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2.1- OUR ENGLISH HERITAGE. What Influenced Colonial Government? Enlightenment= cultural movement that spread the idea that reason and science could improve

Jan 13, 2016

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mercy-holt

  • 2.1- OUR ENGLISH HERITAGE

  • What Influenced Colonial Government?Enlightenment= cultural movement that spread the idea that reason and science could improve societyThe English brought with them a history of limited and representative government and new ideas about law, society, and rights people possessed

  • The Magna Carta (1215)In 1215, English nobles rebelled against King John and forced him to sign the Magna Carta It protected nobles privileges and also granted rights that eventually applied to all English, including equal treatment under the law and a trial by jury

  • The Magna Carta (1215)The Magna Carta limited the power of the monarch by guaranteeing no one was above the law, not even the King or Queen

    King John

  • ParliamentLegislature= a lawmaking body, in Great Britain it is known as Parliament

  • ParliamentIn 1688 Parliament removed King James II from the throne, this was known as the Glorious Revolution, from now on, no ruler would have more power then Parliament

  • English Bill of Rights (1689)The document further restricted the monarchs power, it guaranteed free elections to Parliament, the right to a fair trial, and the elimination of cruel and unusual punishment

  • Common LawIn its earliest days, England had no written laws, people developed rules, and they began to have the force of lawA court system developed and when judges decided cases they would look for a precedent or a ruling in an earlier case that was similar, to be consistent

  • Common LawThis system of law is known as common law, it rests on court decisions rather than regulations written by lawmakersOur laws about property, contracts, and personal injury are based on English common law

  • Philosophical InfluencesJohn Locke was an English writer who argued people were born free, equal, and independent

  • Philosophical InfluencesHe believed they possessed rights, called natural rights, to life, liberty, and property that no government could take away

  • Philosophical InfluencesHe also believed in the social contract where people in a society agree to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights; people agree to obey the government as long as it protects their rights

  • Philosophical InfluencesBaron de Montesquieu developed the idea about dividing the branches of government into different parts to balance each other so that one part cannot become too strong or threaten individual rights

  • Representative GovernmentThe 1st permanent English settlement in North America was Jamestown in Virginia, it was founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company

  • Representative GovernmentIt was organized as a joint-stock company which provided investors partial ownership and a share in future profits

  • Representative GovernmentThe merchants received a charter, from King James I which was a written document granting land and the authority to set up colonial governments

  • Representative GovernmentIn 1619, the colonists formed the House of Burgesses, the first legislature in the English colonies, it marked the beginning of self government

  • The Mayflower Compact (1620)In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived in America and built a settlement called Plymouth in MassachusettsOn board their ship, the Mayflower, they drew up a written plan for government known as the Mayflower Compact

  • The Mayflower Compact (1620)Compact= an agreement, or contract among a group of people

  • Town MeetingsThe Mayflower Compact established a tradition of direct democracy citizens held town meetings to address local problems and issuesEveryone in town could attend and express their opinions but voting was limited to men who owned property

  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)Some Pilgrims were being persecuted for their religious beliefs, they left Massachusetts and colonized the area that is now ConnecticutThere they developed Americas first written constitution, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  • Early LegislaturesBy 1733, thirteen English colonies stretched from Massachusetts in the north to Georgia in the southEach colony had a governor elected by the colonists or appointed by the king; they each had a legislature with representatives elected by free adult males

  • Salutary NeglectAs the years passed colonial governments took on more responsibility while the King and Parliament dealt with matters in Great Britain; colonists became used to making their own decisions; this policy was known as Salutary Neglect

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