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1998 FIFA World Cup

Dec 16, 2015





  • 1998 FIFA World Cup

    World Cup 98 redirects here. For the video game, seeWorld Cup 98 (video game).

    The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFAWorld Cup, the world championship for mens nationalassociation football teams. It was held in France from 10June to 12 July 1998. The country was chosen as the hostnation by FIFA for the second time in the history of thetournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process.Qualication for the nals began in March 1996 and con-cluded in November 1997. For the rst time in the com-petition, the group stage were expanded from 24 teamsto 32, with eight groups of four. A total of 64 matcheswere played in 10 stadiums located across 10 dierenthost cities, with the opening match and nal staged at theStade de France, Saint-Denis.The tournament was won by France, who beat Brazil 30 in the nal. France won their rst title, becoming theseventh nation to win a World Cup, and the sixth (afterUruguay, Italy, England, West Germany and Argentina)to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica,Japan and South Africa made their rst appearances inthe nals.

    1 Host selection

    Main article: FIFA World Cup hosts

    France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992by the executive committee of FIFA during a generalmeeting in Zrich, Switzerland. They defeated Moroccoby 12 votes to 7.[1][2] Switzerland withdrew, due to beingunable to meet FIFAs requirements. This made Francethe third country to host two World Cups, after Mexicoand Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France previ-ously hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938.England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and wonit, were among the original applicants, but later withdrewtheir application in favour of an ultimately successful bidto host Euro 96.

    2 Bribery & Corruption Investiga-tions

    On 4 June 2015 Chuck Blazer while co-operating withthe FBI and the Swiss authorities conrmed that he andthe other members of FIFAs executive committee werebribed in order to promote the France 1998 and 2010World Cups. Blazer stated that we facilitated 'bribesin conjunction with the selection of the host nation forFrance the 1998 World Cup.[4][5]

    3 QualicationMain article: 1998 FIFA World Cup qualication

    The qualication draw for the 1998 World Cup nalstook place in the Muse du Louvre, Paris on 12 De-cember 1995.[6] As tournament hosts, France was ex-empt from the draw as was Brazil the defending champi-ons. 174 teams from six confederations participated, up24 from the previous round. In Europe, fourteen coun-tries qualied excluding France. Ten were determinedafter group play, nine group winners and the best second-placed team. The other eight group runners-up weredrawn into pairs of four play-omatches the winners ofwhich qualifying for the nals as well.[7] Five places weregranted by CONMEBOL and CAF each, the governingbodies of South America and Africa respectively whilethree spots were contested between 30 teams throughCONCACAF the governing body in North America,Central America and the Caribbean. The winner of theOceanian zone advanced through to an intercontinentalplay-o against the runner-up of the Asian play-o, de-termined by the two best second placed teams.Four nations qualied for theWorld Cup for the rst time:Croatia, Jamaica, Japan and South Africa. The last teamto qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in atwo-legged tie on 29 November 1997.[8] It marked theirrst appearance in the nals since 1978, the last timeTunisia also qualied for the tournament. Paraguay andDenmark qualied for the rst time since 1986. Aus-tria, England, Scotland and Yugoslavia return after miss-ing only one nal tournament. Among the teams whofailed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay for thesecond successive tournament and Sweden who nishedthird in 1994. Russia failed to qualify for the rst timesince 1978, where they contested as the USSR, after los-



    ing to Italy in the play-o round.[9] As of 2014, this is thelast time Scotland, Morocco, Norway, Austria, Bulgaria,Romania and Jamaica have qualied for a FIFA WorldCup nals.

    3.1 List of qualied teams

    See also: 1998 FIFA World Cup seeding

    The following 32 teams, shown with nal pre-tournamentrankings,[10] qualied for the nal tournament.

    4 VenuesFrances bid to host theWorld Cup centered on a nationalstadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums lo-cated across the country.[11] When the nals were orig-inally awarded in July 1992, none of the regional clubgrounds were of a capacity meeting FIFAs requirements namely being able to safely seat 40,000.[11] The pro-posed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of plan-ning; the stadiums location was determined by politics,nance and national symbolism.[12] As Mayor of Paris,Jacques Chirac successfully negotiated a deal with PrimeMinister douard Balladur to bring the Stade de France as it was named now, to the capital city.[12] Constructionon the stadium started in December 1995 and was com-pleted after 26 months of work in November 1997 at acost of 2.67 billion.[13]

    The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an orig-inal list of 14 cities.[14] FIFA and CFO monitored theprogress and quality of preparations, culminating in theformer providing nal checks of the grounds weeks be-fore the tournament commenced. Montpellier was thesurprise inclusion from the nal list of cities because ofits low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, whoboasted a better hierarchy and success from its local foot-ball team, having been taken over by a consortium. Mont-pellier however was considered ambitious by the select-ing panel to host World Cup matches. The local cityand regional authories in particular had invested heavilyinto football the previous two decades and were able tomeasure economic eects, in terms of jobs as early as in1997.[15]

    10 stadiums in total were used for the nals; in additionto nine matches being played at the Stade de France, afurther eight took place in the Parc des Princes.

    5 Innovations

    5.1 Technologies

    This was the rst World Cup that fourth ocials usedelectronic boards, instead of cardboard.[16]

    5.2 Rule changes

    This was the rst World Cup since the introduction ofgolden goals,[16] banning of tackles from behind and al-lowance of three substitutions per game.[17]

    6 Match ocials34 referees and 33 assistants ociated in the 1998 WorldCup.[18] As a result of the extension to 32 teams in thenals, there was an increase of 10 referees and 11 ocialsfrom the 1994 World Cup.[18]

    7 Seeds

    8 SquadsFor more details on this topic, see 1998 FIFA WorldCup squads.

    As with the preceding tournament, each teams squad forthe 1998 World Cup nals consisted of 22 players. Eachparticipating national association had to conrm their -nal 22-player squad by 1 June 1998.Out of the 704 players participating in the 1998 WorldCup, 447 were signed up with a European club; 90 inAsia, 67 in South America, 61 in Northern and CentralAmerica and 37 in Africa.[19] 75 played their club foot-ball in England ve more than Italy and Spain. FCBarcelona of Spain was the club contributing to the mostplayers in the tournament with 13 players on their side.[19]

    The average age of all teams was 27 years, 8 months vemonths older than the previous tournament.[20] SamuelEto'o of Cameroon was the youngest player selected inthe competition at 17 years, 3 months while the oldestwas Jim Leighton of Scotland at 39 years, 11 months.[20]

    9 Group stageAll times are Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)In the following tables:

    Pld = total games played W = total games won

  • 9.4 Group D 3

    D = total games drawn (tied)

    L = total games lost

    GF = total goals scored (goals for)

    GA = total goals conceded (goals against)

    GD = goal dierence (GFGA)

    Pts = total points accumulated

    9.1 Group A

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group A

    Defending champions Brazil won Group A after only twomatches as the nation achieved victories over Scotland(21) and Morocco (30). Heading into the third game,Brazil had nothing to play for but still started its reg-ulars against Norway, who was looking to upset Brazilonce again. Needing a victory, Norway overturned a 10 decit with 12 minutes remaining to defeat Brazil 21,with Kjetil Rekdal scoring[21] the winning penalty to sendNorway into the knockout stage for the rst time.Norways victory denied Morocco a chance at the Roundof 16, despite winning 30 against Scotland. It was onlyMoroccos second ever victory at a World Cup, havingrecorded its only previous win 12 years earlier on 11 June1986.Scotland managed only one point, coming in a 11 drawagainst Norway, and failed to get out of the rst roundfor an eighth time in the FIFA World Cup, a record thatstands to this date.

    9.2 Group B

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group B

    9.3 Group C

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group C

    9.4 Group D

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group D

    9.5 Group E

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group E

    9.6 Group F

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group F

    9.7 Group G

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group G

    9.8 Group H

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup Group H

    10 Knockout stage

    Main article: 1998 FIFA World Cup knockout stage

    The knockout stage comprised the sixteen teams that ad-vanced from the group stage of the tournament. Therewere four rounds of matches, with each round eliminat-ing half of the teams entering that round. The successiverounds were the round of 16, quarter-nals, semi-nals,and the nal. There was also a play-o to decide thirdand fourth place. For each game in the knockout stage,any draw at 90 minutes was followed by 30 minutes ofextra time; if sco