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Use of biodiesel in transit

Sep 12, 2014

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  • TRANSIT COOPERATIVERESEARCHPROGRAMTCRP

    SYNTHESIS 72

    Sponsored by

    the Federal

    Transit Administration

    Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet

    A Synthesis of Transit Practice

  • TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECTSELECTION COMMITTEE*CHAIRROBERT I. BROWNSTEINAECOM Consult, Inc.

    MEMBERSANN AUGUSTSantee Wateree Regional Transportation

    AuthorityJOHN BARTOSIEWICZMcDonald Transit AssociatesLINDA J. BOHLINGERHNTB Corp.PETER CANNITOMetropolitan Transportation AuthorityMetro

    North RailroadGREGORY COOKVeolia TransportationNATHANIEL P. FORDSan Francisco MUNIFRED M. GILLIAMCapital Metropolitan Transportation AuthorityKIM R. GREENGFI GENFAREJILL A. HOUGHNorth Dakota State UniversityJOHN INGLISHUtah Transit AuthorityJEANNE W. KRIEGEastern Contra Costa Transit AuthorityDAVID A. LEEConnecticut TransitCLARENCE W. MARSELLADenver Regional Transportation DistrictGARY W. MCNEILGO TransitMICHAEL P. MELANIPHYMotor Coach IndustriesFAYE L. M. MOORESoutheastern Pennsylvania Transportation

    AuthorityFRANK OTEROPACO TechnologiesROBERT H. PRINCE, JR.DMJM+HarrisJEFFREY M. ROSENBERGAmalgamated Transit UnionMICHAEL SCANLONSan Mateo County Transit DistrictBEVERLY SCOTTMetropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit AuthorityJAMES S. SIMPSONFTAFRANK TOBEYFirst TransitFRANK WILSONMetropolitan Transit Authority of Harris

    County

    EX OFFICIO MEMBERSWILLIAM W. MILLARAPTAROBERT E. SKINNER, JR.TRBJOHN C. HORSLEYAASHTOJ. RICHARD CAPKAFHWA

    TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTORLOUIS SANDERSAPTA

    SECRETARYCHRISTOPHER W. JENKSTRB

    *Membership as of October 2007.*Membership as of November 2007.

    TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2007 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE*

    OFFICERS

    Chair: Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Vice Chair: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board

    MEMBERS

    J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KYMICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT, AustinALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, HarrisburgJOHN D. BOWE, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, JacksonDEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation

    and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, Washington, DCNICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University

    of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FLSUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography,

    Clark University, Worcester, MAADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, BerkeleyHAROLD E. LINNENKOHL, Commissioner, Georgia DOT, AtlantaMICHAEL D. MEYER, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia

    Institute of Technology, AtlantaMICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of

    Governments, Arlington JOHN R. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT, Salt Lake CityPETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson CitySANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, TucsonTRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, ARROSA CLAUSELL ROUNTREE, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority,

    AtlantaHENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Senior Professor, Washington University, St. Louis, MOC. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of

    Texas, AustinSTEVE WILLIAMS, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR

    EX OFFICIO MEMBERS

    THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DCTHOMAS J. BARRETT (Vice Adm., U.S. Coast Guard, ret.), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials

    Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOTREBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute,

    Smyrna, GAPAUL R. BRUBAKER, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOTGEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn,

    and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC J. RICHARD CAPKA, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOTSEAN T. CONNAUGHTON, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOTEDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads,

    Washington, DCJOHN H. HILL, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation

    Officials, Washington, DC J. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics

    and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC NICOLE R. NASON, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOTJEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOTJAMES S. SIMPSON, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOTCARL A. STROCK (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General,

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC ROBERT A. STURGELL, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT

  • TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARDWASHINGTON, D.C.

    2007www.TRB.org

    T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M

    TCRP SYNTHESIS 72

    Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation

    SUBJECT AREASPublic Transit

    Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet

    A Synthesis of Transit Practice

    CONSULTANTJOHN J. SCHIAVONE

    Guilford, CT

  • TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    The nations growth and the need to meet mobility, environ-mental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ofupgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency,and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec-essary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovationsinto the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Pro-gram (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which thetransit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions tomeet demands placed on it.

    The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB SpecialReport 213Research for Public Transit: New Directions, pub-lished in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the FederalTransit Administration (FTA). A report by the American PublicTransportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, alsorecognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP,modeled after the longstanding and successful National Coopera-tive Highway Research Program, undertakes research and othertechnical activities in response to the needs of transit service provid-ers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit researchfields including planning, service configuration, equipment, fa-cilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and ad-ministrative practices.

    TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992.Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP wasauthorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi-ciency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandumagreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed bythe three cooperating organizations: FTA, the National Academy ofSciences, acting through the Transportation Research Board(TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), anonprofit educational and research organization established byAPTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent govern-ing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selec-tion (TOPS) Committee.

    Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodi-cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It isthe responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the re-search program by identifying the highest priority projects. Aspart of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products.

    Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, ap-pointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requestsfor proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidanceand counsel throughout the life of the project. The process fordeveloping research problem statements and selecting researchagencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative re-search programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRPproject panels serve voluntarily without compensation.

    Because research cannot have the desired impact if productsfail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed ondisseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the re-search: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRBprovides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice,and other supporting material developed by TCRP research.APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, andother activities to ensure that results are implemented by urbanand rural transit industry practitioners.

    The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can coop-eratively address common operational problems. The TCRP resultssupport and complement other ongoing transit research and train-ing programs.

    TCRP SYNTHESIS 72

    Project J-7, Topic SC-09ISSN 1073-4880ISBN 978-0-309-09794-0Library of Congress Control Number 2007907282

    2007 Transportation Research Board

    COPYRIGHT PERMISSIONAuthors herein are responsible for the aut