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Visible Teaching Visible Learning Visible Assessment John Hattie Visible Learning Laboratories University of Auckland March, 2009

Jan 11, 2016



  • Visible TeachingVisible LearningVisible Assessment

    John HattieVisible Learning LaboratoriesUniversity of Auckland

    March, 2009

  • Influences on Achievement ?0

  • Reducing Class Size on Achievement?0What is the effect of reducing class size

    Hundreds of evaluations of reducing class size .

  • Effect on Achievement over time?0.20ReducingClass Size1.0

    An effect-size of.201.0advancing achievement9 mths3 yrs% improving rate of learning10% 45%r variable & achievement.10.45% of students with treatment exceeding those not treated834

  • The typical influence on achievementSo what is the typical effect across 800+ meta-analysis50,000 studies, and 200+ million students

  • Effect on Achievement over time?0.20Typical Effect Size1.0.40

  • Distribution of effects

  • Influences on Achievement

  • Rank these 12 effects: Answers Acceleration Feedback Student-teacher relationships Teaching study skills Reading Recovery Cooperative learning Homework Individualized instruction Ability grouping Open vs. traditional classes Retention (hold back a year) Shifting schools

  • Rank these 12 effects: Answers Acceleration .88Feedback .73Student-teacher relationships .72Teaching study skills .59Reading Recovery .50Cooperative learning .41Homework .29Individualized instruction .22Ability grouping .12Open vs. traditional classes .01Retention (hold back a year) -.16Shifting schools -.34

  • The Disasters ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES130 College halls of residence1023.05131 Multi-grade/age classes9472.04132 Student control over learning6538.04133 Open vs. Traditional315333.01134 Summer vacation3962-.09135 On Welfare Policies88-.12136 Retention2072675-.16137 Television37540-.18138 Mobility181540-.34

  • The Disasters ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES120 Mentoring7474.15121 Teacher education85391.12122 Ability grouping5001369.12123 Gender29266051.12124 Diet23125.12125 Teacher subject matter knowledge92424.09126 Distance Education8391643.09127 Out of school curricula experiences5250.09128 Perceptual-Motor programs180637.08129 Whole language64197.06

  • The Disasters ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES110 Learning hierarchies2424.19111 Co- Team teaching13647.19112 Web based learning45.3136.18113 Family structure8451733.17114 Extra-curricula Programs10268.17115 Teacher Immediacy1616.16116 Within class grouping129181.16116 Home-school programs1414.16118 Problem based learning285546.15119 Sentence Combining programs3540.15

  • Not Worth it yet ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES100 Finances189681.23101 Illness1313.23101 Religious Schools7171.23103 Individualized instruction6381185.22104 Visual/Audio-visual methods359231.22105 Comprehensive Teaching Reforms2821818.22106 Class size96785.21107 Charter Schools1818.20108 Aptitude/treatment interactions61340.19109 Personality2341481.19

  • Typical average teacher territory ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES90 Exercise/Relaxation programs2271971.2891 Desegregation335723.2892 Mainstreaming150370.2893 Teaching test taking & coaching275372.2794 Use of calculators2221083.2795 Values/Moral Education Programs8497.2496 Competitive vs. individualistic learning831203.2496 Special College Programs108108.2498 Programmed instruction493391.2399 Summer school105600.23

  • Typical average teacher territory ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES80 Decreasing disruptive behavior165416.3481 Drugs4671839.3382 Simulations361482.3383 Inductive teaching97103.3384 Ethnicity99.3285 Teacher effects1818.3286 Inquiry based teaching205420.3187 Ability grouping for gifted students125202.3088 Homework161295.2989 Home visiting7152.29

  • Closer to Average

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES70 Time on Task100136.3871 Computer assisted instruction48998914.3772 Adjunct aids73258.3773 Bilingual Programs128727.3774 Principals/ School leaders4911257.3675 Attitude to Mathematics/Science288664.3676 Exposure to Reading114293.3677 Drama/Arts Programs715728.3578 Creativity21447.3579 Frequent/ Effects of testing5691749.34

  • Average

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES60 Mathematics programs7062404.4361 Behavioral organizers/Adjunct questions5771933.4163 Cooperative learning306829.4164 Science8842592.4065 Social skills programs5402278.4066 Reducing anxiety1211097.4067 Integrated Curricula Programs6180.3968 Enrichment214543.3969 Career Interventions143243.38

  • Average

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES50 School effects168168.4851 Motivation327979.4852 Early Intervention 17049369.4753 Questioning211271.4654 Pre school programs3581822.4555 Quality of Teaching141195.4456 Writing Programs262341.4457 Expectations674784.4358 School size21120.4359 Self-concept3242113.43

  • Lets have them ....

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES40 Keller's PIS263162.5341 Peer influences12122.5342 Classroom management1005.5243 Outdoor/ Adventure Programs187429.5244 Interactive video methods4413930.5245 Parental Involvement7161783.5146 Play Programs7070.5047 Second/Third chance programs521395.5048 Small group learning78155.4949 Concentration/Persistence/ Engagement146587.48

  • Exciting .

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES30 Worked examples62151.5731 Home environment35109.5732 Socioeconomic status499957.5733 Concept mapping287332.5734 Challenging Goals604820.5635 Visual-Perception programs6835035.5536 Peer tutoring7671200.5537 Cooperative vs. competitive learning1024933.5438 Pre-term birth weight 46136.5439 Classroom cohesion88841.53

  • Among the Winners ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES20 Problem solving teaching221719.6121 Not labeling students7979.6122 Teaching strategies566713572.6023 Cooperative vs. individualistic learning774284.5924 Study skills6682217.5925 Direct Instruction304597.5926 Tactile stimulation programs19103.5827 Phonics instruction4475990.5828 Comprehension programs4152653.5829 Mastery learning377296.58

  • The Winners ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES11 Teacher-Student relationships2291450.7212 Spaced vs. Mass Practice63112.7113 Meta-cognitive strategies63143.6914 Prior achievement36079209.6715 Vocabulary programs301800.6716 Repeated Reading programs54156.6717 Creativity Programs685837.6518 Self-verbalization & Self-questioning1131150.6419 Professional development5371884.62

  • The Winners ...

    RankInfluenceStudiesEffectsES1 Self-reported grades2093051.442 Piagetian programs51651.283 Providing formative evaluation3078.904 Micro teaching402439.885 Acceleration3724.886 Classroom behavioral160942.807 Comprehensive interventions for learning disabled students3432654.778 Teacher clarity00.759 Reciprocal teaching3853.7410 Feedback12872050.73

  • Identifying what matters

  • Visible teaching & Visible learningWhat some teachers do!

    In active, calculated and meaningful waysProviding multiple opportunities & alternativesTeaching learning strategies Around surface and deep learningThat leads to students constructing learning

  • Visible Teaching Visible Learning

  • TeachersClear learning intentionsChallenging success criteriaRange of learning strategiesKnow when students are not progressingProviding feedbackVisibly learns themselves

  • Students Understand learning intentionsAre challenged by success criteriaDevelop a range of learning strategiesKnow when they are not progressingSeek feedbackVisibly teach themselves

  • The ContrastAn active teacher, passionate for their subject and for learning, a change agent


    A facilitative, inquiry or discovery based provider of engaging activities

  • Activator or Facilitator ?

  • Activator or Facilitator ?

  • Message for Learning/AssessmentBalance of surface, deep, & constructed knowingTeachers preach deep, students see surface!Learning strategiesTo reduce cognitive loadTo use when stuck (welcome error!)Requires deliberative practiceBuilds expectations of can doThrives on challengeRequires feedback

  • Feedback

  • Priority to maximize FEEDBACK to THE TEACHER

    Feedback is information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self/experience) regarding aspects of ones performance or understanding.

  • Feedback is evidence about:Where am I going?How am I going?Where to next?

  • Frequency of feedback

    How much feedback does the typical studentget in a typical classroomon a typical day?

  • Tests are Feedback to the teacherWhether their teaching methods have been successful or notWhether their learning intentions are worthwhile & challengingWhether students are attaining their desired success criteriaWhich students have learnt or not learntWhere teachers can capitalize on student strengths & minimize gapsWhere students are on the learning ladderWhether they have a shared conception of progressWhat is optimal to teach next

    Whenever we test in classes it is primarily to help teachers know:

  • Assessment and Feedback:asTTle (Assessment Tools for Teaching and Learning)

  • Welcome screen for Teachers

  • Customize a test

  • Choose difficulty

  • Choose difficulty

  • Choose Curriculum Strands

  • Create a test

  • Reporting to Teachers

  • Comparisons or Multi-test Reports

  • Individual Learning Pathways

  • Group Learning Pathway

  • Curriculum Level Report

  • Progress Report

  • Target Setting/ ExpectationsTeacher or student targetPolynomial regression target

  • What Next