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UV Effects on Animals - · PDF fileG. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics UV Effects on Animals: Risks of UV Exposure in Animals G. Schauberger Medical Physics and...

Feb 16, 2019

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G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

UV Effects on Animals:Risks of UV Exposure in Animals

G. Schauberger

Medical Physics and BiostatisticsDepartment of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

COST 726 Training School Long term changes and climatology of biologically effective UV radiation over EuropeOctober 6, 2008

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Content

Ambient dose

Skin dose of animals

Biological effects Positive effects: Vitamin D synthesis Skin Eye Ecosystem

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Radiation path: Sun Earth - AnimalSun

Earth surface

Skin surface

Animal

Atmosphere

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Sun

Earth surface

Ozone / Aerosols

Cloude cover

Annual and daily variation

Sea level

Radiation path: Sun Earth

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Earth surface - ambient UV radiation

Skin surface - skin dose of animals

Protection: hair coat, vegetation and water

Geometry of the skin surface

Behaviour: Exposure time

Skin type ?

Radiation path: Earth - Animal

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Solar spectrum

UV VIS

IR

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Biologically effective radiation

0.0001

0.0010

0.0100

0.1000

1.0000

Rel

ativ

e s p

ekt ra

l act

ion

spe c

trum

0.0001

0.0010

0.0100

0.1000

1.0000

Spe

ktra

l ir r

adia

nce

(W/m

nm

)

300 320 340 360 380 400Wave length (nm)

Erythema Global radiation COLIPA

Erythemal irradiance

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Sun

Earth surface

Ozone / Aerosols

Cloude cover

Annual and daily variation

Sea level

Radiation path: Sun Earth

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Ozone

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

UV radiation / Ozone

less Ozone

mor

eU

V

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

0

10

20

30

40

50

der s

olar

en U

V-S t

rah l

ung

(SE D

)Ta

g esd

o sis

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360Zeit (Tage des Jahres)

Wien - gemessenWien - wolkenlos (Modell)

1997

Annual and daily variationD

aily

dos

e (S

ED

)

Time (JD)

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Earth surface - ambient UV radiation

Skin surface - skin dose of animals

Protection: hair coat, vegetation and water

Geometry of the skin surface

Behaviour: Exposure time

Skin type ?

Radiation path: Earth - Animal

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

83 MED (49.7%)

60 MED (36.1%)

22 MED (13.3%)

2 MED (0.9%)

OccupationLeisure timeHolidaySolaria

Unprotected Area

UV exposure of the Austrian population

Exposure time

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Geometry of the UV radiation field

S0

H0 G0

S0 + H0 = G0

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Dosimeter

Geometry of the receiving surface

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Geometry of the human head

Earth surface - ambient UV radiation

Skin surface - skin dose of animals

Protection: hair coat, vegetation and water

Geometry of the skin surface

Behaviour: Exposure time

Skin type ?

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Rel

ativ

e f re

quen

cy (

%)

-90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90Inclination

Total headUnprotected sunexposed areas

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

UV-Albedo and inclinde surfaces

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Rel

ativ

e irr

adia

nce

-90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90Inclination

UV Albedo = 80%

UV Albedo =5%

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Transmission of the hair coat

0102030405060708090

100

Tran

smis

sio n

[%

]

0 50 100 150 200Hair density [cm-2]

5

2

10 Sun

prot

ectio

n fa

ctor

[ ]

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Vegetation: Gras and Trees

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Rel

ativ

e h e

igh t

[]

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0Relative irradiance []

TreeGrass

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Spectral Transmission of Water

0102030405060708090

100

Spe

ctra

le T

rans

mis

sion

[%

]

300 400 500 600 700Wavelength [nm]

O

C

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Biological-effective Irradiance

10-8

10-7

10-6

10-5

10-4

10-3

DN

A w

eig h

ted

Irrad

ianc

e [W

/ m

nm

]

290 300 310 320 330 340Wavelength [nm]

OceanCoast

0 m

5 m

10 m

20 m

40 m2 m

5 m

10 m

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Biological effects: Skin and Eye

Vitamin D synthesis

Erythma Photosensibilisation Skin tumor Cancer eye Cataract

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Dose relationship

deterministicfunctional relationship

(eg erythem, cerato-conjunctivitis, vitamin D synthesis )

stochasticchange of the probability (sg skin cancer)

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Vitamin D Synthesis

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

UV Exposure of Zoo Animals60% of European zoos are using

artificial UV sources

of that

48% only for treating reptiles52% also for mammals and avians

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Positive UV effects ?

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Erythema

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Erythema of pigs

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Erythema

MED (J/m)

Horse 450Pig 121 - 347Cattle 100

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Dose Response Function DRF

0.5

maxlogD - logD

-k

EIEI =1 + e

EI Difference of the red colour value before and after UV exposure

D UV-Dose (J/m)EImaxPlateau of the dose-response-

function (maximum value of the erythema index EI

D0,5 Dose of the midpoint of the functionk Slope of the logit function at the

midpoint

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

DRF 2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Ery

them

a in

dex

1E-01 1 10Dose (MED)

midpoint

plateau

slope

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Time course of the UVB erythema

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Ery

them

a in

dex

EI

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144Time after UVB exposure (h)

hugh doses D > 7 MEDmedium doses 1 MED < D < 7 MEDlow doses D < 1 MED

visibility of the erythema EI > 2.5

UVB

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Time course of the UVC erythema

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Eryt

h em

a in

dex

EI

0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144Time after UVB exposure (h)

medium doses 1 MED < D < 7 MEDlow doses D < 1 MED

visibility of the erythema

UVC

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Photosensibilisation

Feed: Sheep, pig, sometimes cattle, goat, rarely horse

Drugs:Phenothiacin, Trypoflavin, Tetracycline, Mansonil and Sulphonamide and Olaquindox- Pigs, fish and farmer

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Photosensibilisation

G. Schauberger | Medical Physics & Biostatistics

Skin cancer SC Squamous cell carcinoma SCC Basal cell carcinoma BCC

Malignant melanoma

unlikely to metastasize

(spread to otherparts of the body).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9f/Squamous_Cell_Carcinoma.jpghttp