of Cyprus, promising the support of the local Greek population during the Turkish expedition. (Dr. Salahi Sonyel, New Cyprus Magazine, March 1988, Gaziolu, op.cit. p.16)

    TURKISH TROOPS WERE GUIDED BY GREEKS

    As a matter of fact when the Turkish fleet landed troops at Salines, the port of Larnaca, on 3 July 1570, the local Greek people gave a warm reception to the Turks. Some Greek villages, such as Lefkara, sent envoys to Larnaca and offered help and guidance to the Turkish Army.

    THE TURKISH PERIOD (1571-1878)

    The first general registration carried out in 1572, showed that at least 76 villages, which were occupied mostly by Latins, were completely evacuated. Sinan Pasha, the Beylerbeyi of Cyprus, recommended to the Turkish Government an immediate resettlement of the island by transfer of people from Anatolia, in order to fill the empty villages, to improve and develop the land and revive economic and social life. The records of the Prime Minist

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