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Oct 07, 2014




Sowing the seeds for sustainabilityAgriculture, Biodiversity, Economics and Society

Edited by Rachel Wiseman and Liz Hopkins

IUCN European Regional Office (ERO) The mandate of IUCN - ERO is to contribute to a sustainable Europe by influencing policy development and implementation for biodiversity and landscape conservation, restoration and sustainable use inside and outside Europe. The European Programme is active in agriculture, forestry and fisheries and, through its expert networks, protected areas and species conservation. The Programme provides input to regional and global policy especially the EU enlargement to central Europe; the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy; trade and the range of multilateral environmental agreements. Developing partnerships and networking activities with our 341 government and NGO members builds the knowledge and provides the authority for achieving the objectives of the IUCN programme in Europe.

Sowing the seeds for sustainabilityAgriculture, Biodiversity, Economics and Society

Proceedings of the Eighth Interactive Sessionheld at the Second IUCN World Conservation Congress Amman, Jordan 7 October 2000

Edited by Rachel Wiseman and Liz Hopkins

IUCN The World Conservation Union 2001

The designation of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN, the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Bundesamt fr Naturschutz - BfN), FAO, or the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij - LNV) concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN, BfN, FAO or LNV. Published by: IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK


2001 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder.


Wiseman, R.E. and Hopkins, E.A. (eds). 2001. Sowing the Seeds of Sustainability: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Economics and Society. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 133 pp. 2-8317-0632-7


Cover design by: Robin Padian Cover illus.: (Front, from top right) Geoff Dor/BBC Natural History Unit; M. Woods/Natural Image; Jeremy Walker/BBC Natural History Unit; (left) Hugh Synge. (Back cover, from top left) Bob Gibbons/Natural Image; William Osborn/BBC Natural History Unit; painting by Laura Pedrotti. Produced by: Printed by: Available from: Hugh Synge and IUCN European Regional Office Cigam Group, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England IUCN European Regional Office Bredaseweg 387, 5037 LD Tilburg, The Netherlands Tel: +31 13 5900347, fax: +31 13 5900345 E-mail: [email protected] http:/ / IUCN Publications Services Unit 219c Huntingdon Road Cambridge CB3 ODL, UK Tel: +44 1223 277894, fax: +44 1223 277175 E-mail: [email protected] http:/ /

A catalogue of IUCN publications is also available.

This book is printed on chlorine-free paper produced from sustainable managed forests.

ContentsAcknowledgements Foreword Setting the Scene: An Introduction to the Session Agriculture and Biodiversity: The Challenge for Conservationn Results and Recommendations from the Debate 1 3 5 6 9 11

Chapter 1: Farming in DrylandsPresentations Sustainable Development and Desertification in African Drylands Targeting desertification caused by increased human pressure on dryland resources through community-based development programmes, by Walter Lusigi Conservation and Sustainable Use of Dryland Agro-biodiversity in Jordan Current Status, by Mohammad Ajlouni Australian Rangelands: Managing for production and biodiversity, by John Benson Discussion Points from the Session Additional Contributions Desertification, Biodiversity and Environmental Problems in the Agricultural and Socio-economic Development of Nigeria Causes, consequences and recommendations, by Adeniyi Olabasi Arimoro Pasture Farming Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Agriculture and Reconstruction of Biodiversity in Deserted Territories, by Stanislav Pavlov and Tatiana Bakinova Agriculture and Biodiversity in the Drylands of Africa, by Michael Darkoh


22 26 31



38 51

Chapter 2: Farming in WetlandsPresentations Agriculture and Wetlands in the Mekong Basin, by Kosal Mam The Macanas Wetland Reserve Conservation and Agricultural Use Area, by Ren Chang Marn Discussion Points from the Session Additional Contributions Role of Biodiversity in the Conservation and Future Sustenance of the Rice Field Agro-ecosystem, by Channa Bambaradeniya and J.P. Edirisinghe Dams in the Senegal Valley a Case Study on Wetlands, Biodiversity and Local Communities, by Abdoulaye Ndiaye

51 58 61

62 64

Chapter 3: Farming in Temperate ZonesBiodiversity and the Effects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy, by Christopher Howe and Richard Perkins Agricultural Policy and Conservation in the United States, by Annie Kirschenmann The Opportunities for Sustainable Agriculture in CIS: Balancing on the wire, by Alexander Karpov, Dmitry Cherniakhovsky and Julia Gorelova Discussion Points from the Session Additional Contributions Biodiversity of Medicago sp. pl. Rhizobium meliloti Symbiosis in Temperate Mediterranean Zones (Sardinia, Italy), by Guiseppe Brundu, I. Camarda, M. Caredda, P. Deiana and S. Maltoni

67 67

72 74 79


Chapter 4: Business Influence in the Agricultural SectorPresentations Vertical Integration within the Agricultural Sector: the European dimension, by Peter L. Nowicki Discussion Points from the Session Additional Contributions Invasion of Alien Seeds: Alien Species and Genetic Erosion of Indonesian Native Crops, by Sri Indiyastuti


83 99

100 103

Chapter 5: The Trade DebatePresentations Free Trade Versus Fair Trade: Summary of the presentation given by Vandana Shiva Reconciling Agricultural Trade and Environmental Policy Goals, by Wilfrid Legg Discussion Points from the Session

103 104 109 111

Chapter 6: GMOs Potential Value and ImpactsPresentations Organic Farming Approaches to Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, by Bernward Geier Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Food Security: Summary of the presentation given by Zangliang Chen Discussion Points from the Session Additional Contributions The Impact of Biotechnology on Sustainable Agriculture Development in Latin American and the Caribbean region: The Andean countries as a Model, by Rodrigo Artunduaga-Salas The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Implications for Development Cooperation, by Frank Schmiedchen and Harmut Meyer Natures Matchless Seeds or Monsantos Colonised Crops?, by Evaggelos Vallianatos

111 113 114

116 122 127

List of Contributors Acronyms

129 133

AcknowledgementsThe IUCN European Regional Office (ERO) would like to thank the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation BfN (with funds from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) and FAO for sponsoring the production of this publication. This activity has been carried out with support from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries LNV. We are extremely grateful to Dr Richard Smith, Professor Hardy Vogtmann, Dr Kalev Sepp and Dr Chris Howe for their assistance and time in Amman and to Professor Vogtmann and HE Anis Mousher for chairing the Session. Many thanks to those who gave a presentation in Amman and produced a paper for this publication, and to those who sent posters and web contributions to be displayed in Amman.

Sowing the Seeds for Sustainability


ForewordAgriculture is one of the most important influences on biological diversity. Conventional agriculture has heavily contributed to reducing the diversity of ecosystems, species and genes, but agriculture has also created new diversity, especially in the cultural landscapes of Central Europe. The interdependence between nature conservation, agriculture, socio-economy and culture is highly complex. This may be the reason why agriculture has not been in the forefront of IUCN's work. But the fact that about 50% of the European Union's annual budget is used to maintain an unsustainable policy on agriculture illustrates the importance of addressing this subject in the drive towards sustainable development. One of the main topics of the WTO conference is agricultural policy; decisions taken there will have a much greater impact on biological diversity than can be achieved by nature conservation instruments alone. I am, therefore, very grateful to the European Regional Office of IUCN for having taken up the challenge to strengthen IUCNs contribution to this policy field, one that will become ever more important in the future. This resulting report is an important contribution to the mission of IUCN to "influence, encourage and assist societies to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". The situation in which nature conservation and agriculture are competitive users of land must change. New models of integrated land management have to be developed to introduce biodiversity conservation into agricultural systems.