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Oct 22, 2014

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India'sInitial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Government of India2004lndio'slnitioI NotionoI Communicotion to the UnitedNotions Fromework Convention on CIimote ChongeIndias Initial National Communication to theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, 2004Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India andChairman (National Steering Committee and Technical Advisory Committee)Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO ComplexLodi Road, New Delhi 110 003Phone: 91-11-24360721Fax: 91-11-24362746E-mail: [email protected] Project DirectorIndias Initial National Communication to the UNFCCCRoom No. 564, Paryavaran BhawanMinistry of Environment and ForestsCGO Complex, Lodi RoadNew Delhi 110 003Telefax: 91-11-24360861Email: [email protected]: www.natcomindia.orgInitial National Communication Project Management CellWinrock International India (Facilitating Agency)1, Navjeevan ViharNew Delhi 110 017Telefax: 91-11-26693876Email: [email protected]@winrockindia.orgISBN 81 7371 498 35>A4F>A3MINISTERENVIRONMENT & FORESTSGOVERNMENT OF INDIANEW DELHI-110003UUUU-110003A. RAJA.UOn bchaIf of lhc Govcrnmcnl of India, I havc grcal pIcasurc in prcscnling India's IniliaINalionaI Communicalion in fuIfiIImcnl of our commilmcnl in lhis rcspccl undcr lhcUnilcd Nalions Iramcwork Convcnlion on CIimalc Changc. Thc Communicalion hasbccn prcparcd by a nalionaI cfforl invoIving morc lhan 35O scicnlific pcrsonncIconslilulcd inlo 131 muIli-discipIinary lcams. This cxcrcisc was coordinalcd by lhcMinislry of Lnvironmcnl & Iorcsls. Thc Communicalion has bccn prcparcd in lcrmsof lhc rcquircmcnls of ArlicIc 12 of lhc Convcnlion and in accordancc wilh lhc rcIcvanldccisions of lhc Confcrcncc of Iarlics. Wc commillcd lo mainlain lhc highcsl slandardsof scicnlific rigour in conducling lhis cxcrcisc and lhc rcscarch oulpuls undcrpinninglhc NalionaI Communicalions has bccn cxlcnsivcIy pccr rcviwcd.This nalionaI cfforl has buiIl up human and inslilulionaI capacilics in lhc diffcrcnldiscipIincs rcIalcd lo lhc prcparalion of lhis IniliaI NalionaI Communicalion. Howcvcr,wc arc awarc and havc idcnlificd in our Communicalion lhc conslrainls and lhc gapslhal sliII cxisl, and lhc rcIalcd financiaI and capacily buiIding nccds, which arc rcquircdlo furlhcr improvc upon lhis cfforl in our fulurc NalionaI Communicalions.I congraluIalc aII lhosc who havc bccn invoIvcd in lhis nalionaI lask. Thc Govcrnmcnlof India is aIso lhankfuI lo lhc UNDI-GLI for providing lhc ncccssary financiaI supporlfor conducling lhis cxcrcisc.(A. Raja)Place: New DelhiDated: 16.06.2004ContentsExecutive Summary1. National Circumstances .................................................................................................... 12. GHG Inventory Information ............................................................................................. 293. Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation ....................................................................... 574. Research and Systematic Observations ......................................................................... 1335. Education, Training and Public Awareness .................................................................... 1596. Programmes Related to Sustainable Development ........................................................ 1837. Constraints and Gaps, and Related Financial, Technical and Capacity Needs ........................ 203References ...................................................................................................................................... 231Annexures ...................................................................................................................................... 239Implementation and Institutional Arrangements for the preparation of Indias InitialNational CommunicationAbbreviationsContributors to Indias Initial National CommunicationEvents for Education, Training and Public AwarenessPublications under the Aegis of Indias Initial National CommunicationExecutive5ummoryExecutive SummaryIndias Initial National CommunicationExecutive SummaryIndia is a Party to the United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) andthe Government of India attaches great importanceto climate change issues. The Convention aims tostabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at levels that would prevent dangerousanthropogenic interference with the climate system.Eradication of poverty, avoiding risks to foodproduction, and sustainable development are threeprinciples embedded in the Convention. Informationprovided in the Initial National Communication is interms of guidelines prescribed for Parties not includedin Annex I to the UNFCCC and the inventory isprepared for the base year 1994 as stipulated.India is a vast country covering 3.28 million km2 withdiverse surface features. India occupies only 2.4 percent of the worlds geographical area, but supports16.2 per cent of the global human population. Indiais endowed with varied soils, climate, biodiversityand ecological regimes. Under such diverse naturalconditions, over a billion people speaking differentlanguages, following different religions and living inrural and urban areas, live in harmony under ademocratic system.NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCESIndias land surface may be classified as (a) the GreatMountain Wall of the North; (b) the Northern Plains;(c) the Great Southern Peninsular Plateau; (d) theCoastal Plains; and (e) the Islands. Indias uniquegeography produces a spectrum of climates yieldinga wealth of biological and cultural diversity. Landareas in the north have a continental climate with highsummer temperatures with cold winters whentemperatures may go below freezing. In contrast arethe coastal regions of the country where thetemperature is more even throughout the year andrains are more frequent. There is large variation inthe amounts of rainfall received in different parts ofthe country. Average annual rainfall is less than 13 cmin the Thar desert, while at Cherrapunji in the North-East it is as high as 1080 cm. The different climateregimes of the country vary from humid in the North-East (about 180 days rainfall in a year) to arid inRajasthan (20 days rainfall in a year). A semi-arid beltin the peninsular region extends in the area betweenthe humid west coast and the central and eastern partsof the country. The most important feature of Indiasclimate is the season of concentrated rain called themonsoon. The Southwest (SW) monsoon (May -September) is the most important feature of the Indianclimate.India is a land with many rivers. The twelve majorrivers spread over a catchment area of 252.8 millionhectares (Mha) cover more than 75 per cent of thetotal area of the country. Rivers in India are classifiedas Himalayan, Peninsular, Coastal, and Inland-drainage basin rivers.The land use pattern is influenced by diverse factorssuch as population density, urbanization, industry,agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation demands,and natural calamities like floods and droughts.Despite stresses, the area under forests has increasedin recent years due to proactive reforestation andafforestation programmes of the Government of India.Presently 23 per cent of the total land area is underforest and tree cover, while 44 per cent is net sownarea. The remaining one-third is roughly equallydistributed between fallow land, non-agricultural land,and barren land.The panorama of Indian forests ranges from evergreentropical rain forests in the Andaman and NicobarIslands, the Western Ghats, and the North-east, to dryalpine scrub high in the Himalayas in the north.Between these extremes, the country has semi-iExecutive Summaryevergreen rain forests, deciduous monsoon forests,thorn forests, subtropical pine forests in the lowermontane zone, and temperate montane forests.According to the Forest Survey of India, the totalforest cover in the year 2000 was 6,75,538 km2.India is a largely agrarian society with nearly 64 percent of the population dependent on agriculture,although the share of agriculture in the gross domesticproduct has been continuously declining over the last50 years. Crop production in India takes place inalmost all land class types, namely, dry, semi dry,moist, sub humid, humid, fluvisols and gleysols.Agriculture will continue to be important in Indiaseconomy in the years to come as it feeds a large andgrowing population, employs a large labour force,and provides raw material to agro-based industries.India is the second most populous country in theworld. The population crossed the one billion markin 2000. The decadal population growth rate hassteadily declined from 24.8 per cent during 1961-1971to 21.3 per cent during 1991-2001 and is expected tofurther decline to 16.2 per cent during 2001-2011,due to various policies of the Government of Indiarelating to family welfare, education, health andempowerment of women.India had more than 160 million households in 1994.Nearly three fourths of these households live in ruralareas, accounting for one-third of total nationalprimary energy consumption. With rising incomes,households at all socioeconomic levels areincreasingly using energy using devices such aselectric bulbs, fans, televisions, refrigerators, washingmachines, air-coolers, air-conditioners, water heaters,scooters and cars. The related greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions will continue to rise even though the energyefficiencies of the appliances are continuallyimprovi