Click here to load reader
Click here to load reader
Jan 16, 2016
Types of GovernmentEnglish GovernmentEnlightenmentColonial PeriodRevolutionary PeriodArticles of ConfederationConstitutional ConventionThe Constitution
Monarchy - These systems have been and are used by nations throughout the world. In these systems, one person has control of government. In a monarchy, it is held by a king, queen, or ruling family (Sultan). This power is passed on through family succession.
In a dictatorship, power is often seized by force; by a military force or group. Power is usually passed on to the next in line of people who share this philosophy.
(Monarchy) England, Spain, France Until 18th and 19th centuries. Today many of these are constitutional monarchs. Saudi Arabia today.
Dictatorship Nazi Germany under Hitler; Fidel Castro (Cuba)
Types of Authoritarian Governments Absolute Monarch, Dictatorship/Totalitarianism/Autocracy, Aristocracy, Theocracy, Oligarchy
This system is based on the philosophies of John Locke and Montesquieu. Later, the founding fathers of the United States extended these principles. Men such as Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.
(Problem) For these philosophers, the problem could be explained by a government, in many cases a monarch having too much power. Most of these men agreed that individuals had natural rights, and that if any person had too much power, these rights would not be protected. The answer was to have elected government, with a system of checks and balances.
Many nations are experimenting with these ideas of government. US Representative Democracy.
Types of Democratic Governments Direct Democracy, Representative Democracy/Democratic Republic, Constitutional Monarchy
Before the Magna CartaThe Monarch (King or Queen) had absolute authority.Decisions of taxing, use of the military, making and enforcing laws all were made by the monarch.After the Magna CartaA Common Counsel was created made up of Nobles (large landowners and church officials)Changes After the Magna CartaTaxes (consult common counsel)Must have witness to crime.Trial by JuryEnglish Church free of Monarch Control
HOUSE OF LORDSMade up of NoblesSeat is Inherited
HOUSE OF COMMONSMembers are ElectedCome from Towns & Cities throughout EnglandRepresentative Democracy
Parliament has following powers in English Government
Power to Tax Make Laws Control of the Nations Army
A system of law based on precedents. A precedent is an earlier decision made by a judge that serves as a model for future cases.Over time common law creates a system of consistent rulings.English Common Law has been used in the development of contracts, marriages, etc in the United States.
During the Enlightenment Period many ideas that influenced the Framers of the United States Government developed. These ideas are seen in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.
Enlightenment PhilosophersJohn Locke natural rights, purpose of governmentMontesquieu separation of power, checks & balances
Hobbes was an English philosopher. He was older than Locke, but they lived at the same time. Hobbes described life in a state of nature as nasty, brutish, and short.
He felt that people entered into a social contract for fear of a violent death. Hobbes unlike Locke believed in the divine right of kings. This meant that the ruler obtained absolute power, and the people had no right to question his/her rule or revolt.
Locke was an English philosopher who lived during the English Civil War. He believed that God granted man 3 natural rights (life, liberty, property).
Locke said that people entered into a social contract with their government. People agreed to pay taxes and follow reasonable laws. The government in exchange must protect these natural rights.
Locke believed if government did not protect these natural rights, the government had broken the contract. In this case, the people had the right to overthrow the government.
Montesquieu was an important philosopher in the development of the American democracy. Montesquieu came up with the idea of a separation of power.
He felt that if one person obtained all power, there could be no liberty. He felt that there should be a separation between the legislative, executive, and judicial. Power should be a check on power. Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely.
The following map shows European Countries and where each set up colonies in the New World.
MercantilismEconomic Policy that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys.EXPORT > IMPORTSalutary Neglect England will allow colonies to rule themselves. Need raw materials.Colonial PeriodColony A group of people in one place ruled by a government in another.European Nations began to colonize the Americas.Colonies provided mother country with a cheap source of raw materials, could then produce finished products to export to colonies, and other parts of the world.
JAMESTOWN COLONYRepresentative DemocracyHouse of Burgesses22 Members - House of Burgesses were elected by colonists PLYMOUTH COLONYColonists on the Mayflower signed a document called the Mayflower Compact.The Mayflower Compact created a direct democracy.Members of the colony would come together periodically, and vote on the direction the colony would take.
ColoniesMotivationsEconomyNew England ColoniesMassachusettsNew HampshireConnecticut Rhode IslandMainly religious dissenters Puritans did not believe in tolerationSmall scale farming; small business & shipbuildingMiddle ColoniesNew YorkNew Jersey PennsylvaniaDelawareMainly religious dissenters Quakers (Penn)Farming wheat & other cash crops; industry mines, etcSouthern ColoniesMarylandVirginiaNC, SCGeorgiaEconomic Reasons indentured servants & slavery Agriculture large scale plantation farming
The French & Indian War resulted from a land dispute between the French & the English. Fought in the mid 1750s, the British came out of the war having gained territory in the Americas.This war however had disastrous effects on the relationship between the British and the colonies.Due to fighting with the French in the Americas and in Europe, England was in debt. The English felt that the colonies should pay for the French & Indian War.The Colonists felt that protection was a part of the relationship between the British & The Colonies.
CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONNavigation Acts (1660)Sugar Act (1764)Stamp Act (1765)Quartering Act (1765)Townshend Acts (1767)Writs of AssistanceProclamation Act (1767)Boston Massacre (1770)Tea Act (1773)Coercive (Intolerable) Acts (1774)
Battles of Lexington & Concord (Massachusetts)COLONIAL OPPOSITIONAlbany Plan of Union (1754)Sons of Liberty Stamp ActStamp Act Congress Committees of CorrespondenceBoston Tea Party Thomas Paine Common Sense
COLONIAL SOLUTUIONS1st Continental Congress drafted letter to King and Parliament demanding rights be restored.2nd Continental Congress DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Revolutionary War (1776-1783)
Articles of Confederation (1781)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
United States gains Independence
British troops to leave US soil
United States gains land to the Mississippi River
GOVERNMENTCongress Each State had one Vote.Powers of Congress Make LawsDeclare War & Make PeaceMake Treaties & AlliancesBorrow Money Maintain Army & NavyOther Less Important Matters
Congress Limited Powers (most needed 9 of 13 states to agree)No Executive Branch Enforce LawsNo Judicial Branch Settle State DisputesNo Power to TaxNo Money = No MilitaryAmendments Needed Approval of all 13 States
British troops have not left US soil.French/Spanish will not allow use of Mississippi River.Debts contracted during the Revolutionary War have not been paid.Shays Rebellion.Economy is very poor.
VIRGINIA PLAN3 Separate Branches (legislative will elect other 2)Bicameral Legislature(based on population & $ contributions)Authority to cancel conflicting state laws
NEW JERSEY PLANUnicameral Legislature (1 vote)Plural Executive selected by CongressSupreme Court appointed for life by the executive
GREAT COMPROMISE(AKA Sherman or Connecticut) 1) Congress BicameralHouse of Representatives based on population, directly elected by the peopleSenate 2 Representatives per state chosen by state legislatures2) 3/5 Compromise Every 5 Slaves would count as 3 persons for population & taxing3) EconomicsPresident enters into treatiesSlave trade not prohibited (20 years)Congress cannot tax exportsTreaties 2/3 Senate approval
Wrote a collection of essays in support of the new Constitution.The purpose of the essays was to show how the new Constitution would solve many of the problems that existed under the Articles of Confederation.Three men combined to write 85 of the essays.
Criticized the adoption of the Constitution of 1787. Opposition to slavery continue to exist under the new Constitution.States would lose power under the Constitution.Federal Government would be too powerful. People still fear a strong central government.#1 opposition NO BILL of RIGHTS!Anti-Federalists (Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Richard Henry Lee, George Mason)
PREAMBLEA preamble is an introduction. The introduction to the Constitution lists the goals of the Constitution.The goals of the Constitution refer to problems under the Articles of Confederation.
GOALS OF THE CONSTITUTIONForm a More Perfect UnionEstablish J